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Unha-3
Part of Unha Family

North Korean satellite launch vehicle consisted of the Taepodong 2 IRBM with a third stage.

AKA: Taepodong 3; Unha 3. Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-04-12. Last Launch: 2012-12-12. Number: 2 . Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Gross mass: 90,000 kg (198,000 lb). Height: 30.00 m (98.00 ft). Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft). Span: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

It is designed to place a 100-kg satellite payload into a 500-km altitude polar orbit, firing south from the new west coast Tongchang-ri space launch site.

In the NOTAM (notice to airmen) issued by North Korea on 19 March 2012, the impact zones of the first and second stages were given as 480 km and 2500 km directly south of the launch site. The first stage impact range indicates that the first stage burnout occurs at over 100 km altitude and a velocity of 2700 m/s. Stage two would burn out at over 250 km altitude and a velocity of 5000 m/s. This would mean the theoretical delta V for each stage, and corresponding masses would be as follows:

  • Stage 1: 80,000 kg fueled, 8000 kg empty, Specific impulse 255 seconds vacuum / 232 seconds sea level, delta V = 4,100 m/s, burnout at 2700 m/s, 120 km altitude, impact 480 km downrange.
  • Stage 2: 7,000 kg fueled, 1000 kg empty, Specific impulse 255 seconds vacuum, delta V = 2,300 m/s, burnout at 5000 m/s, 350 km altitude, impact 2500 km downrange.
  • Stage 3: 2,900 kg fueled, 900 kg empty, Specific impulse 260 seconds vacuum, delta V = 2,800 m/s, burnout at 500 km altitude at orbital insertion.

Despite western press speculation that the Unha 3 could be the basis for an intercontinental ballistic missile that could reach the United States, this three stage rocket is incapable of lofting the payload necessary for that mission. Similarly the American and Soviet analogues (Thor and R-14) could not be upgraded for such a mission. In 1957 Soviet Chief Designer Yangel sold his R-16 ICBM concept to the leadership as simply his R-12 IRBM serving as the second stage to his R-14 MRBM. In fact substantial redesign and repackaging of all elements, and new propellants were necessary to provide a viable ICBM. The same applies to any North Korean design, which would require a new 3-m diameter first stage.

Despite speculation that this launch would be the first test of such a missile, photography at the site by the international media in April 2012 indicated the same design, designated Taepodong-2, was being used as in the prior satellite launch attempt on 4 July 2006. The first orbital launch attempt, on 31 August 1998, used the much smaller 33-metric-ton Taepodong-1.

Country: Korea North. Spacecraft: Kwangmyongsong. More at: 8741.



2012 April 12 - . 22:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Tongchang-ri. LV Family: Unha. Launch Vehicle: Unha-3. FAILURE: Failed at second stage separation..
  • Kwangmyongsong-3 - . Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Korea North. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kwangmyongsong. Spacecraft: Kwangmyongsong.

    Third North Korean satellite launch attempt, conducted despite international protests (that attempted to connect it with the country's missile program). Launched from a new site on the west coast of Korea on a southwest trajectory, to achieve a polar orbit and also avoid overflying Japan. Failed at first stage separation. Unusually North Korea provided the western press access to the launch site prior to the attempt, and admitted the launch failure after the fact.

  • Fajr - . Nation: Iran. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Payload of the failed launch was a 50 kg satellite built by Iran Electronics Industry, with an imaging sensor and a small thruster..

2012 December 12 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Tongchang-ri. LV Family: Unha. Launch Vehicle: Unha-3.
  • Kwangmyongsong-3F2 - . Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Korea North. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kwangmyongsong. Spacecraft: Kwangmyongsong. USAF Sat Cat: 39026 . COSPAR: 2012-072A. Apogee: 581 km (361 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Period: 95.40 min.

    First successful North Korean satellite launch. Amateur observations showed the satellite to be tumbling, and no signals were picked up at the announced 470 MHZ frequency - it was assumed the spacecraft never functioned or failed shortly after orbital insertion.



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