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RD-270
RD-270
RD-270
RD-270 Rocket Engine - largest single-chamber engine ever developed in the Soviet Union.
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler
Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-700, R-56 stage 1. Development ended 1968. Developed 1962-1971, largest rocket engine ever built in the Soviet Union, answer to F-1. Tested but cancelled before combustion instability problems solved.

AKA: 8D420. Status: Development ended 1968. Date: 1962-71. Thrust: 6,713.00 kN (1,509,142 lbf). Unfuelled mass: 4,470 kg (9,850 lb). Specific impulse: 322 s. Specific impulse sea level: 301 s. Height: 4.85 m (15.91 ft). Diameter: 3.30 m (10.80 ft).

Authorized for development in the 1962-1971 period, the RD-270 was Glushko's answer to the US F-1 rocket engine and was the largest rocket engine ever built in the Soviet Union. It was to be used on Chelomei's UR-700 lunar vehicle or Yangel's R-56 monster rocket. The UR-700 would have used 6 RD-270 in the first stage. No design bureau would attempt anything like it today. It was the maximum possible power from the design: gas and gas mixture in the combustion chamber; two gas generators in the combustion chamber; one oxidizer rich and one fuel rich; closed cycle; staged burning; very high pressure in the combustion chamber (266 bar compared to about 80 bar in many today, except the SSME). Thrust was 640,000 kgf. Hot fire tests had started (with 40 done) and some units had been proved. Engine head testing had started. The peak of problems had almost been surmounted when all the N-1 lunar program was closed down and efforts had to stop. It never was used on a flight vehicle and funding ran out before combustion instability problems could be solved. Wet Mass: 5603 kg wet. Engine Cycle: closed staged. Feed Method: turbopump.

Thrust (sl): 6,272.000 kN (1,410,001 lbf). Thrust (sl): 639,573 kgf. Engine: 4,470 kg (9,850 lb). Chamber Pressure: 261.00 bar. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 153.24. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.67.

Subtopics

RD-270M Glushko exotic N2O4/Pentaborane rocket engine. In 1962-1970 Glushko studied use of Pentaborane 'zip' propellants in his monster RD-270 engine. Created immense toxicity problems but increased specific impulse of the engine by 42 seconds.

Family: Storable liquid. Country: Russia. Launch Vehicles: UR-700. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Stages: UR-700-2, UR-700-1. Agency: Glushko bureau. More at: 7516. Bibliography: 283, 287.
Photo Gallery

RD-270RD-270
NPO Enerogmash Museum, November 1992
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler



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