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Peacekeeper
Peacekeeper
Peacekeeper
Credit: via Andreas Parsch
American intercontinental ballistic missile. 10 nuclear MIRV warheads. In service 1986-2004. Surplus stages were used as target vehicles for anti-ballistic missile tests.

AKA: LGM-118A; MX; W87. Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 1983-06-18. Last Launch: 2004-07-21. Number: 51 . Payload: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 1,711.00 kN (384,648 lbf). Gross mass: 88,430 kg (194,950 lb). Height: 21.60 m (70.80 ft). Diameter: 2.34 m (7.67 ft). Span: 2.34 m (7.67 ft). Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

The Peacekeeper was supposed to replace both the 54 Titan 2 and 1000 Minuteman ICBM's in US service. However concepts changed continually in an attempt to get around the vulnerability of fixed missile siloes to increasingly-accurate Soviet ICBM's. Many different approaches were considered over five presidential administrations. After a long design and development process that went vastly over budget, only 50 were deployed in 1986-1988 to replace the Titan 2. These were in service for 16 years before being decommissioned under post-cold-war arms reduction agreements.

Concept studies began in 1966 for a new ICBM deployable in both fixed and mobile schemes under the WS-120A Advanced ICBM project. This was succeeded in April 1972 by Missile-X (MX) studies. After considering various mobile launch schemes, including air-launch, the decision was finally taken in 1977 to develop a ‘silo stuffer' four-stage solid propellant ICBM that could was the largest that could be fitted in existing Minuteman siloes. Decisions on mobile versions could wait. The new ICBM adopted Soviet design concepts. It would be transported and placed in the silo in a launch canister, from which it would be ‘cold launched' - popped out of the silo using a cold gas generator before the first stage ignited. This allowed the missile silo to be reloaded with a new missile in a few days (versus 17 days to refurbish a Minuteman silo after a launch). In April - May 1978, contracts were issued to Martin Marietta for development of the missile and to Thiokol, Aerojet, Hercules, and Rocketdyne for the rocket engines for the four stages. The US Congress however refused to fund development until the USAF selected a mobile basing scheme.

In September 1979, the USAF selected a ‘shell game' basing scheme involving hiding 200 missiles somewhere in 4600 soft shelters. It was presumed that Soviet planners would have to target all 4600 shelters to wipe out the force. This decision allowed full-scale development to begin. By January 1982 prototypes of all of the rocket stages and simulated cold launches had been tested. But the mobile basing scheme had been dropped by the USAF in 1980 because of its high cost. In early 1983, after Congressional threats of cancellation, it was decided that Peacekeeper would be deployed in Minuteman silos, initially as a Titan replacement, and that a smaller mobile ICBM would be developed for the mobile basing requirement (the Midgetman). The first Peacekeeper canister cold launch took place in June 1983, and the missile was deployed in 1986-1988 to 50 modified Minuteman silos. These remained in service until destroyed in 2004 under the Start II Treaty. A 1986 plan to deploy 50 additional Peacekeeper missiles on 25 special USAF trains was cancelled in 1991 after the end of the Cold War. Midgetman was cancelled as well, and the Minuteman was to continue in service as America's only remaining ICBM until at least 2030.

Development Cost $: 10,926.800 million. Recurring Price $: 77.877 million in 1982 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost 1985$: 77.398 million in 1982 dollars. Guidance contractor: Boeing. Maximum range: 13,000 km (8,000 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 10. Standard RV: Mk. 12A. Standard warhead: W87. Warhead yield: 300 KT. Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Initial Operational Capability: 1987. Total Number Built: 226.

Historical Essay © Andreas Parsch

Martin Marietta LGM-118 Peacekeeper

The Peacekeeper (originally known as "MX" missile) is the newest ICBM in the USAF inventory. It was intended as a replacement for the LGM-30 Minuteman, but it suffered from a long development time, and will actually be retired before the Minuteman because of arms reduction treaties.

