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Russian Designations
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Capsules in Storage

Capsules in Storage
Capsules in Storage at Korolev. Picture taken on the second floor of the NPO Energia museum around 1990. Years later they had disappeared. Where are they now?
Credit: Jakob Terweij

Designations of Russian ballistic missiles, launch vehicles, and spacecraft.

The designations of Soviet missiles, launch vehicles, and spacecraft were considered state secrets. Therefore as long as that state existed very few of the designations were made public. During the Cold War the missiles were referred to by a sequential code assigned by the US Central Inteligence Agency or by a code name assigned by the NATO ASCC Reporting Committee. The CIA codes consisted of letters indicating the role of the missile followed by a number assigned in the sequence in which the missile was detected (usually by telemetry intercepted during missile tests). See Aleksey Martinov's Designations Of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles at Andreas Parsch's designation-systems.net for a complete listing.

Whatever true designations became known to the western intelligence agencies were not made public in order to conceal intelligence 'sources and methods'. This suited the Soviets. In order to preserve their state secrets they went so far as to use the CIA designations for their missiles in the 1972 SALT-1 Treaty. During the SALT-2 and INF treaty negotiations the US side pressed for true Soviet designations to be used. The Soviets eventually obliged by creating a bogus series of 'RS' designations. These were perversely assigned similar to an existing real designation system but in a slightly different sequence.

The actual system used within the Soviet Union consisted of two designations: 'secret' and 'public' (although both were considered state secrets!)

The 'secret' designation for large ballistic missiles and space launchers consisted of the letter R followed by a sequential number, followed by letters indicating a modification to the basic design (e.g. R-1, R-2, R-3, R-5; R-5M for modernised or maritime version, R-14U for universal version, etc.). This number sequence originated in the late 1940's and was shared between a Russian team under Chief Designer Korolev and a 'guest' German team under Groettrup. The German team knew their own designs only under a 'public' system of 'G' (for Groettrup) numbers. Unknown to them, the designs had a parallel secret 'R-' designation. The first two designs, the R-1 and R-2, were joint efforts. Korolev made sure he had the 'lucky' odd numbers (R-3, R-5, R-7, R-9, R-11, but not R-13!), while the Germans were assigned numbers beginning with 10 (R-10, R-12 through R-15). By the mid-1950's the German group was disbanded and additional Russian design bureaux were set up for rocket design (Glushko, Makeyev, Yangel). The lower even 'R-' numbers were reassigned to German designs and the unused designations from R-8 and up were re-used for the designs of the new bureaux . A second sequence was begun for solid propellant missiles with the 'RT-' prefix in the late 1950's when development of these began (raketa toplivniy, solid fuel rocket). A series for orbital weapons launchers (GR-, 'global rocket') was begun but the only missile deployed in this system retained its R- designation (R-36-O, 'O' for 'orbital').

In the 1960's consistent use of the sequence began to break down after 39 numbers had been allocated. The Chief Designers wanted to 'trademark' their designs with unique designation series. First, Chelomei introduced his own sequence of 'UR-' (universal rocket) designations. Korolev introduced his 'N' sequence for future space launchers (N=nositel = carrier rocket). Yangel, taking a leaf from Boeing, decided to 'trademark' his rockets by using the series R-16, R-26, R-36, R-46, R-56 for major projects. Thus he skipped ahead, leaving whole blocks of numbers unused. Nadiradze began his own series of solid propellant rockets with the 'Temp-' designation. The assignment of new numbers within this system ended with the reorganisation of the Soviet missile industry in 1966. Thereafter missiles replacing earlier designs given suffix letters indicating modification of an existing design, even if the missile was completely new.

There were hints of this system in the West from the late 1960's when histories of Soviet rocketry would refer to older designs by these numbers. The most notable example was the term 'semyorka' or 'good ol' number seven' used for the R-7 rocket that launched Sputnik. Furthermore designations announced for scientific sounding rockets (V =vertikal) derived from military designs retained their sequence (e.g. V1 = R-1, V2 = R-2, V5 = R-5).

The 'secret' rocket designations are given below.

The 'public' designation may be considered the 'real' designation of the rocket. An example of such a number was first explicitly revealed in the book Inside the Soviet Army by the defector "Suvorov" in 1983. On page 127 he reveals both the secret and public designations for the UR-100 / 8K84 ICBM (known to the west as the SS-11 Sego). 8K84 was the number actually used for configuration control and to assign part number sequences for sub-components of the system. This was the reason it was known as the 'public' designation - because the number itself would be known to hundreds of thousands of workers across the Soviet Union. They wouldn't necessarily know what the part they were working on would go into, but they would know that it was for 'article' 8K84.

Of course a missile can be considered at many levels of integration. At the top level there is the entire system - not just the missile itself but its launcher or silo, and associated control or guidance facilities. There is the missile itself, which in later Soviet practice was integrated with a sealed container, ready to be fired at short notice over a guaranteed lifetime measured in decades. Next was the missile as it actually flew through the air. Then there were the modular sub-components of the rocket - such as its warhead, guidance system, separate stages, and engines. A final level below this would be the components - structural elements, engine and electronic system components, and so on.

