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3MV
Family of spacecraft.



Subtopics

Venera 3MV-1A Russian Venus probe.

Zond (3MV-1A #1, 2) Solar orbiter and earth reentry capsule (#1), Venus flyby and lander (#2) satellite, Russia. Launched 1963 - 1964.

Venera 3MV-1 Russian Venus probe.

Zond 1 (3MV-1 #1, 2) Venus flyby and lander, Russia. Launched 1964.

Mars 3MV-4A Russian Mars flyby probe. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space.

Venera 3MV-4 Russian Venus probe. Carried a TV system and scientific instruments. Mars flyby (Z. 2), Lunar flyby (Z. 3), Venus flyby (V. 2, K. 96) satellite, Russia. Launched 1964 - 1965.

Venera 3MV-3 Russian Venus probe. Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. Venus flyby and lander, Russia. Launched 1965.

Venera 3V (V-70) Russian Venus probe. Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venus lander, Russia. Launched 1970.

Venera 3V (V-72) Russian Venus probe. Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters. Venus lander, Russia. Launched 1972.



1963 November 11 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude. Engine ignition occurred in an incorrect direction.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 21 - . Payload: 3MV-1A s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1A. Decay Date: 1963-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 687 . COSPAR: 1963-044A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-51 and burnt up on re-entry..

1964 February 19 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • 3MV-1A - . Payload: 3MV-1A s/n 2. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1A. Decay Date: 1964-02-19 .

1964 March 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venus launch delayed. - . Payload: 3MV-1. Nation: Russia. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-01 . The launch was delayed due to malfunctions during prelaunch service..

1964 March 27 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude due to a loss of the power circuit of the pneumatic valves of the attitude control and stabilization system.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 27 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 3. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 772 . COSPAR: 1964-014A. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-27..

1964 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 1 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 4. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. USAF Sat Cat: 785 . COSPAR: 1964-016D. Failed Venus probe. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Elaboration of a long range space system and conduct of scientific research..

1964 November 30 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 2. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 945 . COSPAR: 1964-078C.

    Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Zond 2 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Mars to test space-borne systems and to carry out scientific investigations. Zond 2 carried six electric rocket engines of plasma type that served as actuators of the attitude control system. The communications system failed during April 1965. The spacecraft flew by Mars on August 6, 1965, at a distance of 1500 km.


1965 July 18 - . 14:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 3 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 3. Mass: 959 kg (2,114 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 1454 . COSPAR: 1965-056A.

    Zond 3 was towards the moon and interplanetary space. The spacecraft was equipped with a TV system that provided automatic inflight film processing. On July 20, during lunar flyby, 25 pictures of very good quality were taken of the lunar farside from distances of 11,570 to 9960 km. The photos covered 19,000,000 km square of the lunar surface. Photo transmissions by facsimile were returned to earth from a distance of 2,200,000 km on July 29 and were retransmitted later from a distance of 31,500,000 km, thus proving the ability of the communications system. After the lunar flyby, Zond 3 continued space exploration in a heliocentric orbit. Those pictures showed clearly the heavily cratered nature of the surface. This mission dramatized the advances in space photography that the U.S.S.R. had made since its first far-side effort six years earlier.


1965 November 12 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Venera 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 4. Mass: 962 kg (2,120 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. USAF Sat Cat: 1730 . COSPAR: 1965-091A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.71 min.

    Venera 2 was launched towards the planet Venus and carried a TV system and scientific instruments. On February 27, 1966, the spacecraft passed Venus at a distance of 24,000 km and entered a heliocentric orbit. The spacecraft system had ceased to operate before the planet was reached and returned no data.


1965 November 16 - . 04:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Venera 3 - . Payload: 3MV-3 s/n 1. Mass: 958 kg (2,112 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3. Decay Date: 1966-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1733 . COSPAR: 1965-092A.

    Venera 3 was launched towards the planet Venus. The mission was to land on the Venusian surface. The entry vehicle contained a radio communication system, scientific instruments, electrical power sources, and medallions bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. The station impacted Venus on March 1, 1966. However, the communications systems had failed before planetary data could be returned.


1965 November 23 - . 03:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: At T+528 sec, during the final thrust phase of the Block I's 8D715K engine, one of the combustion chambers blew up due to a tear in the fuel pipeline. This resulted in an abnormal separation of the upper stages.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 96 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 6. Mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. Decay Date: 1965-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 1742 . COSPAR: 1965-094A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. The escape stage Block L entered parking orbit tumbling and was not able to operate properly..

1965 November 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venus launch delayed. - . Payload: 3MV-3. Nation: Russia. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3. Decay Date: 1965-11-26 . The launch attempt was abandoned due to a launch vehicle malfunction during pre-launch preparations..

1966 March - .
  • Venera x impacts on Venus - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3.

    The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. The entry vehicle contained a radio communication system, scientific instruments, electrical power sources, and medallions bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. The station impacted Venus but, the communications systems failed before planetary data could be returned.


1970 August 17 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 7 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 630. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4489 . COSPAR: 1970-060A.

    Venera 7 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Venus to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned. After aerodynamic braking, a parachute system was deployed. The capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned for 35 min. Another 23 min of very weak signals were received after the spacecraft landed on Venus. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet.


1970 August 22 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine 11D33 was late igniting and cut off early at 25 seconds after firing due to abnormal operation of the sequencer and a DC transformer failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 359 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 631. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4501 . COSPAR: 1970-065A. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Probable Venus probe failure..

1970 December 15 - .
1972 March 27 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 8 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 670. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1972-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5912 . COSPAR: 1972-021A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Venus atmospheric probe. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere on 22 July 1972. Descent speed was reduced from 41,696 km/hr to about 900 km/hr by aerobraking. The 2.5 meter diameter parachute opened at an altitude of 60 km, and a refrigeration system was used to cool the interior components. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing. The probe confirmed the earlier data on the high Venus surface temperature and pressure returned by Venera 7, and also measured the light level as being suitable for surface photography, finding it to be similar to the amount of light on Earth on an overcast day.


1972 March 31 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine cut off 125 seconds after ignition due to timer failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 482 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 671. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1981-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5919 . COSPAR: 1972-023A. Apogee: 9,806 km (6,093 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 201.40 min.


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