As early as 1966, the USAF made plans to develop an Advanced ICBM (AICBM) including a mobile basing system. AICBM was known as Weapon System 120A, but development was not approved by the Secretary of Defense. Research on a new ICBM did not begin again until November 1971, and in April 1972, the USAF announced a new ICBM program, then known as Missile-X (MX). The initial studies researched all kinds of missiles and basing schemes, including air-launch from modified transport aircraft. The Air Force was always intending to deploy a mobile ICBM, but to avoid unnecessary delays, it was finally decided to design a large solid-fueled missile which would initially be launched from existing Minuteman silos. At a later date, a mobile basing system would be developed. In 1977 the basic design for the MX was finalized. It was to become a four-stage missile, using some advanced technologies, like a "cold launch" capability, in which the missile would be ejected from the launch silo by a gas jet before igniting its first stage motor. This would greatly reduce the damage to the silo, reducing the silo rearming effort to a few days by three men (compared to 17 days by 20 men for a Minuteman silo). However, the U.S. Congress was not pleased with the idea of using Minuteman silos (regarded as too vulnerable), and halted MX development for one year to give the USAF time to select a mobile basing system. Nevertheless, in April and May 1978, Martin Marietta was awarded the prime contract for the MX missile, and Thiokol, Aerojet, Hercules, and Rocketdyne received contracts for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stage engine, respectively.

By 1979, the USAF had decided to employ the MPS (Mobile Protective Shelters) plan, in which 200 MX missiles would be shuttled around between 4600 soft shelters. With the placement of dummy missiles in the unused shelters, the Soviet Union wouldn't know where the real missiles would be at any given time, and theoretically would have to attack every shelter to destroy every missile for sure. The alternate "Racetrack" plan, which was to base the missile on railways on huge underground track networks, was dropped. The MPS was approved in September 1979, and full-scale development of the MX began. At that time, the designation MGM-118A was allocated to the MX missile. Initial development was quick, and by January 1982, all major components, including all rocket stages and the cold launch method had been separately tested.

However, because of very high estimated costs, the MPS was cancelled in 1980, and by 1982, Peacekeeper (the name having been assigned in November 1982) was again close to cancellation because of the lack of a mobile basing system. In early 1983, it was finally decided to base Peacekeeper in Minuteman silos, and to develop a small mobile ICBM at a later time (this was to become the MGM-134 Midgetman, which was eventually cancelled, too). Because the missile was no longer planned to be mobile, the designation was changed to LGM-118A. In June 1983, the first full Peacekeeper launch from a launch canister occurred. After more test launches in the following years, the first few LGM-118A missiles became operational in modified Minuteman silos in December 1986. Peacekeeper deployment was complete in December 1988, when 50 LGM-118As were in silos.

The LGM-118A uses a warhead section with 10 MK.21 reentry vehicles, each carrying a 300 kT W-87 thermonuclear warhead. The missile is guided by an Inertial Reference Sphere navigation system by Rockwell Autonetics, and is more accurate than any previous ICBM, reaching 120 m (400 ft) CEP. When stored in its launching canister and launched by the high-pressure gas jet, the missile is separated from the canister walls by many small "adaptors" mounted to the side of the missile. When the canister is cleared, these adaptors fall away, giving the characteristic picture of a Peacekeeper launch.

In 1986, the so-called "Peacekeeper Rail Garrison" plan was approved. In this scheme, 50 additional Peacekeeper missiles would be based on 25 special USAF trains, with each train consisting of two missile cars, two locomotives, and additional cars for launch control, security, and fuel. The designation MGM-118A was again allocated to these mobile missiles, but the whole plan was cancelled in 1991 after the end of the Cold War.

With the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) II in January 1993, Peacekeeper became a dead program. START II demanded the removal of all MIRV ICBMs, and it is currently planned to phase out all LGM-118A missiles until 2004. After that date, the LGM-30 Minuteman will remain the only U.S. land-based ICBM. When production was completed, about 100 LGM-118A missiles had been built.

Specifications

Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!

