Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Credit: USAF

Lox/Ammonia propellant. This relatively benign propellant combination was used in the XLR-99 rocket motor that powered the X-15 manned rocketplane in the 1960's.

Specific impulse: 343 s. Specific impulse sea level: 294 s. Location: 1785.

Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1.4. Temperature of Combustion: 3,090 deg K. Ratio of Specific Heats: 1.23. Density: 0.89 g/cc. Characteristic velocity c: 1,785 m/s (5,856 ft/sec). Isp Shifting: 294 sec. Isp Frozen: 285 sec. Mol: 19.80 M (64.90 ft). Oxidizer Density: 1.140 g/cc. Oxidizer Freezing Point: -219 deg C. Oxidizer Boiling Point: -183 deg C. Fuel Density: 0.604 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -78 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: -33 deg C.


D-558-3 American manned rocketplane. Flown 1954. The D-558-3 was a US Navy/Douglas counterpart to the X-15, which would have kept the Navy in the 'space race' and Douglas in the running for future manned spaceplanes.

LR30 Reaction Motors LOx/Ammonia rocket engine. D-558-3. Capable rocket engine planned for use in D-558-3 and X-15. Cancelled in favor of XLR-99.

Mini-shuttle American manned rocketplane. Study 1972. In August 1972 it was proposed to test a subscale version of the shuttle to test the aerodynamics. The 13,750 kg vehicle would be 11 m long and have a wingspan of 7 m.

X-15A American air-launched manned spaceplane, used for hypersonic research. 174 launches, 1959.06.08 (X-15 Flight 1) to 1968.10.24 (X-15 Flight 199). The X-15 was the first USAF and NASA project for manned spaceflight, initiated years before Mercury.

X-15A stage LOx/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. .

X-15A-2 American manned spaceplane. The crash-damaged X-15 number 2 was rebuilt to attain even higher speeds. The body frame was stretched, and two drop tanks were added, increasing propellant load by 75%. Reached Mach 6.7 and 108 km altitude.

X-15A-2 stage LOx/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. .

X-15A-2 Tanks LOx/Ammonia rocket stage. Mass 7,026 kg (15,490 lb).

X-15A-3 American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1962. It had been proposed that X-15 number 3 would be reworked to install a delta wing and designed to reach Mach 8.

X-15B American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. North American's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was to extend the X-15 program. The X-15B was a 'stripped' X-15A with an empty mass of 4500 kg.

XLR99 Reaction Motors Lox/Ammonia rocket engine. Out of production. The first large, man-rated, throttleable, restartable liquid propellant rocket engine, boosted the X-15A. First flight 1959.

Engines: LR30, XLR99. Spacecraft: X-15A, D-558-3, X-15B, X-15A-2, X-15A-3, Mini-shuttle. Stages: X-15A-2 Tanks, X-15A stage, X-15A-2 stage.

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