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Nauka

Foton

Foton
Foton satellite in its assembly hall, with its booster and payload shroud. The cylindrical module at the top is a Nauka module.

Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. The Nauka containers were flown as piggy-back payloads aboard Zenit reconnaissance satellites. They served a dual purpose.

AKA: 31KS. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-03-21. Last Launch: 1979-08-17. Number: 45 .

Mounted on the forward end of the re-entry sphere, they provided ballast on the spacecraft during its mission. This was needed to balance service modules on late-model Zenits which were much heavier than the original design. When the Zenit had completed its work, the Nauka could be released for autonomous flight.

Zenit reconnaissance satellites from the beginning carried small supplemental experimental packages, for example meteoroid or cosmic particle detectors. In 1968, aboard Zenit number 80, the Nauka autonomous sub-satellite was first flown. Over 40 Nauka containers were installed on Zenit-2 and Zenit-2M spacecraft, and they achieved noteworthy results in scientific and military space research. Naukas were used to study radiation belts; establish radiation standards; establish the characteristics of the earth-space interface; and develop new instruments. 23 autonomous Nauka sub-satellites undertook methodical research into geophysics, meteorology, and cosmic rays. Others tested new systems for the Yantar reconnaissance satellite.



Family: Earth, Magnetosphere sat, Surveillance orbit. Country: Russia. Launch Vehicles: R-7, Voskhod 11A57, Soyuz-U. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC1, Plesetsk, Plesetsk LC41/1, Plesetsk LC43/4, Plesetsk LC43/3. Agency: Korolev bureau, MOM. Bibliography: 102, 2, 279, 445.
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NaukaNauka
Credit: TsSKB


NaukaNauka
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1968 March 21 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3167 . COSPAR: 1968-022C. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.08 min.

1968 June 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 3306 . COSPAR: 1968-053G. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.56 min.

1968 September 23 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3452 . COSPAR: 1968-080C. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.23 min.

1969 November 12 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka 3KS. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1969-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 4236 . COSPAR: 1969-098E. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.73 min.

1971 May 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-05-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5228 . COSPAR: 1971-040C. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.02 min.

1971 June 24 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5315 . COSPAR: 1971-057G. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.88 min.

1971 October 7 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 5562 . COSPAR: 1971-085F. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.36 min.

1971 December 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure.
1972 March 4 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 477 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 5882 . COSPAR: 1972-013E. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.38 min.

1972 April 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 484 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 6002 . COSPAR: 1972-026C. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 87.94 min.

1972 May 17 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 490 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6040 . COSPAR: 1972-036D. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.17 min.

1972 September 15 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 518 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6198 . COSPAR: 1972-070C. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.17 min.

1972 October 18 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 525 - . Payload: Nauka 16KS No. 1L. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 6258 . COSPAR: 1972-083C. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 88.99 min.

1973 March 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 552 - . Payload: Nauka 16KS No. 2L. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6397 . COSPAR: 1973-016C. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.25 min.

1973 April 25 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 555 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-05-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6445 . COSPAR: 1973-024D. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.45 min.

1973 May 25 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 561 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6662 . COSPAR: 1973-033D. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.36 min.

1973 October 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 596 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170 s/n 1L. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6856 . COSPAR: 1973-070xx. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

1974 January 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 629 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170-13 s/n 2L. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 7100 . COSPAR: 1974-003xx. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

1974 March 14 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 635 - . Payload: Nauka 17KS No. 1L. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7222 . COSPAR: 1974-014E. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.52 min.

1974 July 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 669 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7404 . COSPAR: 1974-059G. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.69 min.

1974 August 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170 No. 3L. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Nauka.

1974 November 1 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 692 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170 s/n 4L. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: 1974-087xx.

1975 March 26 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 721 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 7721 . COSPAR: 1975-020F. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.59 min.

1975 April 18 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 728 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 7779 . COSPAR: 1975-031G. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.63 min.

1975 May 21 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 731 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 7885 . COSPAR: 1975-041H. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.35 min.

1975 June 27 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 747 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 8013 . COSPAR: 1975-060F. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.19 min.

1975 September 23 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 769 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170-13 s/n 5L. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: 1975-088xx.

1975 October 17 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 776 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8412 . COSPAR: 1975-101D. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.16 min.

1975 November 21 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 780 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8460 . COSPAR: 1975-108D. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.15 min.

1975 December 3 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Nauka Cosmos 784 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8485 . COSPAR: 1975-113G. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.71 min.

1976 August 12 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 848 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1976-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9374 . COSPAR: 1976-082D. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.29 min.

1976 September 22 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 856 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1976-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9448 . COSPAR: 1976-096E. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.39 min.

1976 November 1 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 865 - . Payload: MKA?. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 9525 . COSPAR: 1976-109G. Apogee: 431 km (267 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.98 min.

1977 March 17 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 898 - . Payload: Nauka?. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 9887 . COSPAR: 1977-020D. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.77 min.

1977 May 31 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 914 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10046 . COSPAR: 1977-043E. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.41 min.

1977 December 12 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 966 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10538 . COSPAR: 1977-115D. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.24 min.

1977 December 27 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 973 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10558 . COSPAR: 1977-124D. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.61 min.

1978 May 5 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1004 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10852 . COSPAR: 1978-043G. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.68 min.

1978 September 19 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1032 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11038 . COSPAR: 1978-088D. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.07 min.

1978 December 14 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1061 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11167 . COSPAR: 1978-114C. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.43 min.

1979 January 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1070 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11245 . COSPAR: 1979-001F. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.29 min.

1979 February 16 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Failure.
1979 May 25 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1102 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11390 . COSPAR: 1979-043D. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 87.91 min.

1979 June 12 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1106 - . Payload: Nauka?. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-06-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11415 . COSPAR: 1979-054D. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

1979 August 17 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1122 Nauka - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: 1979-075xx.


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