Data for LGM-118A:

Length 21.6 m (71 ft)
Diameter 2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)
Weight 88300 kg (195000 lb)
Speed 24100 km-h (15000 mph)
Ceiling 800 km (500 miles)
Range 10900+ km (6800+ miles)
Propulsion 1st stage: Thiokol solid-fuel rocket; 2200 kN (500000 lb)
2nd stage: Aerojet solid-fuel rocket
3rd stage: Hercules solid-fuel rocket
4th stage (post-boost): Rocketdyne restartable liquid-fuel rocket
Warhead 10x W-87 thermonuclear (300 kT) in 10x Mk.21 MIRV
Main Sources

[1] James N. Gibson: "Nuclear Weapons of the United States", Schiffer Publishing Ltd, 1996
[2] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979


Subtopics

LLV-1 Null

LMLV-1 Null

Minotaur IV Lite Null

Minotaur IV Orbital launch vehicle using surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages: an SR-118 first stage, SR-119 second stage, SR-120 third stage, new Orion 38 fourth stage and optional HAPS fifth stage. Payload 1720 kg to an 185 km, 28.5 degree orbit from Cape Canaveral; 1000 kg to a 740 km sun-synchronous orbit from Vandenberg.

Minotaur IV-Plus Uprated Minotaur IV with an ATK Star 48V motor replacing the Orion 38 upper stage.

Minotaur V Null

Family: ICBM, silo-launched. Country: USA. Engines: RS-34, RS-34 Attitude Control. Launch Sites: Vandenberg, Vandenberg LF05, Vandenberg LF02, Vandenberg LF08, Vandenberg TP-01. Stages: Peacekeeper S4, TU-904, SR119, SR120. Agency: Martin. More at: 8477. Bibliography: 2.

1963 December 28 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Headquarters USAF effectively cancelled BSD's Advanced ICBM program when it directed all studies to be separate line items in exploratory and advanced development areas. - .

1966 February 2 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Headquarters USAF established a schedule for preparation of documentation and submission of a Preliminary Technical Development Plan for an Advanced ICBM program which was subsequently designated Weap - .

1966 March 25 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Headquarters AFSC authorized the formation of an Advanced ICBM (WS 120A) task group at Headquarters Ballistic Systems Division. - .

1966 Jul - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Ballistic Systems Division completed the Preliminary Technical Development Plan for the Advanced ICBM (WS 120A). - .

1967 Jan - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The completed Advanced ICBM (WS 120A) Alternate Basing Study was submitted to AFSC, Headquarters USAF, and Secretary of the Air Force Dr. Harold Brown. - .

1973 Feb - . LV Family: Minuteman, Peacekeeper.
  • The Missile X Program Office was established in SAMSO's Deputy for Minuteman located at Norton AFB, California. - .

1974 April 30 - . LV Family: Minuteman, Peacekeeper.
  • The Minuteman System Program Office awarded the Missile X Lower Stage Nozzle Development Program contract F04701-74-C-0215 to United Technology Center, Sunnyvale, California. - .

1974 April 30 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Missile X Upper Stage motor development program contractor selections were made. Contract F04701-73-C-0423 went to the Aerojet Solid Propulsion Company, Sacramento, California. - .

1974 Jun - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Air mobile concepts for Missile X were reduced. - . Considered would be three aircraft types- modified wide-bodied types, new endurance types and a new high acceleration aircraft- and three operating modes-continuous air alert, dash-on warning strip alert and combination of previous two..

1976 March 9 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Missile X program was reviewed by the Defense Systems Acquisition Review Council (DSARC)-I. This review approved the conceptual work that had been initiated in 1973 as well as plans for the valida - .

1976 March 29 - . LV Family: Minuteman, Peacekeeper.
  • Deputy for Minuteman was renamed Deputy for Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles because of the growth of the Missile X program. - .

1977 Jan - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Deputy for ICBMs authorized development of a baseline carbon-carbon nosetip for the Mark 12A reentry vehicle. - .

1977 January 26 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A Missile X upper stage motor developed by Aerojet Solid Propulsion Company was successfully test-fired at the AFRPL. - .

1977 February 13 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Fugro International Corporation completed a coarse screening investigation of potential sites for deployment of Missile X. - .

