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Taurus
Taurus
Taurus
Credit: Orbital Sciences Corporation
American all-solid pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and Castor-120 first stage. Later developed into a series of target missiles for anti-ballistic missile system tests. Addition of a liquid propellant first stage using 40-year old surplus engines from the Russian N1 moon program resulted in a vehicle for robotic resupply of the International Space Station.

Status: Active. First Launch: 1989-12-21. Last Launch: 1989-12-21. Number: 1 . Payload: 1,363 kg (3,004 lb). Thrust: 1,286.40 kN (289,194 lbf). Gross mass: 73,030 kg (161,000 lb). Height: 27.90 m (91.50 ft). Diameter: 2.36 m (7.74 ft). Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

First launch used slightly larger Peacekeeper ICBM first stage instead of Castor-120.

LEO Payload: 1,363 kg (3,004 lb) to a 185 km orbit at 28.50 degrees. Payload: 431 kg (950 lb) to a GTO. Launch Price $: 20.000 million in 1999 dollars.

Stage Data - Taurus

  • Stage 1. 1 x Castor 120. Gross Mass: 53,020 kg (116,880 lb). Empty Mass: 4,211 kg (9,283 lb). Thrust (vac): 1,606.594 kN (361,177 lbf). Isp: 286 sec. Burn time: 83 sec. Isp(sl): 229 sec. Diameter: 2.36 m (7.74 ft). Span: 2.36 m (7.74 ft). Length: 10.70 m (35.10 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Castor 120. Status: In Production. Comments: Modification of Peacekeeper ICBM first stage.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Taurus-1. Gross Mass: 13,242 kg (29,193 lb). Empty Mass: 1,088 kg (2,398 lb). Thrust (vac): 484.909 kN (109,012 lbf). Isp: 285 sec. Burn time: 73 sec. Diameter: 1.27 m (4.16 ft). Span: 1.27 m (4.16 ft). Length: 7.60 m (24.90 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Pegasus-1. Status: In Production. Comments: Pegasus stage 1 without the wings and stabilizers.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Pegasus-2. Gross Mass: 3,370 kg (7,420 lb). Empty Mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Thrust (vac): 118.199 kN (26,572 lbf). Isp: 292 sec. Burn time: 73 sec. Isp(sl): 240 sec. Diameter: 1.27 m (4.16 ft). Span: 1.27 m (4.16 ft). Length: 2.65 m (8.69 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Pegasus-2. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 4. 1 x Pegasus-3. Gross Mass: 985 kg (2,171 lb). Empty Mass: 203 kg (447 lb). Thrust (vac): 34.568 kN (7,771 lbf). Isp: 293 sec. Burn time: 65 sec. Isp(sl): 240 sec. Diameter: 0.97 m (3.18 ft). Span: 0.97 m (3.18 ft). Length: 2.08 m (6.82 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Pegasus-3. Status: In Production.


More at: Taurus.

Subtopics

ARPA Taurus American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x TU-904 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38

Taurus 2210 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus 2110 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus 3210 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus 3110 American all-solid propellant orbital launch vehicle.

Family: all-solid, orbital launch vehicle. Country: USA. Spacecraft: Leostar, Leostar-1, DARPASAT, TAOS, Microstar, TiPS, TOMS-EP, Celestis, GFO, STEX, ROCSAT, ACRIMSAT, KOMPSAT, MTI, Orbview, SBD, Cubesat. Launch Sites: Wallops Island, Vandenberg, Vandenberg 576E. Stages: Castor 120, Pegasus-1, Pegasus-2, Pegasus-3. Agency: OSC. Bibliography: 2, 276, 279, 41, 552, 554, 6.
Photo Gallery