The designation system at the top few levels used a consistent format and consisted of three parts:

  • A one or two digit number indicating the directorate responsible for development and production of the system. These shifted in the great reorganisation of the Soviet defence industry in 1966 and again in the late 1980's:
    • 2 = Ground forces (Red Army)
    • 3 = Navy (VMF) after 1966
    • 4 = Navy (VMF) before 1966
    • 5 = Air Defence and Anti-Ballistic Missile Forces (PVO, PKO) until the late 1980's
    • 6 = Air Defence and Anti-Ballistic Missile Forces (PVO, PKO) after the late 1980's
    • 8 = Army missile forces in the 1950's and thereafter the Strategic Rocket Forces (RVSN) until 1966).
    • 11 = Launch vehicles for the Space Forces (after 1966)
    • 14 = Space Forces (from late 1980's)
    • 15 = Strategic Rocket Forces (from 1966)
    • 17 = Naval Space Forces
  • A letter indicating the type of system or subsystem:
    • K - used for missiles until 1966, probably indicating 'kompleks'
    • A - prior to 1966 possibly standing for an unfuelled agregat, assembly. After 1966 meaning ampulozirovanniy, for sealed unit.
    • M - used for smaller and naval missiles. The M may stand for maritime or modular (not missile, which has no cognate word in Russian!). Often Army and Navy missiles have a 'K' number for a level of assembly of the missile above the actual flyaway unit, and a similar or different 'M' number for the missile itself. Or this may only indicate that during its life various models of the missile may have received designations in two different series as the bureaucracy shifted.
    • Zh - used for solid propellant missiles. The Zh may be keyed to zharko, hot.
    • Ya - used for strategic aurface-to-air or anti-ballistc missiles. Possibly standing for a yaderniy, or nuclear, indicating the missile can be tipped with a nuclear warhead or is to be used against incoming nuclear warheads.
    • V - equivalent to A, but used for surface-to-air missiles. Possibly standing for a vertikal, or vertically-ascending missile.
    • F - the warhead or payload. Possibly standing for a funktsionalniy gruz, or functional payload (15F842 in the case of the 8K84).
    • S - a stage (stuplen) of the rocket (8S816 and 8S817 for the first and second stages of the 8K84),.
    • D - an engine (dvigatel). For the 8K84, 15D2 in the first stage and 8D419 in the second stage
    • P - the launcher or silo unit (puskovaya ustanovka). For the 8K84, the silo-launcher had the designation 15P784 .
    • Kh - used for early warning satellites.

  • A two digit sequential number. These were allocated within a single product group (for example, there is one sequence for 8K/11K rockets, one for 15A/15Zh rockets, one for 11F/14F/17F spacecraft). For subsystems an attempt was made to relate this to the top level number. Numbers divisible by 10 were originally not used to prevent confusion with numerical suffixes. This changed after 1966.
  • A numerical suffix - A digit could be added to the two-digit sequence number. This was used to indicate succeeding models (for example 9K11 followed by 9K112, 9K113, etc.)
  • An alphabetical suffix - This was used to differentiate submodels. Typical suffixes were 'M' (modernised or maritime), U (universal model for use in several different launchers), F (forced, e.g. uprated).
Finally at the component level a unique part number would be assigned to each separately fabricated component that could be traced back to the final article. For example the transport container for the 8K84 (considered an integral part of the missile itself) was designated 8K849510. A bracket from a Scud missile that fell on Riyadh, melted from re-entry heat, bears the part number 8K14-3170-370, relating it right back to the original 8K14 R-11 design of 1953.

The two digit sequences seem to have originally been assigned in blocks of ten to the leading design bureaux. These allocations for large ballistic missiles were:

  • 8K/11K series to 1966:

    • 50's, 70's, 90's: Korolev's OKB-1
    • 60's: Yangel's KB Yuzhnoye
    • 80's: Chelomei's OKB-52

  • 15A/15Zh series after 1966:

    • 10's: KB Yuzhnoye liquid propellant missiles.
    • 20's, 30's: Missiles of Chelomei's NPO Mashinostroyenia
    • 40's, 50's, 60's: Solid propellant missiles of Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology and KB Yuzhnoye

There is a strong Russian belief that odd numbers are lucky. Korolev's precedence can be seen in the original number allocation. The much slower pace of missile development after 1966 meant that few of the numbers in the blocks allocated were used.


Article numbers for some early Soviet ballistic missiles indicate a different system in the early 1950's. Designations reported for the Energia booster and the Zenit launch vehicle also do not fit into the system. These deviant designations include:

  • 8K11 R-1 Korolev SS-1A Scunner Soviet production copy of the German V-2. There was evidently a series of numbers ranging from 8K11 to at least 8K14 for the earliest missile designs.
  • 8K14 R-11 Makeyev SS-1C Scud B Early production version of the Scud. Later models used Army numbers in the 9K range.
  • 8Zh38 R-2 Korolev SS-2 Sibling The R-2 doubled the range of the R-1 and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The 'Zh' letter code only appears this once, then is not used for rockets again until applied to solid propellant missiles in the late 1960's.
  • 8A63 R-3A Korolev So much new technology was involved for the R-3 that it was deemed necessary to build an R-3A intermediate experimental rocket. This was never completed. The 8K63 designation was reused for Yangel's R-12, which went into service and fulfilled much the same requirement. Again the designation is curious for use of the 'A' letter code, which was not used again until the late 1960's. It seems there may have been a '60' sequence applied to some Korolev designs that was later reassigned to Yangel's bureau.
  • 8A67 R-3 Korolev Development of the long-range R-3 missile was authorised in April 1947. But the long-range technology was beyond the Soviets at that time. The project was eventually cancelled and they leap-frogged to the R-7 ICBM. The 8K67 designation was reused for Yangel's R-36 ICBM in the 1960's.
  • 11K25 Energia Korolev SL-17 The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) was developed from 1976 as a system that would duplicate the capabilities of the US shuttle system. The sequence number seems not to fit into either the pre-1966 or post-1966 series..
  • 11K77 Zenit-2 Yuzhnoye SL-16 Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's. The first stage served as the liquid-fuel booster for the Energia. The sequence number seems not to fit into either the pre-1966 or post-1966 series..