1977 March 9 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded the Ralph M. Parsons Company a contract for the Missile X Buried Trench Construction and Test Project. - .

1977 March 30 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Program Management Directive 9 postponed full scale development of the Missile X system to FY 1979 following President Carter's proposed funding reduction of $160 million for the program's FY 1978 bud - .

1977 April 28 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • First of the HAVE HOST tests at Luke AFB, involving survivability testing of Missile X shelter and trench designs with detonation of conventional high explosives in wind tunnel facilities. Five such t - .

1977 May 18 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A sub-scale model of an extendible nozzle exit cone (ENEC), developed by Hercules Incorporated for Missile X second and third stages, was successfully tested at the AFRPL. - . This was the first successful deployment of an ENEC over a rocket motor plume which did not result in structural damage to the nozzle..

1977 July 1 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • An authorization bill passed by Congress reduced the amount of funds to be spent on validation of Missile X basing concepts to $69 million, forbade expenditure of funds on silo basing or air mobile ba - . 1 million to be spent on MAP (ground mobile basing) validation..

1977 Aug - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The ICBM program office submitted to HQ AFSC and HQ USAF the results of a study of possible ways to verify compliance of trench- or shelter-based ICBM systems with a Strategic Arms Limitations Agreeme - .

1977 Sep - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Ralph M. Parsons Company and the C.F. Braun Company submitted final reports on how much it would cost to build a Missile X shelter-based system and how rapidly the construction could be accomplish - .

1977 September 28 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A redesigned Missile X lower stage movable nozzle was ground tested on a rocket motor at the AFRPL. The nozzle failed when the exit cone broke away from the nozzle. - .

1977 October 14 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The ICBM Program Office released requests for proposals on systems definition of Missile X booster stages I, II, III, and IV. - .

1977 October 14 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO released requests for proposals for systems definition and full scale development of the Missile X system, following delegation of source selection authority by HQ AFSC. - .

1977 October 20 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A trapped-ball movement nozzle for the Missile X lower stage was successfully ground tested by the Wasatch Division of Thiokol Corporation. - .

1977 October 21 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO released a request for proposals for system definition of Missile X guidance and control integration. Proposals were received from contractors on 21 December. - .

1977 Dec - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Fugro International Corporation delivered its final report on the intermediate screening of potential sites for deployment of Missile X. - .

1977 December 13 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Proposals from contractors were due at SAMSO for work on Missile X propulsion motor stages, assembly test and system support, and guidance and control integration. - .

1978 January 1 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO's ICBM Program Office began a Multiple Aimpoint Basing Study for Missile X basing. - .

    The study had been requested by the Defense Science Board after briefings by SAMSO late in CY 1977 on the subject of alternate basing modes. The study was concluded in April, and the results were presented in a briefing to the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and the Defense Science Board. The study recommended the vertical shelter basing mode, with the horizontal shelter basing mode as a second choice.


1978 February 20 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Construction began on the Missile X Buried Trench Construction and Test Project under a contract previously awarded to the Ralph M. - . Parsons Company. The contractor was to demonstrate its recommended construction method with test trenches in the San Cristobal Valley of the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona..

1978 Apr - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract to Martin Marietta Aerospace for system definition of Missile X assembly, test, and system support. - . The contract also contained an option for full-scale engineering development to be performed between 1 January 1979 and 30 September 1983. Under the contract, Martin Marietta began studies to prepare for system definition of Missile X reentry systems..

1978 April 7 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract for the system definition phase of the development program for Missile X Stage IV to the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. - .

1978 April 21 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper, Trident.
  • The Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering asked the Navy and Air Force to conduct a joint study to define a common missile which could be used in place of both Trident II and Missile - . These were under separate development by the respective services. The study was also to formulate a management plan for development of the common missile and to estimate the potential savings from such a joint development..

1978 April 26 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The results of a Multiple Aimpoint Basing Study for Missile X basing, conducted by SAMSO's ICBM Program Office, were briefed to the Air Force Scienctific Advisory Board. - .