Taurus Taurus
Taurus - COSPAR 1994-017


TaurusTaurus



1989 December 21 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Taurus.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1994 March 13 - . 22:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: ARPA Taurus.
  • USA 101 - . Payload: STEP-0 / STEP M0. Mass: 502 kg (1,106 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: STEP. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: TAOS. USAF Sat Cat: 23030 . COSPAR: 1994-017A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 555 km (344 mi). Inclination: 105.0000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Space Test Experiment Program; 10 satellite subsystem experiments. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • USA 102 - . Payload: DarpaSat. Mass: 203 kg (447 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DARPASAT. USAF Sat Cat: 23031 . COSPAR: 1994-017B. Apogee: 556 km (345 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 105.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1998 February 10 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 2210.
  • GFO - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Manufacturer: Ball. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: BCP-600. Spacecraft: GFO. USAF Sat Cat: 25157 . COSPAR: 1998-007A. Apogee: 788 km (489 mi). Perigee: 786 km (488 mi). Inclination: 108.1000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Altimeter..
  • Orbcomm G1 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM3. Mass: 43 kg (94 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25158 . COSPAR: 1998-007B. Apogee: 874 km (543 mi). Perigee: 781 km (485 mi). Inclination: 107.9900 deg. Period: 101.46 min. Plane G. Ascending node 297.9 degrees..
  • Celestis-02 - . Payload: Celestis-02/Orion 38. Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Celestis. Class: Burial . Type: Burial satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Pegasus-3. Spacecraft: Celestis. USAF Sat Cat: 25160 . COSPAR: 1998-007D. Apogee: 876 km (544 mi). Perigee: 780 km (480 mi). Inclination: 108.0000 deg. Period: 101.50 min.
  • Orbcomm G2 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM4. Mass: 43 kg (94 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25159 . COSPAR: 1998-007C. Apogee: 871 km (541 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 107.9900 deg. Period: 101.45 min. Plane G. Ascending node 298.1 degrees..

1998 October 3 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: ARPA Taurus.
  • STEX - . Payload: STEX. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Manufacturer: NRL. Class: Technology. Type: Ion engine technology satellite. Spacecraft: STEX. USAF Sat Cat: 25489 . COSPAR: 1998-055A. Apogee: 759 km (472 mi). Perigee: 744 km (462 mi). Inclination: 84.9859 deg. Period: 99.77 min.

    Tested TAL-D55 plasma engine and was to be part of the NRO's ATex tether experiment. The ATeX lower end mass was meant to remain attached to the STEX parent spacecraft, but with only 21 m of tether deployed, it appeared the tether was so far off vertical that automatic safety systems jettisoned the base to protect the remainder of the STEX satellite. Thus, the upper and lower ATeX end masses were in orbit as one object connected by a 21 m tether, and designated USA 141 (1998-055C). The main STEX satellite was in orbit as a separate object, 1998-055A.

  • USA 141 - . Payload: ATEX. Mass: 54 kg (119 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: TiPS. USAF Sat Cat: 25615 . COSPAR: 1998-055C. Apogee: 766 km (476 mi). Perigee: 750 km (466 mi). Inclination: 84.9910 deg. Period: 99.90 min.

    NRO's ATeX (Advanced Tether eXperiment) reportedly failed on January 16. The ATeX lower end mass was meant to remain attached to the STEX parent spacecraft, but with only 21 m of tether deployed, it appeared the tether was so far off vertical that automatic safety systems jettisoned the base to protect the remainder of the STEX satellite. Thus, the upper and lower ATeX end masses were in orbit as one object connected by a 21 m tether, and designated USA 141 (1998-055C). The main STEX satellite was in orbit as a separate object, 1998-055A.


1999 December 21 - . 07:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 2110.
  • Kompsat - . Payload: Arirang. Mass: 470 kg (1,030 lb). Nation: Korea South. Agency: KARI. Manufacturer: KAIST. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft Bus: T200. Spacecraft: KOMPSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 26032 . COSPAR: 1999-070A. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 670 km (410 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 98.20 min.

    Korean Multipurpose Satellite; carried an ocean color sensor developed by TRW and particle detectors. KOMPSAT was built by the Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) based on a test model built by TRW; it used the TRW STEP Lightsat bus and had a mass of around 500 kg, with 73 kg of hydrazine fuel.

  • Celestis-03 - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Program: Celestis. Class: Burial . Type: Burial satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Pegasus-3. Spacecraft: Celestis. Decay Date: 1971-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 26034 . COSPAR: 1999-070C. Apogee: 571 km (354 mi). Perigee: 550 km (340 mi). Inclination: 98.2800 deg. Period: 95.86 min. Burial satellite containing cremated human remains..
  • ACRIMSAT - . Mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Manufacturer: Germantown. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: GemStar. Spacecraft: ACRIMSAT . USAF Sat Cat: 26033 . COSPAR: 1999-070B. Apogee: 711 km (441 mi). Perigee: 671 km (416 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 98.60 min.

    Measured the integrated solar energy output from 0.2 to 2 microns. Carried instrument deleted from Terra spacecraft, studying the total solar output. Failed on 2013 December 14 due to battery problems, months after a review recommended its continued operation. The ACRIM series of experiments, critical data for climate change studies, flew on Solar Max (1980), Spacelab-1 (1983), UARS (1991), and ACRIMSAT. The similar TIM instrument on the SORCE satellite (2003) continued operating, but it was unclear if it would continue in operation until a replacement instrument would be launched on the JPSS satellite in 2017 at the earliest.


