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LL
Part of Russian Rocket Fighters Family

LL-1 Rocketplane

LL-1 Rocketplane

Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1945. The LL was a transonic aerodynamic test bed authorized by LII in September 1945. Three were built: the LL-1 with a straight wing; LL-2 with a conventional swept wing; and LL-3 with a forward swept wing.

AKA: Ts-1. Status: Operational 1945. Thrust: 14.70 kN (3,305 lbf). Gross mass: 2,039 kg (4,495 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,139 kg (2,511 lb). Height: 8.98 m (29.46 ft). Span: 7.22 m (23.68 ft).

The LL was towed to a 6 km release altitude by a Tu-2 aircraft. After being cast off, it would fire its Kartukov PRD-1500 solid rocket engine and accelerate to the edge of the sound barrier, with a camera photographing air flow on the tufted wing. The LL-2 was not finished because contemporary fighter programs were already providing data on swept wing configurations. But in 1946 to 1948 the LL-1 flew 30 times and the LL-3 100 times, with test pilots M Ivanov, Amet-Khan Sultan, Anokhin, and Rybko at the controls.

Crew Size: 1.



Family: Rocketplane, Suborbital. Country: Russia. Propellants: Solid. Agency: Tsybin bureau, TsNIIMash. Bibliography: 301.

1945 September - .
  • LL rocket-powered transonic aerodynamic testbed authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Russian Rocket Fighters. Spacecraft: LL. In 1946 to 1948 the LL-1 flew 30 times and the LL-3 100 times, with test pilots M Ivanov, Amet-Khan Sultan, Anokhin, and Rybko at the controls..


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