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Molniya 8K78M
Part of R-7 Family
Molniya-ML
Molniya-ML
Molniya-ML - COSPAR 1989-043
Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload.

AKA: 8K78M;A-2e;Molniya-M;SL-6. Status: Active. First Launch: 1965-10-04. Last Launch: 2010-09-30. Number: 270 . Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 4,016.00 kN (902,832 lbf). Gross mass: 305,460 kg (673,420 lb). Height: 40.00 m (131.00 ft). Diameter: 2.99 m (9.80 ft). Apogee: 820 km (500 mi).

20 stage vehicle consisting of 4 x 11S59 + 1 x 11S59A + 1 x 11S510 + 1 x BOZ + 1 x Blok-VL + 4 x 11S59 + 1 x 11S59A + 1 x 11S510 + 1 x BOZ + 1 x Blok-NVL + 4 x 11S59 + 1 x 11S59A + 1 x 11S510 + 1 x BOZ + 1 x Blok-ML + 4 x 11S59 + 1 x 11S59A + 1 x 11S510 +

LEO Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb) to a 820 km orbit. Payload: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb) to a GTO. Launch Price $: 39.000 million in 1994 dollars.

Stage Data - Molniya 8K78M

  • Stage 0. 4 x Molniya 8K78M-0. Gross Mass: 43,400 kg (95,600 lb). Empty Mass: 3,770 kg (8,310 lb). Thrust (vac): 995.300 kN (223,752 lbf). Isp: 314 sec. Burn time: 119 sec. Isp(sl): 257 sec. Diameter: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Span: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Length: 19.00 m (62.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-107-8D728. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 1. 1 x Molniya 8K78M-1. Gross Mass: 100,600 kg (221,700 lb). Empty Mass: 6,798 kg (14,987 lb). Thrust (vac): 976.700 kN (219,571 lbf). Isp: 315 sec. Burn time: 291 sec. Isp(sl): 248 sec. Diameter: 2.99 m (9.80 ft). Span: 2.60 m (8.50 ft). Length: 28.00 m (91.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-108-8D727. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Molniya 8K78M-2. Gross Mass: 24,800 kg (54,600 lb). Empty Mass: 1,976 kg (4,356 lb). Thrust (vac): 298.100 kN (67,016 lbf). Isp: 330 sec. Burn time: 241 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 2.56 m (8.39 ft). Span: 2.56 m (8.39 ft). Length: 2.84 m (9.31 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-0110. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Molniya 8K78M-3. Gross Mass: 6,660 kg (14,680 lb). Empty Mass: 1,160 kg (2,550 lb). Thrust (vac): 66.600 kN (14,972 lbf). Isp: 340 sec. Burn time: 250 sec. Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft). Span: 2.56 m (8.39 ft). Length: 3.20 m (10.40 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: S1.5400A. Status: In Production. Comments: 700 kg BOZ ullage motors and stabilization platform jettisoned prior to main stage burn.


More at: Molniya 8K78M.

Family: orbital launch vehicle. Country: Russia. Engines: S1.5400A, RD-0110, RD-108-8D727, RD-107-8D728. Spacecraft: Luna E-6, Venera 3MV-1A, Venera 3MV-1, Molniya-1, Venera 3MV-4, Venera 3MV-3, Luna E-6S, Luna E-6LF, Luna E-6M, Luna E-6LS, Venera 1V (V-67), Venera 2V (V-69), Venera 3V (V-70), Molniya-2, Venera 3V (V-72), SRET, Prognoz, Oko, Molniya-3, Molniya-1T, Magion, IRS, Microsat, Prognoz-M, Skipper, MuSat. Projects: Intercosmos, Luna, Lunar L1, Lunar L3, Mars, Molniya, Venera. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC1, Plesetsk, Baikonur LC31, Plesetsk LC41/1, Plesetsk LC43/4, Plesetsk LC43/3, Plesetsk LC16/2. Stages: Soyuz 11A511U2-2, Molniya 8K78M-0, Molniya 8K78M-1, Molniya 8K78M-3. Agency: Korolev bureau.
Photo Gallery

Block L rocket stageBlock L rocket stage
Block L Molniya 8K78M
Credit: © Mark Wade


Molniya LVMolniya LV
Credit: © Mark Wade


R-7 aft endR-7 aft end
Credit: © Mark Wade


RD-0110 EngineRD-0110 Engine
Soyuz 11A511 Stage 2 engine displayed at Tsiolkovskiy Museum in Kaluga.
Credit: © Mark Wade


R-7 CutawaysR-7 Cutaways
Credit: © Mark Wade


R-7 vs ProtonR-7 vs Proton
R-7 / Proton LVs Cutaway
Credit: © Mark Wade



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