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German surface-to-air barrage rocket, tested during World War II, but never operational. Copied in the USA as the Loki and in the USSR as the R-103. The name translates as 'Typhoon'.

Status: Cancelled 1945. Payload: 1.25 kg (2.75 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Height: 1.93 m (6.33 ft). Diameter: 0.10 m (0.32 ft). Span: 0.20 m (0.65 ft).

In 25 September 1942 Goering authorized development of four types of surface to air missiles: unguided rockets (Taifun), target-seeking guided rockets (Enzian); operator optically-guided rockets (Rheintochter and Schmetterling); and radar-guided rockets (Wasserfall).

In contrast to the expensive surface-to-air missiles being developed at Peenemuende, the concept of the Taifun was of an inexpensive rocket that could be fired in salvoes at American bomber formations. The Electromechanische Werke in Karlshagen took the concept to the test stage. The simple missile was to be only 10 cm in diameter and about 2 m long. Unguided, it would be stabilised by four fins at the base. A cordite charge would pressurize the hypergolic propellants. A few production examples were built by Electromechanische Werke. The unguided dart was 193 cm long x 10 cm diameter, and had four small stabilizers at the base. A cordite charge produced gas to pressurize the propellant tanks to 50 kg/cm2. The pressure-fed propellants - nitric acid and a synthetic fuel - boosted the rocket to a maximum altitude of 15 km and a range of 12 km. Although plans were made to produce 2 million of these barrage rockets by January 1945, the system was never deployed due to nagging development problems with the engine.

5 kg (2.75 lb). Maximum range: 10 km (6 mi). Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket, Optolin 841/M-10, 10 kg propellant, Isp=200 s, 2.5 sec burn time, 50 atm Pc. Maximum speed: 4,320 kph (2,680 mph).


R-103A Russian surface-to-air missile.

R-103 Post-war Russian version of German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1947-1951 but abandoned in favor of the R-110.

R-110 Larger caliber Russian version of the German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1948-1956 and reached the initial production stage, but cancelled due to the inability to produce an economical rocket with the necessary consistent range accuracy for the barrage role.

Chirok Russian surface-to-air missile.

Family: surface-to-air. Country: Germany.

1944 December 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4b, Taifun, Wasserfall.
  • Peenemuende rocket team faces the New Year - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler.

    It was for them a depressing time. The V-2 came too late to affect the outcome of the war. The years 1939-1942, when Hitler had blocked development and production of the V-2, were lost years. By this time, the Peenemuende staff was allocated as follows: 135 were working on Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket; 1940 were working on the V-2; 1220 were working on the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile; 270 were working on the A4b winged V-2; and 660 were in administrative positions. Meanwhile Kammler was constantly underway, trying to deploy the wonder weapons he believed would save the Reich. He could only be met at one-hour meetings at autobahn intersections, on his way from one place to another.

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