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R-9
R-9
R-9
ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favored storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974.

AKA: 8K75;R-9A;Sasin. Thrust: 140,570.00 kN (31,601,390 lbf). Gross mass: 80,500 kg (177,400 lb). Height: 26.50 m (86.90 ft). Diameter: 2.68 m (8.79 ft). Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

The R-9 represented Korolev's last attempt to develop a practical military missile and to prove the military worth of the non-toxic liquid oxygen/kerosene propellant combination. Initial design work was authorized in a decree of April 1958 calling for development of an ICBM with a launch mass under 100 metric tons as a practical replacement for the R-7. Solving these problems paradoxically led to his organization wasting a huge amount of time and effort on this missile, which was only deployed in very limited numbers, at a time when resources were needed for manned, planetary, and lunar space programs. On the other hand there was a synergy between the R-9 and the GR-1 and N1 rocket development programs, which used the same propellants and engines.

The original design studies considered two alternative configurations -- the R-9A 8K75 with liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants (engines by Glushko and Kosberg), and the R-9V 8K76 with nitric acid/kerosene storable liquid propellants (engines by Isayev). The studies showed the clear performance advantages of the R-9A. The authority to proceed with development of this version was received on 13 May 1959 in the same resolution that instructed Yangel to start work in earnest on his competing storable-liquid R-16 ICBM. Project leader was Mishin, who would succeed Korolev after his death as head of the design bureau. The draft project for the pad-launched R-9 test missile, using RD-111 booster engines the primary Soviet engine designer, Glushko, was completed in October 1959. For the upper stage engine Korolev turned to the Kosberg bureau, transferring the technology developed by Korolev's staff for the R-7's vernier rockets. It was envisioned that the R-9 would be used to work out technical problems before moving on to the R-9A production model.

In order to provide a facility that could quickly fuel and launch a production missile using cryogenic liquid oxygen, a host of new technologies had to be mastered. Mishin developed new materials and machinery to precool the liquid oxygen to -210 deg C, then devised vacuum isolation storage systems that reduced boil-off losses during storage, transport, and fuelling operations by 500 times. The overall semi-automatic fuelling system was code-named Desna, and Desna-N pad-launched missile and Desna-V silo-launched missile variants were devised. Many other variants were studied, including the Dolina fully-automated hardened launch facility and a mobile system allowing the missile to be launched from a floating naval barge. Finally the Dolina, Desna-N (later renamed Romashka) and Desna-V systems were selected for parallel development for the production missile on 14 June 1960.

Development of the missile was protracted due to the deep antipathy that existed between Glushko, and Korolev. Korolev felt that Glushko was dragging his feet in development of the RD-111 cryogenic engine. In any case the engine suffered combustion instability problems and exploded on the test stand, delaying development.

Korolev tried to develop alternate sources. Turboprop engine maker Kuznetsov was recruited to learn the art of rocket engine development. Korolev planned for Kuznetsov's NK-9 to power the first stage of an alternate R-9M missile. However Kuznetsov also encountered problems in producing the high-performance motors Korolev demanded using the liquid oxygen/kerosene propellant combination. In the end Korolev had to settle for Glushko's RD-111.

The Desna-N or Romashka pad-launched complex was built at LC-51 at Baikonur. It took 16 hours of preparation time to ready the missile in the operations hangar. Reaction time thereafter was two hours from the order to launch, with 21 minutes required to launch the missile after it was erected on the pad. Measures were found during service to reduce this time to five minutes. Trials launches were made from the complex from 9 April 1961 to 14 February 1963.

The Desna-V semi-automatic silo complex was built at LC-70 at Baikonur. Launches were conducted from 27 September 1963 to February 1964. The complex consisted of three silos, 25 m apart. A fuelled, radio-guided, silo-based missile had to go through ten minutes of auto-test time, then a five minute countdown to launch.

The Dolina prototype complex was built at LC-75 at Baikonur. This was a fully automatic hardened facility. The missile was prepared horizontally, and then automatically docked to the launch table and umbilical connections. There were two launch pads and one hardened command post (with propellant tanks, radio-guidance station, and control room) per complex. The first missile would take 150 minutes to ready for launch from the order to go, but the second would be ready nine minutes after the first bird had gone. After being moved out of the hardened preparation facility, the missile could be launched 20 minutes after being raised to a vertical position. 15 minutes of this delay being due to allow the inertial guidance system's gyros to spin up to 60,000 rpm and for platform alignment. Mishin's engineers wondered how the Americans managed to launch missiles with a two to three minute reaction time, until learning that US ICBM's inertial platforms were kept constantly powered up. Launches were made from LC-75 from 22 February 1963 to February 1964.

In all a total of 54 test launches were made of preproduction R-9's from 1961 to 1964. In the first 29 of this series, through the end of 1962, 13 were failures. Of the remaining 25 tests, 8 were failures. Some of these flights were part of 62 tests made aboard R-9, R-36, and UR-100 missiles of the radio-corrected guidance system developed by NII-885. Of 13 tests of production R-9A missiles from 1964-1966, 4 were failures. While the tests dragged on, Yangel's R-16 and Chelomei's UR-100 both entered service and were deployed in the hundreds.

On 24 October 1963 an R-9 was being prepared for launch in a Desna-V silo. Unknown to the 11 man launch crew, an oxygen leak in the fuelling system had raised the oxygen partial pressure in the silo from the 21% maximum allowed to 32%. While the crew was descending in a lift to the 8th level of the silo, a spark from an electrical panel created a fire in the explosive atmosphere, killing seven and destroying the silo. This happened on the same day as the Nedelin disaster three years earlier, and became the cosmodrome's 'Black Day'. Forever after no launches were attempted from Baikonur on October 24.