1978 May 1 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The period of performance began on contracts awarded by SAMSO for the system definition phase of the development program for three Missile X propulsion stages. - . The contracts were awarded to Thiokol Corporation for Stage I, Aerojet Solid Propulsion Company for Stage II, and Hercules Incorporated for Stage III..

1978 May 2 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The results of a Multiple Aimpoint Basing Study for Missile X basing, conducted by SAMSO's ICBM Program Office, were briefed to the Defense Science Board. - .

1978 June 15 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A Missile X Milestone II Draft Environmental Impact Statement, prepared by Henningson, Durham and Richardson, Ecosciences Division, was delivered to SAMSO. It dealt with the impact of full-scale engin - .

1978 Jul - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO exercised contract options to extend the system definition phase of development programs for Missile X propulsion stages. At the same time, SAMSO postponed the missile design review three months - .

1978 Jul - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The results of the joint Navy-Air Force study to define a common missile which could be used in place of both the Trident II and Missile X were briefed to the Undersecretary of Defense for Research an - .

    The study concluded that some cost savings could result from development of a "common" or "mostly common" missile, and that a common missile was technically feasible and would meet the requirements for the Trident II. However, no common or mostly common missile could approach the performance of the baseline Missile X.


1978 July 10 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract for the system definition phase of a Missile X flight computer to Autonetics Group of Rockwell International Corporation. The contract contained an option for full-scale engin - .

1978 August 16 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Boeing Company successfully demonstrated its Missile X buried trench breakout erection system at the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona. - .

1978 August 28 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A public hearing was held at Lompoc, California, on the revised Missile X Milestone II Draft Environmental Impact Statement, which had been filed with the Environmental Protection Agency on 24 July an - .

1978 August 31 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Martin Marietta successfully demonstrated its Missile X buried trench breakout erection system at the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona. - .

1978 Sep - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Wasatch Division of Thiokol Corporation successfully tested a "trapped ball" moveable nozzle for Missile X stage I. - .

1978 Oct - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract for definition of vertical shelter operational requirements for Missile X basing to the Boeing Company. - . Besides performing studies, Boeing was to conduct a test program to validate key vertical shelter concepts beginning in mid-CY 1979..

1978 November 14 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Ralph M. Parsons Company completed construction of the Missile X Buried Trench Construction and Test Project at the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona. - .

1978 November 17 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO formed a source selection board in preparation for the award of a contract for the System Definition Phase of the Missile X reentry system. - .

1978 November 21 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Air Force Systems Acquisition Review Council II for Missile X was held. As a result, the Air Force recommended development of a 92-inch-diameter Missile X moved among multiple vertical shelters with t - .

1978 December 5 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Defense Systems Acquisition Review Council II (DSARC II) for Missile X was held. The DSARC asked the Air Force to conduct an intensive study of an air-mobile basing system as an alternative to the - .

1978 December 27 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO began a study of air-mobile basing for Missile X as a result of direction from DSARC II on Missile X. SAMSO began the study be meeting with representatives of the Aeronautical Systems Division a - .

1979 March 23 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The final version of the environmental impact statement on Missile X air-mobile basing was filed with the Environmental Protection Agency. - .

1979 March 27 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A missile design review (MDR) for all four stages of Missile X was held at the Martin Marietta Corporation's facilities in Denver, Colorado. Available technologies and transition to full-scale enginee - .

1979 March 31 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Missile X DSARC IIB met to consider studies of alternative Missile X configurations and basing modes, particularly the airmobile option developed by SAMSO at the direction of DSARC II in December 1978 - .

1979 May - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO's Deputy for ICBMs created a Multiple Protective Structure Deployment Area Selection Working group to coordinate site selection and land acquisition for deployment of Missile X. - .

1979 Jun - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • President Jimmy Carter announced his decision to authorize full-scale engineering development (FSED) of the 92-inch Missile X. However, he deferred a decision on the basing mode until further studies - .