2000 March 12 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 1110.
  • MTI - . Mass: 587 kg (1,294 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Los Alamos. Manufacturer: Sandia. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: BCP-600. Spacecraft: MTI. USAF Sat Cat: 26102 . COSPAR: 2000-014A. Apogee: 609 km (378 mi). Perigee: 574 km (357 mi). Inclination: 97.4003 deg. Period: 96.42 min. Military Technology. Sandia Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), aka USAF Space Test Program mission P97-3. The satellite was equipped with a hyperspectral imager for military target recognition / treaty monitoring applications..

2001 September 21 - . 18:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 2110. FAILURE: A problem a few seconds after first stage separation caused the rocket to go off course; it recovered and the remainder of the stages fired, but final cutoff velocity was too low to reach a sustainable orbit.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Orbview-4 - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Orbview. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: LEOStar. Spacecraft: Orbview. COSPAR: F010921A.

    Launch delayed from June 27, July 18/22, August 12/21 and September1. The Orbital Sciences Taurus 2110 failed to remain in orbit. A problem a few seconds after first stage separation caused the T6 rocket to go off course; the rocket recovered and the remainder of the stages fired, but final cutoff velocity was too low to reach a sustainable orbit. The Castor 120 zero stage was on course but the Orion 50S first stage motor went off course. The satellites separated from the final stage as planned but burned up in the earth's atmosphere northeast of Madagascar before completing the first orbit. The final orbit was about 75-80 km x 425-430 km x 97 deg. The primary payload was the OrbView-4 imaging satellite. OrbView-4, built by Orbital, was a 368 kg box-shaped spacecraft carrying a 1-m resolution panchromatic camera and an 8-m resolution 200-channel hyperspectral imager with a 0.45-meter aperture. It was to be used by the US Air Force.

  • Celestis-4 - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Celestis. Class: Burial . Type: Burial satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Pegasus-3. Spacecraft: Celestis. COSPAR: F010921D. Celestis-4 consisted of two Celestis burial canisters containing cremated human remains. After the launch vehicle failure Celestis guaranteed a relaunch of back-up remains..
  • QuikTOMS - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. COSPAR: F010921B.

    The QuikTOMS satellite was a NASA-GSFC project carrying the TOMS-5 ozone mapper. QuikTOMS used a 168 kg double Microstar bus and was to have replaced TOMS instruments on a delayed Russian weather satellite and the failed ADEOS. The loss of QuikTOMS put a hole in NASA's attempts to monitor the ozone layer.

  • SBD - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Microstar. Spacecraft: SBD. COSPAR: F010921C.

    SBD, the Orbital Sciences' Special Bus Design. The 73 kg satellite was a test version of an enlarged Microstar bus. It would have remained attached to the third stage, together with two Celestis burial canisters containing cremated human remains, and an experimental third stage avionics box.


2004 May 20 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 3210.
  • ROCSAT 2 - . Payload: LeoStar 500XO. Mass: 760 kg (1,670 lb). Nation: Taiwan. Agency: NSPO. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: T200. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 28254 . COSPAR: 2004-018A. Apogee: 891 km (553 mi). Perigee: 887 km (551 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 102.80 min. Delayed from October, November 25, 2003; January 17, February 26, April 9 and 22, May 17, 2004..

2009 February 24 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 3110. FAILURE: Payload fairing did not separate..
  • OCO - . Mass: 407 kg (897 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: McLean. Class: Earth. Type: Climate satellite. Spacecraft: Leostar. Orbiting Carbon Observatory. A single instrument with a three classical grating spectrometers allowed carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to be monitored..

2011 March 4 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 3110. FAILURE: Fairing failed to separate..
  • Glory - . Mass: 545 kg (1,201 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Leostar-1. Second failure of this vehicle in a row due to fairing not separating. NASA satellite that would have used an aerosol polarimetry sensor (APS) to provide a global map of aerosol particulates (soot and sulphates) to help calibrate climate change models..
  • E1P - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. Explorer 1 Prime, Montana State University Cubesat. Was to have duplicated Explorer 1's discovery of the van Allen radiation belts in 1958 using a geiger counter..
  • Hermes - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Hermes Cubesat. 1U cubesat for University of Colorado at Boulder..
  • KySat-1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. University of Kentucky Cubesat..


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