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Dnepr
Part of R-36M Family
Dnepr
Dnepr
Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles.

AKA: 15A18M2;Ikar;RS-20K. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-04-21. Last Launch: 2015-03-25. Number: 22 . Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 4,525.00 kN (1,017,260 lbf). Gross mass: 208,900 kg (460,500 lb). Height: 34.30 m (112.50 ft). Diameter: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Span: 3.05 m (10.00 ft). Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

A commercial use was sought for approximately 150 R-36M2 ICBM's which were to be destroyed by 2007 under the START-2 treaty. During the 1990's a variety of civilian versions of the R-36M and R-36M2 were promoted as commercial launchers. Civilian or uprated versions of the MIRV dispenser buses were considered, dubbed Frakht and Lift. Straight use of surplus ICBM's was marketed under the designation RS-20K Konversiya. Under the 'Dnepr' code-name more radical modifications were considered, including converting the missile to a pad-launched booster using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. In the end commercial interest was minimal, and the Dnepr designation was used for launches using relatively unmodified surplus R-36M2 military rockets, launched to orbit from silos at Baikonur or ICBM bases in the standard manner.

The Dnepr launch vehicle could make timely, highly accurate injection of a single spacecraft or (using the ICBM's multiple warhead dispenser bus) multiple spacecraft with a total mass of up to 3.7 metric tons into low Earth orbits of 300-900 km altitude and 50.5 deg , 64.5 deg , 87.3 deg and 98 deg inclinations. The booster reliability of 97% had been confirmed by 157 test launches of the ICBM over its lifetime. The cold-launch and quick containerized reload features of the ICBM system meant that the existing launch complex could accomplish up to 25 launches per year. Within the standard missile shroud payloads of up to 2.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Injection accuracy to a 300 km circular orbit was 4.0 km in altitude, 3.0 seconds in orbital period, and 0.05 degrees in right ascension.

LEO Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 46.20 degrees. Payload: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb) to a 407 km 50.5 deg orbit.


More at: Dnepr.

Family: ICBM. Country: Ukraine. Engines: RD-264, RD-274, RD-0255, RD-869. Spacecraft: Bugsat, ChubuSat, Deimos 2, EDUSAT, Hodoyoshi, Nanosat, NEXTAR NX-300L, Prisma, RASAT, Satrec, Saudisat 4, SI-300, Sich, SkySat, SSTL-300, Tabletsat Aurora, Toronto GNB, Tsubame, Tsukushi, WNISAT, SSTL-70, MicroSat-100, ROCSAT, MiniSat-400, Megsat, KOMPSAT, Rubin, Saudisat, UniSat, AprizeSat, Cubesat, STSat, Amsat Echo, Demeter, Myriade, MS-1, Kirari, Reimei, CryoSat, Genesis Pathfinder, SaudiComsat, TerraSAR-X, SSTL-150. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC109, Dombarovskiy, Taiyuan LC2. Stages: R-36M2-1, R-36M2-2, R-36M2-3. Agency: Yuzhnoye.

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