1979 Aug - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • At a Missile X horizontal shelter kickoff meeting, SAMSO's ICBM program office directed associate contractors to reorient their activities from vertical to horizontal shelters. - .

1979 September 7 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • President Jimmy Carter authorized full-scale engineering development (FSED) of a basing mode for Missile X. The basing mode would involve multiple horizontal protective structures placed around the pe - .

1979 September 13 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO exercised contract options to enter full-scale engineering development of all four stages of Missile X, and system development contracts were allowed to terminate on 30 September. - .

1983 June 18 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 6 RVs to BOA-KMR - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 October 14 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 6 RVs to BOA-KMR - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 December 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 8 RVs to BOA-Guam - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 March 30 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 10 RVs sent to KMR impact area. - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 June 15 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 6 RVs to KMR(1 Mk21) - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 October 1 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • RVs to KMR - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 February 1 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 6 RVs Test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 June 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 August 24 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 November 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 4 RVs Test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 March 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 May 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 10 Mk 21 warheads sent to KMR impact area. - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 August 23 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 September 18 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 6 RVs to KMR - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 December 5 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 10 RV (2 ft deploy) - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 February 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 March 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 March 19 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 7 Mk 21 RVs to KMR - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 September 14 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1990 March 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 May 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 September 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 March 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 June 11 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 17 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1992 March 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1992 July 1 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF ACC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1992 September 16 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF ACC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 March 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF ACC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 14 - . 03:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 September 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 March 8 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 May 17 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 September 7 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 January 19 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 June 14 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 August 15 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC6. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: LLV-1. FAILURE: Destroyed by range safety 160 sec into flight after failure of thrust vector control system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • GemStar 1 (VitaSat) - . Payload: Gemstar DSS-1. Mass: 113 kg (249 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: LMSC. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: GemStar. Spacecraft: GemStar. Decay Date: 1995-08-15 . Global Electronic Messaging Satellite;..

1995 August 30 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 8 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 May 30 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 September 11 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 November 6 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 May 8 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 9 RVs operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 August 23 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC6. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: LMLV-1.
  • Lewis - . Payload: SSTI/Lewis. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, TRW. Manufacturer: Chantilly. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Lewis satellite. Spacecraft: Lewis satellite. Decay Date: 1997-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 24909 . COSPAR: 1997-044A. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi). Perigee: 124 km (77 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Reentered Sep 28.

1997 September 17 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 7 RVs operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 November 5 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 8 RVs operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 May 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 8 RVs operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 March 10 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 8 RVs operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 March 8 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 8 RVs operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 July 27 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper. FAILURE: ICBM was destroyed during flight.
  • 9 RVs Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). FDEP. The Peackeeper ICBM was destroyed during flight and did not reach its planned 1000 km apogee..

2002 June 3 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • GT-31PA - 9 RVs Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2003 March 12 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • GT-32PA - 8 RVs Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). ICBM Demonstration Flight - Dummy Warheads..

2004 July 21 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • GT-33PA - 8 RVs Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). ICBM Demonstration Flight. Delayed from March..

2010 April 23 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC8. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur IV Lite.
  • HTV-2a - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Hypersonic test.

2010 September 30 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur IV.
  • USA 216 - . Payload: SBSS. Mass: 1,031 kg (2,272 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Ball. Class: Surveillance. Type: Orbital object tracking satellite. Spacecraft Bus: BCP-2000. Spacecraft: BCP-2000. USAF Sat Cat: 37168 . COSPAR: 2010-048A. Apogee: 633 km (393 mi). Perigee: 632 km (392 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. First Space-Based Surveillance Satellite; designed to track satellites and orbital junk from a space-based vantage point..