In the end, despite the poor test record, the R-9A, and Dolina, Romashka, and Desna-V complexes were accepted for military service. Series production was undertaken at Factory 1001 in Krasnoyarsk and another plant at closed site Krasnoyarsk-26. Construction of four launch pads for the R-9 began in 1962 at Maloye Usovo and Bolshoye Usovo as part of the Angara missile base near Plesetsk. Construction of another 23-28 launchers for the missile began in 1963-1964 at Kozelsk, Omsk, and Tyumen.

A full R-9A regiment was defined as three rockets divisions, one with a Romashka pad-launched complex, one with a Desna silo complex, and one with a Dolina complex. The first R-9A Romashka firing units became operational on 14 December 1964 at Kozelsk, and 15 December at Plesetsk. These were followed by the first silo unit at Kozelsk on 26 December. Further regiments were formed at Omsk and Tyumen. In services the launch complexes at Plesetsk and Baikonur served as reserve operational launchers. On 21 July 1965 the R-9A was officially accepted into service, four years behind its R-16 competitor. A total of only 27 operational launchers and 70 missiles were built, and they were mainly useful as bargaining chips in the Strategic Arms Limitation talks. Under the resulting SALT-1 treaty, the R-9 complexes were put on stand-by status in 1972, and demolished in 1974-1977.

The R-9 used aluminum-magnesium alloy for its propellant tanks. Turbine gases were used to pressurize the fuel tank, and gaseous oxygen for the liquid oxygen tank. The R-9's accuracy (90%) was 8 km in range and 5 km laterally using radio-update guidance during ascent. On autonomous inertial guidance only, this dropped to 20 km in range and 10 km laterally. The inertial navigation system was designed by Pilyugin using Ryazinsky gyroscopes, and two versions were developed, 8A2113 and 8A211M.

Another proposed variant of the R-9 was the 8K77, with vacuum-flask insulation of the oxygen tank aboard the missile, for instant reaction while being held in readiness for long periods. An alternate version with a heavier re-entry vehicle, 5 megaton warhead, and shorter range was developed as part of the program, but was not deployed.

OKB-1 Filial 2 at Krasnoyarsk-26 proposed a light ballistic missile based on the R-9, but this did not interest the Soviet authorities.



Subtopics

Romashka Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Pad-launched version.

8K76 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version using storable propellants and Isayev engines. Studied but rejected prior to start of development.

8K77 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version with vacuum-isolated liquid oxygen tanks to provide capability to hold ready for instant launch. Studied but never developed.

R-9M Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version with Kuznetsov engines in first and second stages. Development undertaken, but cancelled in favor of basic version with RD-111/RD-0106 engines.

R-9A Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favored storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974.

Desna Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure.

Dolina Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Alternate silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure.

Country: Russia. Launch Vehicles: Romashka, 8K76, 8K77, R-9M, R-9A, Desna, Dolina. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Plesetsk.

1961 April 9 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi). The R-9 launch went normally, from the launch pad adjacent to that from which Yuri Gagarin would be launched three days later, in view of the cosmonauts..

1961 April 21 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 April 25 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1961 May 29 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1961 June 2 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1961 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 July 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 August 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1961 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1961 September 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1961 September 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 October 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 October 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1961 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1961 October 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1962 March 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1962 March 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1962 April 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 June 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 June 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 June 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 June 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 July 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1962 July 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1962 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1962 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure..
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    In a test of nuclear fratricide and ABM effectiveness, an R-5M (some sources say an R-12) launched a live thermonuclear warhead toward Semipalitinsk/Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 150 km. Two R-9 ICBM's were launched minutes earlier, timed to pass through the zone of the explosion. Both missiles guided to the planned impact zone without apparent ill-effect. This high altitude test was designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars and incoming 'friendly' ICBM's.


1962 October 28 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC51. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
1963 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 February 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC70. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 February 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 February 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 March 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 March 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 May 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 June 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 July 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 September 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 October 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 October 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC70. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Silo explosion kills 7 at Baikonur - . Nation: Russia.

    On 24 October 1963 an R-9 was being prepared for launch in a silo at LC-70. Unknown to the 11 man launch crew, an oxygen leak in the fuelling system had raised the oxygen partial pressure in the silo from the 21% maximum allowed to 32%. Whie the crew was descending in a lift to the 8th level of the silo, a spark from an electrical panel created a fire in the explosive atmosphere, killing seven and destroying the silo. This happened on the same day as the Nedelin disaster three years earlier, and became the cosmodrome's 'Black Day'. Forever after no launches were attempted from Baikonur on October 24.


1963 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 December 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 December 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1963 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1964 January 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 February 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 May 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1964 September 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 March 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 Jul - . Launch Site: Omsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 July 21 - . LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • R-9A ICBM accepted into military service. - . Nation: Russia. Decree 'On adoption of the R-9A in shaft and surface variants into armaments' was issued..

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1966 March 3 - . Launch Site: Omsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1966 July 17 - . Launch Site: Omsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1967 May 16 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk PL31. Launch Pad: PL31/ShPU-12. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1967 July 20 - . Launch Site: Tyumen. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1967 October 20 - . Launch Site: Tyumen. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1968 June 7 - . Launch Site: Tyumen. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1969 December 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1972 March 14 - . Launch Site: Omsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1973 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1974 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).


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