Designations for Soviet ballistic missiles and satellites were as follows:

Soviet Ballistic 'Secret' Numbers
Secret Number DoD NATO Article No SALT/Other Comment
R-1 SS-1A Scunner 8K11   Soviet production copy of the German V-2, in service from 1953.
R-2 SS-2 Sibling 8Zh38   Development of the R-1 with double the range and a deadly radiological warhead.
R-3         Korolev design for a long-range missile that exceeded the limits of Soviet technology of the time. Abandoned.
R-4       G-1 Designation given to Groettrup's 600 km range design.
R-5 SS-3 Shyster 8K62 Pobeda Yangel design for first Soviet intermediate range missile with a range of 1200 km,
R-6       G-2 Groettrup's design for an IRBM with a 2500 km range.
R-7 SS-6 Sapwood 8K71   Korolev design for the world's first ICBM and first orbital launch vehicle. The 8K71 version was never actually put into military service, being succeeded by the R-7A 8K74.
R-8         Originally used for Groettrup G-1M/G-3 IRBM design. Reused for 1956 Glushko project for a multistage 650t ICBM powered by Lox/UDMH.
R-9 SS-8 Sasin 8K75   Second generation ICBM developed by Korolev using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants.
R-10       G-1 Original designation given to Groettrup's G-1 600 km range rocket designed. Reused for a Glushko 1500 tonne space booster design advoated by Glushko in competiton with Korolev's N-1.
R-11 SS-1B Scud 8K14   Makeyev's missile with V-2 performance but using storable propellants. A development became the first Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile.
R-12 SS-4 Sandal 8K63 G-2 Designation originally given to Groettrup's G-2 IRBM design. Later reused for Yangel's 8K63, the first operationally effective intermediate range ballistic missile.
R-13 SS-N-4 Sark 4K50 G-3 Originally allocated to Groettrup's G-3 IRBM design. Reused for Makeyev's first nuclear-armed SLBM.
R-14 SS-5 Skean 8K65 G-4 Originally allocated to Groettrup's 3000 km missile design. Reused for Yangel's 3600 km range equivalent.
R-15       G-5 Originally allocated to either Groettrup's G-5 ICBM designed. Reused for Yuzhnoye 1000 km range SLBM, related to the light ICBM later designated R-26/8K66.
R-16 SS-7 Saddler 8K64   Yangel's design was the Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants.
R-17 SS-1C Scud C 9K72   Makeyev's final refinement of the R-11 design, widely exported and infamous around the world as the Scud.
R-18         Details not known.
R-19         Details not known.
R-20         Glushko giant space booster, 2000 tonnes lift-off mass.
R-21 SS-N-5 Serb 4K55   First Soviet SLBM with submerged launch capabilities.
R-22         Details not known.
R-23         Details not known.
R-24         Details not known.
R-25         Details not known.
R-26     8K66   Yangel two stage light ICBM developed 1960-1962, but cancelled.
R-27   Serb 4K10 RSM-25 Makeyev SLBM.
R-28         Details not known.
R-29 SS-N-8 Sawfly 4K75 RSM-40 Designation used for a long family of Makeyev heavy SLBM's.
R-29R SS-N-18 Stingray 4K75DU RSM-50 Replacement for R-29.
R-29RM SS-N-23 Skif 4K75RM RSM-54 Replacement for R-29.
R-30         Details not known.
R-31 SS-N-17 Snipe   RSM-45 Arsenal SLBM.
R-32         Details not known.
R-33         Details not known.
R-34         Details not known.
R-35         Details not known.
R-36 SS-9 Scarp 8K67   Designation given to Yangel's heavyweight ICBM and its successors.
R-36M SS-18 Satan   RS-20 Completely different replacement series for R-36.
R-37         Details not known.
R-38         Small, economical ICBM studied by Yangel as an alternative to Chelomei's UR-100. Both one and two stage variants were considered. Work ended when Yangel was ordered to concentrate on R-36.
R-39 SS-N-20 Sturgeon   RSM-52 Makeyev heavy SLBM family.
R-39M SS-N-28     RSM-52M Replacement for R-39.
R-40 to R-45         Probably not allocated.
R-46         Super-heavy ICBM designed by Yangel in 1963-1966. The original R-56 super-booster concept consisted of clustered R-46's.
R-47 to R-55         Probably not allocated.
R-56     8K68   Yangel super-rocket design of the 1960's that competed with the UR-500, UR-700, and N1.
GR-1         Global rocket requirement for single-warhead orbital nuclear weapons system. Competing designs were Korolev 8K51, Chelomei UR-200, and Yangel R-36.
GR-2         Global rocket requirement for multiple-warhead orbital nuclear weapons system. Competing designs were Korolev N111 Chelomei UR-500, and Yangel R-56.
RT-1     8K95   First large Soviet solid propellant ballistic missile developed and tested in 1959-1963, but no production.
RT-15 SS-14 Scapegoat (Scamp) 8K96   The RT-15 IRBM used the second and third stages if the RT-2 ICBM. Makeyev designed a submarine-launched version.
RT-2 SS-13 Mod.1 Savage 8K98 RS-12 Soviet Union's first solid propellant ICBM developed 1961-1968.
RT-2PM SS-25 Sickle 15Zh58 RS-12M Completely different replacement for RT-2.
RT-2PM2 SS-27/SS-29     RS-12M1 Solid propellant ICBM set to replace all older models in the first decade of the 21st Century.
RT-20 SS-15 Scrooge 8K99   Yangel design for a mixed propulsion solid/liquid ICBM. Cancelled 1969.
RT-21         Three-stage solid propellant ICBM. Studies were completed in 1966 - it was decided not to proceed with the concept.
RT-22         Follow-on study to the RT-21 for a train-launched solid-propellant ICBM. It reached the stage of an advanced project in 1969.
RT-23 SS-24 Mod 1 Scalpel 15Zh60 RS-22 The only rail-based ICBM ever deployed. Developed by Yuzhnoye, deployment from 1988.
RT-24         Unknown allocation.
RT-25     8K97   IRBM using the first and third stages of the RT-2 ICBM.
Temp-S SS-12/SS-22 Scaleboard 9K76   Nadiradze design for first solid propellant tactical ballistic missile.
Temp-2S SS-16 Sinner 15Zh42 RS-14 Nadiradze design for first operational mobile ICBM.
N-1     11A52   Korolev design for a superheavy booster for the Soviet manned lunar, space station, and manned Mars programmes. Cancelled in1974 after four launch failures.
N-11     11A53   Korolev design for a heavy orbital launch vehicle that would use the second, third, and fourth stages of the N1.
N-111     11A54   Korolev design for a medium orbital launch vehicle using the third and fourth stages of the N1, and the second stage of the R-9 ICBM.
UR-100 SS-11 Mod.1 Sego 8K84 RS-10 Lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history.
UR-100N SS-19 Mod 1 and Mod 2 Stilleto 15A30 RS-18 The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier.
MR-UR-100       RS-16 Design of Yangel that competed with the UR-100N. Also put into production.
UR-200 SS-10   8K81, 8K83   Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36.
UR-300         Not allocated. Allegedly the dash numbers referred to order-of-magnitude payload.
UR-400         Not allocated. Allegedly the dash numbers referred to order-of-magnitude payload.
UR-500     8K82 GR-1 Chelomei design for a monster ICBM. Flown in 1965, but never deployed. Succeeded by three and four stage space launch versions which continue in use as the 'Proton' series.
UR-600         Not allocated. Allegedly the dash numbers referred to order-of-magnitude payload.
UR-700         Chelomei super-rocket design for direct manned flight by the LK-700 spacecraft to the surface of the moon.
UR-700M         Chelomei 1969 super-duper rocket design for launching manned Mars expeditions. The 16,000 tonne booster had an earth orbit payload of 750 tonnes.
UR-800         Not allocated. Allegedly the dash numbers referred to order-of-magnitude payload.
UR-900         Storable propellant rocket proposed by Chelomei for a Mars expedition using UR-700 components.