2010 November 20 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kodiak. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur IV.
  • USA 217 - . Payload: STPSat-2 SIV. Mass: 135 kg (297 lb). Nation: USA. Manufacturer: AeroAstro. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Astro-200. Spacecraft: Astro-200. USAF Sat Cat: 37222 . COSPAR: 2010-062A. Technology experiments. Lead satellite of USAF Space Test Program mission S26..
  • USA 218 - . Payload: RAX. Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37223 . COSPAR: 2010-062B. Radio Aurora Explorer, a National Science Foundation 3U cubesat, built by the University of Michigan, to study the aurora by picking up ground-based radar signals..
  • USA 219 - . Payload: O/OREOS. Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37224 . COSPAR: 2010-062C. 3U cubesat by NASA-Ames with life science experiments to study microbes in free fall and the effects of ultraviolet light on organic materials..
  • USA 220 - . Payload: Fastsat-HSV. Mass: 140 kg (300 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Fastsat. Spacecraft: Fastsat. USAF Sat Cat: 37225 . COSPAR: 2010-062D. Developed by NASA-Marshall and subcontractors in Huntsville; carried ionospheric and atmospheric experiments, a USAF experiment, and the Nanosail-D2 solar sail..
  • USA 221 - . Payload: Falconsat-5. Mass: 161 kg (354 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FalconSat. Spacecraft: Falconsat. USAF Sat Cat: 37226 . COSPAR: 2010-062E. US Air Force Academy satellite with experiments to study plasma and the ionosphere..
  • USA 222 - . Payload: Fastrac 1. Mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Fastrac satellite. Spacecraft: Fastrac satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37227 . COSPAR: 2010-062F. Developed by University of Texas at Austin with USAF funding for formation flying experiments..
  • USA 228 - . Payload: Fastrac 2. Mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Fastrac satellite. Spacecraft: Fastrac satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37380 . COSPAR: 2010-062M. Developed by University of Texas at Austin with USAF funding for formation flying experiments..
  • Ballast A - . Payload: S26 Ballast A. Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37230 . COSPAR: 2010-062J.
  • Ballast B - . Payload: S26 Ballast B. Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37231 . COSPAR: 2010-062K.
  • Nanosail-D - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37361 . COSPAR: 2010-062L. 3U cubesat for NASA with 3-m span solar sail; ejected from USA 220 on 18 January 2011 unexpectedly after earlier ejection efforts failed..

2011 August 11 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC8. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur IV Lite.
  • HTV-2b - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test mission. Hypersonic glider was launched from Vandenberg across the Pacific. The mission ended prematurely with loss of signal three minutes into the glider's free flight..

2011 September 27 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kodiak. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur IV-Plus.
  • Tacsat 4 - . Mass: 460 kg (1,010 lb). Nation: USA. Program: Tacsat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tacsat ORS. Spacecraft: Tacsat ORS. USAF Sat Cat: 37818 . COSPAR: 2011-052A. Apogee: 12,010 km (7,460 mi). Perigee: 742 km (461 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 238.90 min.

    Naval Research Laboratory UHF communications satellite, equipped with a 3.7-meter-diameter communications antenna to support military handheld satellite telephones. Launch used an uprated Minotaur IV with an ATK Star 48V motor replacing the Orion 38 upper stage.


2013 September 7 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA0B. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur V.
  • LADEE - . Mass: 383 kg (844 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: MCSB. Spacecraft: MCSB. Decay Date: 2014-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 39246 . COSPAR: 2013-047A.

    NASA Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Enviroment Explorer mission. It carried an ultraviolet spectrometer, a lunar dust experiment, a neutral mass spectrometer, and a laser communications experiment. An Aerojet Rocketdyne/Redmond R-4D-15 HiPAT 455N thruster, with 135 kg of propellant, was used for lunar orbit insertion and orbit maneuvers. After three perigee boost maneuvers it entered lunar gravitational sphere of influence on 6 October at 18:02 GMT. The lunar orbit insertion burn at 10:57 GMT placed LADEE in a 24-hour-period 269 km x 15,772 km selenocentric orbit inclined 157 deg to the lunar equator. Two further burns, the last on 12 October at 10:40 GMT, placed the spacecraft in a 248 km x 251 km orbit. The spacecraft was lowered into an orbit with a 2 km perilune in early April 2014, and it impacted the lunar farside between 04:30 and 05:22 GMT April 18, possibly on the east rim of the crater Sundman V at 12N 93W, north of Mare Orientale.



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