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Insat 2
Insat 2C
Insat 2C
Credit: Manufacturer Image
Indian communications satellite. Communication / Meteorology satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 1992 - 1993. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-09. Last Launch: 1999-04-02. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,960 kg (4,320 lb).

INSAT-2 was a multi-purpose satellite design, and it provided the following services: Domestic long-distance telecommunications, meteorological earth observation and data collection services, direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV receivers in rural and remote areas, radio and TV program distribution, and Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services.

INSAT-2 was maneuvered to its final orbit by firing the satellite's apogee motor in three phases. Subsequently, the deployment of solar array, antennae and the solar sail were carried out and the satellite commissioned after in-orbit checks.

Specifications:

  • Orbit: Geostationary (83 degree E Longitude)
  • Dry Mass: 1,150 kg.
  • Mass of Lift-off: 2,550 kg.
  • Size: Cuboid 1.9 m x 1.77m x 2.4m with solar array on the south and solar sail & boom on the north.
  • Length when fully deployed: 26m
  • Spacecraft Propulsion and Control: 440 N Liquid Apogee Motor with N2O4 (Nitrogen Tetroxide) and MMH (Mono Methyl Hydrazine) for orbit raising, 3-axis body stabilized in orbit using momentum wheels, sensors, solar flap, magnetic torque and sixteen Reaction Control Thrusters of 22 Newton each.
  • Power: Solar array generating 2,050 W. Two 60 Ah Ni-H2 batteries to support full payload operation during eclipse period.
  • Mission life: 12 years.
  • Communication Payload
    • 12 C- band transponders, seven of which had wide beam coverage and five zonal beam coverages.
    • 5 lower extended C-band transponders with zonal beam coverage.
    • All channels provided Edge Of Coverage - Effective Isotopic Radiated Power (EOC-EIRP) of 36 dBW
  • Meteorological Payload
    • Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) with 2 km resolution in visible band and 8 km resolution and water vapor band.
    • Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera operating in visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared band with 1km resolution.


More at: Insat 2.

Subtopics

Insat 2C, 2D Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 1995 - 1997. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Insat 2E / Intelsat APR-2 Communication / Meteorology satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 1999. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Insat 3 Indian communications satellite bus. The multipurpose satellite design provided telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services. Communication, Meteorology satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2003. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Insat 3B Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2000. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Insat 3C Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2002. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Insat 3E Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2003. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Insat 3D Meteorology satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2013. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Family: Communications, Geosynchronous orbit. Country: India. Launch Vehicles: Ariane, Ariane 44L, Ariane 42P. Projects: Insat. Launch Sites: Kourou, Kourou ELA2. Agency: ISRO. Bibliography: 2, 4, 6, 12656, 12657.
Photo Gallery

Insat 2AInsat 2A
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Insat 2EInsat 2E
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1992 July 9 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Insat 2A - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 22027 . COSPAR: 1992-041A. Apogee: 35,839 km (22,269 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 4.1000 deg. Period: 1,437.50 min.

    Stationed at 74 deg E; also performed communications functions. INSAT-2A is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long-distance telecommunications, meteorological earth observation and data collection services, direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV receivers in rura l and remote areas, radio and TV progamme distribution, and Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services. Geostationary longitude 74 +/0 0.1 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 74 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 48.18 deg E drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 25.76W drifting at 0.201W degrees per day.


1993 July 22 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Insat 2B - . Mass: 1,931 kg (4,257 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 22724 . COSPAR: 1993-048B. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also acted as communications platform; carried search and rescue package. INSAT-2B is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long range communications, meteorological Earth observation and data collection service, Direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV recievers in rural and re mote areas, Radio and TV programme distribution, satellite aided search and rescue services. Inclination will be reduced to 0.1 deg and maintained. Geostationary longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg E. Launch on Arianespace flight 58. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.47 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 63.82W drifting at 1.099W degrees per day.