Early Soviet Ballistic Missile Article Numbers
Sequence Article Rocket Designer DoD NATO Other Designation Comments
51 8K51 R-5M Korolev SS-3 Mod.2 Shyster Pobeda The R-5M was Korolev's modification of the R-5, resulting in the first Russian nuclear-tipped missile.
51 11A510 Vostok 11A510 Korolev SL-5     Version of R-7 launch vehicle with Vostok second stage and unknown third stage used only twice to launch prototype RORSATs.
51 11A511 Soyuz 11A511 Korolev SL-4 Sapwood Soyuz Standardized launch vehicle designed to replace a proliferation of earlier models (8K72, 8A91, 8K74, 8K78, 11A57).
51 11A511L Soyuz 11A511L Korolev SL-4 Sapwood Soyuz 11A511 with reinforced second stage, large fairing for earth orbit test of LK lunar lander.
51 11A511M Soyuz 11A511M Korolev SL-4 Sapwood Soyuz The Kozlov filial of Korolev's OKB-1 design to launch Soyuz 7K-VI manned military spacecraft. Cancelled.
51 11A511U Soyuz 11A511U Korolev SL-4 Sapwood Soyuz Standardised orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM that was launched in the greatest numbers in history.
51 11A511U2 Soyuz 11A511U2 Korolev SL-4 Sapwood Soyuz Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996.
51 11A512   Korolev       Unknown allocation.
51 11A513 GR-1 Korolev   Scrag   FOBS version of GR-1.
51 8K513 GR-1 Korolev   Scrag   ASAT version of GR-1. Little has emerged about Korolev's ASAT project, designed in competition with Chelomei's in 1961-1964.
51 11A514 Soyuz 11A514 Korolev SL-4 Sapwood Vostok Version of Soyuz launcher with increased payload, designed to launch Soyuz R military reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled along with the Soyuz R project in 1966.
52 11A52 N1 1964 Korolev SL-15     The N1 launch vehicle for the N1-L3 lunar landing mission.
53 11A53 N11 Korolev       The N11 would use the second, third, and fourth stages of the N1.
54 11A54 N-111 Korolev       The N111 would use the third and fourth stages of the N1, and the second stage of Korolev’s R-9 ICBM.
55 11K55 Soyuz 11K55 Korolev       Version of Voskhod designed to launch Sever manned spacecraft. Never went beyond design stage.
56 11K56 Soyuz 11K56 Korolev       Version of Voskhod designed to launch Sever manned spacecraft. Never went beyond design stage.
57 11A57 Voskhod 11A57 Korolev SL-4 Sapwood Vostok The 11A57 took the large third stage originally developed for the 8K78 interplanetary probe projects and applied it to increasing R-7 low earth orbit performance. It was primarily designed to launch the Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite, but was also used f
58 11A58   Korolev       Unknown allocation.
59 11A59 Polyot 11A59 Korolev SL-10   Polyot Two stage version of Vostok 11A57. Used for flight test of prototype Chelomei ASAT.
61 8A61 R-11 Korolev SS-1 Scud   First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives.
61 8K61 R-11FM Makeyev       First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service.
62 8K62 R-5 Korolev SS-3 Mod 1 Shyster   Military production version of R-5 IRBM.
63 11K63 Kosmos 11K63 Yangel SL-7 Sandal Kosmos 2I Series production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-12 IRBM.
63 8K63 R-12 Yangel SS-4 Mod.1 Sandal   The R-12 was the first operationally effective intermediate range ballistic missile, the first Soviet missile deployed with a thermonuclear warhead, and the first mass-produced missile in history.
63 8K63U R-12 Yangel SS-4 Mod 2 Sandal   Universal version of the R-12U, for pad-launch or from the 'Dvina' silo complex.
64 11K64 R-16 Yangel     Tsiklon-1 Space launch version of R-16, never went beyond design stage.
64 8K64 R-16 Yangel SS-7 Mod 1 Saddler   The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants.
64 8K64U R-16 Yangel SS-7 Mod.2 Saddler   Standardised version of R-16, for either pad or silo launch.
65 11K65 Kosmos 11K65 Yangel SL-8 Skean Kosmos 3 Initial serial production version was the Kosmos-3, built at the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. Flew only four times, with two failures, before being succeeded by the modernized production version under the responsibility of NPO Polyot.
65 8K65 R-14 Yangel SS-5 Mod 1 Skean   The R-14, with a range of 3600 km, was the only missile of that range class to be fielded. A key element in the Cuba missile crisis, it thereafter was part of the nuclear deterrent targeted at NATO and China.
65 11K65M Kosmos 11K65M Yangel SL-8 Skean Kosmos 3M Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM.
65 8K65U R-14 Yangel SS-5 Mod 2 Skean   Universal version, for pad-launch or from silo complex 'Chusovaya'.
66 8K66 R-26 Yangel       Two stage light ICBM developed 1960-1962, but cancelled so that Yangel could concentrate his efforts on the R-36.
67 11K67 Tsyklon Yangel SL-11 Scarp Tsiklon Space-launch version of the R-36.
67 8K67 R-36 Yangel SS-9 Mod 1 Scarp   Yangel's R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built.
67 8K67P R-36 Yangel SS-9 Mod 4 Scarp   Multi-warhead version of R-36.
68 11K68 Tsyklon 3 Yangel SL-14 Scarp Tsiklon-3 Space-launch version of the R-36.