1995 December 6 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Insat 2C - . Mass: 2,050 kg (4,510 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 23731 . COSPAR: 1995-067B. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 24 transponders. Stationed at 92.5 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.60 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 165.25W drifting at 1.757W degrees per day..

1997 June 3 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Insat 2D - . Mass: 2,079 kg (4,583 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. Completed Operations Date: 1997-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 24820 . COSPAR: 1997-027B. Apogee: 35,859 km (22,281 mi). Perigee: 35,713 km (22,190 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,374.20 min. Geosynchronous. Stationed over 74.1E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg E in 1997 As of 2 September 2001 located at 85.52 deg W drifting at 16.266 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 49.88W drifting at 16.261E degrees per day..

1999 April 2 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P.
  • Insat 2E - . Mass: 2,550 kg (5,620 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 25666 . COSPAR: 1999-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    ISRO's Insat 2E was placed in geostationary transfer orbit. The Indian-built satellite carried a C and S band communications package. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 83 deg E in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 82.90 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.93E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.


2000 March 21 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G.
  • Insat 3B - . Mass: 2,778 kg (6,124 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Insat 2. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 26108 . COSPAR: 2000-016B. Apogee: 35,987 km (22,361 mi). Perigee: 35,931 km (22,326 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,444.90 min.

    Replaced the lost Insat 2D and carried a pure telecommunications payload of C, Ku and S band transponders. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 73 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 83.07 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 82.94E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.


2002 January 23 - . 23:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L.
  • Insat 3C - . Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Insat 2. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 27298 . COSPAR: 2002-002A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Communications satellite. Launch delayed from January 16. The Ariane placed Insat 3C into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The Indian communications satellite had a mass of 1050 kg empty, 2750 kg fuelled. It carried 30 C-band and two S-band transponders. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 73.96E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.


2003 April 9 - . 22:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G.
  • Insat 3A - . Mass: 2,958 kg (6,521 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Insat 2. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 27714 . COSPAR: 2003-013A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Return to flight of Ariane 5G after grounded following Ariane 5EC-A failure. Launch delayed from February 24, April 8, 2003. Satellite also had meteorological instruments. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 93.48E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

2003 September 27 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G.
  • Insat 3E - . Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Insat 2. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 27951 . COSPAR: 2003-043E. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0900 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min.

    The 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) took the satellite from its Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) of 649 km perigee and 36,000 km apogee with an orbital inclination of 7 deg. The LAM was fired for a total duration of 121 minutes in three phases on September 29, September 30 and October 1. A total velocity of 1460 m/sec was added by LAM at apogee. INSAT-3E had 1592 kg propellant at the time of its injection into GTO by Ariane-5 launch vehicle on September 28. After orbit raising operations, it had 510 kg of propellant remaining that was sufficient to arrest the drift and park it at its orbital slot as well as maintain the satellite in its orbit and controlling its orientation during its design life of more than 12 years. After the completion of the third apogee motor firing, the Solar Arrays and Antennae of INSAT-3E were deployed. The Sun tracking solar array of INSAT-3E had a total area of 29.6 sq m and it is designed to generate 2.9 kW (BoL) of power in orbit. The satellite had two deployable antennas and one fixed antenna. The satellite was expected to reach its final orbital slot of 55 deg E and be put into operation by November 2003. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 54.97E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day. In 2014 the satellite was decommissioned; it began to slowly drift off station in late March and its orbit was lowered on April 4 to 35579 x 35693 km, drifting two degrees east per day.


2013 July 25 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Insat 3D - . Mass: 2,090 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: India. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Insat 2. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 39216 . COSPAR: 2013-038B. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0700 deg. Period: 1,436.11 min. Indian Space Research Organization meteorological satellite, with 6-channel imager, 19-channel sounder, data relay system for Earth-based meteo stations, and a Satellite Aided Search and Rescue transponder. 935 kg dry mass..


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