68 8K68 R-56 Yangel       Yangel ‘super rocket’ design.
69 11K69 Tsyklon 2 Yangel SL-11 Scarp Tsiklon-2 A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version r
69 8K69 R-36-O Yangel SS-9 Mod.3 Scarp FOBS; Fractional Orbital Bombing System The R-36-O was the only orbiting military nuclear weapon ever deployed, although in order to remain legal under international treaties it was a 'fractional orbital' weapon. Although American infrared early warning satellites invalidated the 'surprise atta
71 8K71 R-7 Korolev SS-6 Mod 1 Sapwood   Original design and flight test model of world's first ICBM.
71 8K711 8K711 Korolev       Korolev project.
71 8K712   Korolev       Unknown allocation.
71 8K713 GR-1 Korolev   Scrag   ICBM version of GR-1. Article number sometimes erroneously given as 8K73.
71 8K71PS R-7 Korolev SL-1   Semyorka Relatively unmodified R-7 ICBM test vehicles used to launch first two Sputniks.
72 8K72 Luna 8K72 Korolev SL-3   Luna R-7 ICBM with single-engine upper stage used for early Soviet unmanned lunar shots.
72 8K72K Vostok 8K72K Korolev SL-3 Sapwood Vostok R-7 ICBM with single-engine third stage, uprated from Luna launch vehicle and with forward fairing to accomodate Vostok/Zenit sized spacecraft.
73 8K73 8K73 Korolev       Korolev project. Possibly designation for variant of GR-1.
74 8K74 R-7A Korolev SS-6 Mod 2 Sapwood Semyorka The R-7A was an improved version of the R-7 first ICBM, and the one actually deployed to pads in Baikonur and Plesetsk.
75 8K75 R-9 Korolev SS-8 Mod. 2 Sasin   ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favoured storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei.
76 8K76 R-9 Korolev       Improved version of the R-9 with Kuznetsov engines in first and second stages. Development undertaken, but cancelled in favour of basic version.
77 8K77 R-9 Korolev       Version of R-9 with vacuum-isolated liquid oxygen tanks to provide capability to hold ready for instant launch. Studied but never developed.
78 8K74 Molniya 8K78 Korolev SL-6   Molniya Four stage rocket based on the R-7. The draft project was completed on 10 May 1960.
78 8K78L Molniya 8K78L Korolev       The Molniya 8K78L was designed by Korolev's design bureau for launching a manned spacecraft on a flyby of the Moon and return to earth. To achieve this it would have used Lox/LH2 engines in the third and fourth stages.
78 8K78M Molniya 8K78M Korolev SL-6   Molniya-M Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload.
79 8K79 8K79 Korolev       Korolev 1961 design for a single stage military rocket. A competing missile was selected for the requirement.
81 8K81 UR-200 Chelomei SS-10     Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36.
82 8K82 Proton 8K82 Chelomei SL-9   Proton 2 Two-stage giant ICBM. Test flown but never deployed.
82 8K82K Proton 8K82K Chelomei SL-13   Proton 3 Three-stage space-launch version of the UR-500, authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964.
83 8K83 UR-200 Chelomei       Global rocket version of UR-200. Would place nuclear warhead into orbit, which would approach United States from any direction at low altitude and be deorbited with little warning time on on enemy targets.
84 8K84 UR-100 Chelomei SS-11 Mod.1 Sego RS-10 Lightweight ICBM that was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history.
84 8K84M UR-100 Chelomei SS-11 Mod.2 Sego RS-10 Improved version of UR-100.
85-89 8K85-8K89   Chelomei       Allocated but not used.
91 8A91 R-7 Korolev SL-2     Modified R-7 ICBM used to launch Sputnik 3.
92 8A92 Vostok 8A92 Korolev SL-3     Modernized version of the Vostok booster used for launch of Zenit-2 reconnaisance satellites.
92 8A92M Vostok 8A92M Korolev SL-3 Sapwood Vostok Version of Vostok developed to launch higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits.
93 8K93   Korolev       Unknown allocation.
94 8K94 8K94 Yuzhnoye       Unusual designation for the upper stages of another Yangel project - possibly reflecting design originally was stand-alone IRBM?
95 8K95 RT-1 Korolev       The RT-1 (RT = rocket, solid in Russian) was the first large Soviet solid propellant ballistic missile. It was developed and tested in 1959-1963, but no production was undertaken due to its poor performance.
96 8K96 RT-15 Arsenal SS-14 Scapegoat (Scamp) Scamp The RT-15 IRBM used the second and third stages if the RT-2 ICBM. After protracted development in 1961-1970 with a range of alternative self-propelled mobile launchers, limited numbers ('few' to 19) of two types of launchers were deployed in 1970.
97 8K97 RT-25 Tsirulnikov       The RT-25 IRBM used the first and third stages of the RT-2 ICBM.
98 8K98 RT-2 Korolev SS-13 Mod.1 Savage RS-12 The Soviet Union's first solid propellant ICBM, was developed by Sergei Korolev and his successor from 1961-1968.
98 8K98M RT-2 Korolev       Improved version of RT-2 studied but not developed.
98 8K98P RT-2 Korolev SS-13 Mod.2 Savage RS-12UTTKh Improved RT-2.
99 8K99 RT-20P Yuzhnoye SS-15 Scrooge   Yangel mixed propulsion (solid/liquid) mobile ICBM.

Later Soviet Ballistic Missile Article Numbers
Sequence Article Rocket Designer DoD NATO SALT Comment
11 15A11 Perimetr Yuzhnoye       Perimetr was a rocket developed for launch of a highly secret communications payload. This would be be put in orbit or on a long high-altitude trajectory to provide back-up command and control of the strategic forces in the event of nuclear war.
12 15A12   Yuzhnoye       Unknown allocation.
13 15A13   Yuzhnoye       Unknown allocation.
14 15A14 R-36M Yuzhnoye SS-18 Mod. 1-Mod. 2 Satan RS-20A The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos.
15 15A15 MR-UR-100 Yuzhnoye SS-17 Mod 1 and Mod 2 Spanker RS-16  
16 15A16 MR-UR-100 Yuzhnoye SS-17 Mod.3 Spanker RS-16B  
17 15A17   Yuzhnoye       Unknown allocation.
18 15A18 R-36M Yuzhnoye SS-18 Mod.4 Satan RS-20B  
18 15A18M2 R-36M2 Yuzhnoye SS-18 Mod.5 and 6 Satan RS-20V The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in ve
18 15A18M2 R-36M2 Yuzhnoye     RS-20K Launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 ICBMs.
19 15A19   Yuzhnoye       Unknown allocation.
20 15A20 UR-100 NPO Mashinostroyenia SS-11 Mod.3 Sego RS-10M  
20 15A20U UR-100 NPO Mashinostroyenia SS-11 Mod.4 Sego RS-10MUTTKh  
21 15A21-15A29   NPO Mashinostroyenia       Allocated but not used?
30 15A30 Rokot NPO Mashinostroyenia SS-19 Mod.1   RS-18 Launch vehicle based decommissioned UR-100N ICBMs. 106 tonne liftoff mass with Briz-KM upper stage.
30 15A30 UR-100N NPO Mashinostroyenia SS-19 Mod.1   RS-18 Launch vehicle by NPO MASH based on UR-100N's decommissioned from Ukrainian missile fields. 106 tonne liftoff mass.
30 15A30 UR-100N NPO Mashinostroyenia SS-19 Mod 1 and Mod 2 Stilleto RS-18A The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the
31 15A31   NPO Mashinostroyenia       Unknown allocation.
32 15A32   NPO Mashinostroyenia       Unknown allocation.
33 15A33   NPO Mashinostroyenia       Unknown allocation.
34 15A34   NPO Mashinostroyenia       Unknown allocation.
35 15A35 UR-100N NPO Mashinostroyenia SS-19 Mod 3 Stilleto RS-18B  
36-39 15A36-15A39   NPO Mashinostroyenia       Allocated but not used?
41 15Zh41 RT-21 MITT       Project work began in 1963 on this three-stage solid propellant ICBM. Five train-launched variants were studied, as well as a silo-launched version. Studies were completed in 1966 but it was decided not to proceed with the concept.
42 15Zh42 Temp-2S MITT SS-16 Sinner RS-14 World's first operational mobile ICBM. Deployed in greaty secrecy in 1976-1987 contrary to the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty.
43 15Zh43   MITT        
44 15Zh44 RT-23 Yuzhnoye SS-24 Scalpel    
45 15Zh45 Pioner MITT SS-20 Mod 1 and Mod 2 Saber RSD-10 The missile was given a different DOD mod designation according to the number of warheads - Mod 1 for the single warhead version, Mod 2 for the triple warhead version.
45 15Zh45UTTKh Pioner MITT SS-20 Mod 1 and Mod 2 Saber RSD-10 The UTTKh model featured improved accuracy, range, and MIRV dispersal spread. It was not given a separate DoD 'mod' number.
46-49 15Zh46-15Zh49   MITT       Allocated but not used?
50 15Zh50   MITT       Unknown allocation.
51 15Zh51   MITT       Unknown allocation.
52 15Zh52 RT-23 Yuzhnoye SS-24 Mod 2 Scalpel RS-22  
53 15Zh53 Pioner MITT SS-20 Mod 3 Saber    
54 15Zh54   MITT       Unknown allocation.
55 15Zh55   MITT       Unknown allocation.
56 15Zh56   MITT       Unknown allocation.
57 15Zh57   MITT       Unknown allocation.
58 15Zh58 Topol MITT SS-25 Mod 1 and 2 Sickle RS-12M Containerised all-solid propellant Nadiradze ICBM designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos.
58 15Zh58 Start-1 MITT SL-18   Topol Launch vehicle based on decommissioned ICBM's. Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 47 tonnes.
58 15Zh58 Start MITT SL-18   Topol Launch vehicle based on decommissioned SS-25 ICBM's (differs from ICBM/basic Start-1 in having second stage used twice, in tandem, for increased payload). Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 60 tonnes.
59             Unknown allocation.
60 15Zh60 RT-23 Yuzhnoye SS-24 Mod 1 Scalpel RS-22A  
61 15Zh61 RT-23 Yuzhnoye SS-24 Mod 2 Scalpel RS-22B  

Soviet Spacecraft Article Numbers
The designation allocations for spacecraft across all series (11, 14, 17) seem to use a single sequence series, although quite a few numerical suffixes had to be used for unrelated spacecraft after the 1960's:
Sequence Article Number Spacecraft Manufacturer Class Type Comments
10 14F10 IS-MU Chelomei Military ASAT aaaa
11 17F11         Unknown allocation.
11 17F110         Unknown allocation.
11 17F111         Unknown allocation.
11 17F112         Unknown allocation.
11 17F113         Unknown allocation.
11 17F114 Taifun-3 Reshetnev Military Target  
11 17F115 Koltso Reshetnev Military Target  
11 17F116 Zenit-8 Kozlov Surveillance Cartography  
11 17F118 Nadezhda Yuzhnoye Navigation    
12 17F12 Orlets-1 Kozlov Surveillance Military  
12 17F120 US-PU Yuzhnoye SIGINT Naval reconnaisance  
12 17F120 Pirs-2 Arsenal SIGINT Naval reconnaisance  
13 17F13 Strela-3 Reshetnev Communications Military Store-dump  
14 17F14         Unknown allocation.
15 17F15 Raduga-1 Reshetnev Communications    
16 17F16 US-A Arsenal Surveillance Naval Radarsat  
17 17F17 US-P Arsenal SIGINT Naval reconnaisance  
18 17F18         Unknown allocation.
19 17F19DM Polyus Chelomei Military ASAT  
20-30           Not used?
31 17F31 Taifun-2 Yuzhnoye Military Target  
32 17F32 NPG Chelomei Manned Space Station  
33 14F33 LO Korolev Manned Space Station  
34           Unknown allocation.
35 11F35 Buran Korolev Manned Spaceplane  
36 11F36 Energia-Buran Korolev Manned Spaceplane  
37 11F37 Kvant Chelomei Manned Space Station  
38           Unknown allocation.
39           Unknown allocation.
40 14F40 Resurs F1-14F40 Kozlov Earth Landsat  
41 17F41 Resurs F1-17F41 Kozlov Earth Landsat  
42 17F42 Resurs F2 Kozlov Earth Landsat  
43 14F43 Resurs F1-14F43 Kozlov Earth Landsat  
43 17F43 Okean-O Yuzhnoye Earth Radarsat  
44           Unknown allocation.
45 17F45 Meteor-3 VNIIEM Earth Weather  
45M 17F45M Meteor-3M VNIIEM Earth Weather  
46-60           Not used?
61 11F61 Zenit-2 Korolev Surveillance Military  
61 11F610 Strela-2M Reshetnev Communications Military Store-dump  
61 11F610 Strela-2 Reshetnev Communications Military Store-dump  
61 11F611 11F611        
61 11F612         Unknown allocation.
61 11F613         Unknown allocation.
61 11F614 Meteor M VNIIEM Earth Weather  
61 11F615 Soyuz Kontakt Korolev Manned Spacecraft  
61 11F615 Soyuz 7K-OK Korolev Manned Spacecraft  
61 11F615A12 Soyuz 7K-TM Korolev Manned Spacecraft  
61 11F615A15 Progress Korolev Manned Logistics  
61 11F615A55 Progress M Korolev Manned Logistics  
61 11F615A77 Progress M2 Korolev Manned Logistics  
61 11F615A8 Soyuz 7K-T Korolev Manned Spacecraft  
61 11F615A9 Soyuz 7K-T/A9 Korolev Manned Spacecraft  
61 11F616 Tselina-O Yuzhnoye SIGINT    
61 11F617 Tsiklon Reshetnev Navigation    
61 11F617 Tselina-OM Yuzhnoye SIGINT    
61 11F618 DS-P1-Yu Yuzhnoye Military Target  
61 11F619 Tselina-D Yuzhnoye SIGINT    
61 11F620 11F620        
62 11F620 DS-P1-I Yuzhnoye Military Target  
62 11F621 Sfera Reshetnev Earth Geodetic  
62 11F622 Yantar-2 Kozlov Surveillance Military  
62 11F622 Yantar-1 Kozlov Surveillance Military  
62 11F623         Unknown allocation.
62 11F624 Yantar-2K Kozlov Surveillance Military  
62 11F625 Svetoch   Communications Military  
62 11F626 Forpost   Communications Military  
62 11F627 Parus Reshetnev Navigation    
62 11F628 Molniya-2 Reshetnev Communications    
62 11F629 Zenit-4MT Kozlov Surveillance Military  
63 11F630 Yantar-1KF Kozlov Surveillance Military  
63 11F631 Tyulpan Kozlov Military ASAT Target  
63 11F632 Meteor-2 VNIIEM Earth Weather  
63 11F633 Taifun-1 Yuzhnoye Military Target  
63 11F634 Romb Reshetnev Military Target  
63 11F635 Zenit-4MKT Kozlov Surveillance Military  
63 11F636         Unknown allocation.
63 11F637 Molniya-3 Reshetnev Communications    
63 11F638 Raduga Reshetnev Communications Military  
63 11F639 Ekspress Reshetnev Communications    
64 11F640         Unknown allocation.
64 11F641         Unknown allocation.
64 11F642 Yantar-2K-M Kozlov Surveillance Military  
64 11F643 Tsikada Reshetnev Navigation    
64 11F644 Tselina-2 Yuzhnoye SIGINT    
64 11F645 Zenit-6U Kozlov Surveillance Military  
64 11F646         Unknown allocation.
64 11F647 Ekran Reshetnev Communications    
64 11F647M Ekran-M Reshetnev Communications    
64 11F649 Yantar-3KF Kozlov Surveillance Military  
65 11F650 Yantar-6K Kozlov Surveillance Military  
65 11F651 Resurs-OE Kozlov Earth Landsat  
65 11F652 Elektro VNIIEM Earth Weather  
65 11F653 Astrofizika Kozlov Astronomy Gamma Ray  
65 11F654 Glonass Reshetnev Navigation    
65 11F655         Unknown allocation.
65 11F656         Unknown allocation.
65 11F657         Unknown allocation.
65 11F658 Molniya-1T Reshetnev Communications    
65 11F659         Unknown allocation.
66 11F660 Yantar-1KFT Kozlov Surveillance Military  
66 11F661 Yantar-6KS Kozlov Surveillance Military  
66 11F662 Gorizont Reshetnev Communications    
66 11F663 Potok Reshetnev Communications Military  
66 11F664 Arkon-1 Lavochkin Surveillance Military  
66 11F665         Unknown allocation.
66 11F666 Geo-IK Reshetnev Earth Geodetic  
66 11F667         Unknown allocation.
66 11F668 Almaz-T Reshetnev Surveillance Radarsat  
66 11F669 Luch Reshetnev Communications Military  
67 11F67 Molniya-1 Reshetnev Communications    
68 11F68         Unknown allocation.
69 11F69 Zenit-4 Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F690 Zenit-2M Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F691 Zenit-4M Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F692M Zenit-4MK Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F692M Zenit-4MKM Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F693 Yantar-4K1 Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F694 Yantar-4KS1 Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F695 Yantar-4K2 Kozlov Surveillance Military  
69 11F696         Unknown allocation.
69 11F697 Resurs-O1 VNIIEM Earth Landsat  
70 14F70 Zarya Korolev Manned Spacecraft  
71 11F71 Almaz Chelomei Manned Space Station Allocated to other cancelled projects with same mission: Soyuz-P, Soyuz-R
71 17F71 Gals Reshetnev Communications   Perhaps in error.
715 11F715 Salyut 1-7 Korolev Manned Space Station  
72 11F72 TKS Chelomei Manned Spacecraft  
73 11F73 Soyuz VI Kozlov Manned Spacecraft Also allocated to successor project, Chelomei Almaz OPS+TKS considered as a single complex.
732 11F732 Soyuz TM Korolev Manned Spacecraft Covers all modernised Soyuz projects: Soyuz 7K-S, Soyuz T, Soyuz TM, Soyuz TMA.
74 11F74 TKS VA Chelomei Manned Spacecraft  
75 11F75 11F75 Chelomei      
76 11F76 KSI Chelomei Manned Logistics Return capsule for Almaz.
77 11F77 Mir Modules-FGB Chelomei Manned Space Station  
77D 11F77D Kvant-2 Chelomei Manned Space Station  
77I 11F77I Priroda Chelomei Manned Space Station  
77O 11F77O Spektr Chelomei Manned Space Station  
77T 11F77T Kristall Chelomei Manned Space Station  
77-90           Not used?
91 11F91 Soyuz 7K-L1 Korolev Manned Lunar Orbiter  
92 11F92 Soyuz 7K-L1A Korolev Manned Lunar Orbiter  
93 11F93 Soyuz 7K-LOK Korolev Manned Lunar Orbiter  
94 11F94 LK Korolev Manned Lunar Lander  
95-99           Not used?

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