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Apollo LM Taxi
Part of Apollo LM Family
Apollo Lunar Module
Apollo Lunar Module
Credit: © Mark Wade
American manned lunar lander. Cancelled 1968. The LM Taxi was essentially the basic Apollo LM modified for extended lunar surface stays.

AKA: LM Taxi. Status: Cancelled 1968. Thrust: 44.04 kN (9,901 lbf). Gross mass: 14,700 kg (32,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Specific impulse: 311 s. Height: 6.37 m (20.89 ft).

This was expected to be the workhorse of both Apollo Applications Extended Lunar Surface Missions beginning in 1970 and still be used to shuttle crews to the surface to larger LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) in the mid- to late- 1970's.

Changes included additional water, oxygen, LH2, and Lox tankage in the descent stage in the payload bays; fuel cells in the ascent stage; a redundant Lox tank in the ascent stage over the back of the LM; and additional micrometeorite and radiation shielding. This would permit the LM to accommodate a crew of three with the capability for a 14-day quiescent (inactive) lunar stay time, in addition to 3 days (active) operational time. The LM Taxi would land near the previously-landed LM Shelter or LESA Shelter, where the crew would spend most of its time during surface explorations lasting from 14 days to three months.

Crew Size: 3. Habitable Volume: 6.65 m3. Spacecraft delta v: 3,700 m/s (12,100 ft/sec).



Family: Lunar Landers, Moon. Country: USA. Spacecraft: LESA Lunar Base, AES Lunar Base, ALSS Lunar Base. Launch Vehicles: Saturn V. Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50. Agency: Grumman. Bibliography: 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 26.
Photo Gallery

Lunar ExplorationLunar Exploration
Lunar Exploration Plans
Credit: © Mark Wade


Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar
Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar
Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Lunar Module 3 viewLunar Module 3 view
Credit: © Mark Wade



1963 December 26 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea, von Braun. Spacecraft: Apollo LM Shelter, Apollo LM Taxi.

    MSFC Director Wernher von Braun described to Apollo Spacecraft Program Manager Joseph F. Shea a possible extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface. Huntsville's concept, called the Integrated Lunar Exploration System, involved a dual Saturn V mission (with rendezvous in lunar orbit) to deliver an integrated lunar taxi/shelter spacecraft to the Moon's surface. Additional Details: here....


1965 August - .
  • Grumman final report on a study of LEM utilization for AES Earth-orbit missions. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo LM Lab, Apollo LM Shelter, Apollo LM Taxi, Apollo LM Truck.

    Grumman submitted to NASA its final report on a study of AES for Earth-orbit missions (conducted under the firm's contract for a LEM utilization study). The five-volume report comprised general engineering studies, mission and configuration descriptions for different groups of experiments (both NASA's and those for the Air Force's Manned Orbiting- Laboratory), and a cost and schedule analysis. Additional Details: here....


1966 October 19 - .
  • MSFC Director Wernher von Braun described to his MSC counterpart Robert R. Gilruth his ideas for transferring to Houston the bulk of MSFC's lunar exploration studies and development contracts. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Apollo LM. Spacecraft: Apollo LM Taxi.

    (As a result of the 13-15 August Lake Logan meeting, Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., had designated MSC the lead Center for lunar science.) von Braun proposed that planning for AAP-type lunar traverses and a wide variety of lunar scientific experiments (including a scientific package of experiments to he emplaced near landing sites) be transferred to Houston. On the other hand, he believed that lunar roving and flying devices, the AAP lunar drill, and the lunar surveying system should be retained at Huntsville, saying that these projects were of an engineering rather than a scientific nature and that, with MSFC's in-house capability for engineering work of this type, his Center could make substantial-and cost- effective-contributions to lunar exploration.


1966 December 1 - .
  • John H. Disher released the report by a study group at Headquarters on various modified lunar modules suitable for a lunar exploration program as part of AAP. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo LM Shelter, Apollo LM Taxi, Apollo LM Truck, Apollo X.

    These modified craft took the form of a LM taxi, ferry and logistics craft, a LM shelter, and an 'augmented' LM. Disher authorized MSC to extend its engineering studies contract with Grumman to further define such modified LM configurations. He also asked MSFC to try to increase the Saturn V's translunar injection capability to 46 720 kg. These actions, he explained, afforded an opportunity to pursue any of several alternatives once future landing levels were known.


1968 January 5 - .
  • NASA lunar exploration program developed for the period from the first lunar landing to the mid-1970s. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo ATM, Apollo LM Taxi, Apollo LM Truck, Apollo LMSS.

    A lunar exploration program had been developed which would cover the period from the first lunar landing to the mid-1970s. The program would be divided into four phases: (1) An Apollo phase employing Apollo hardware. (2) A lunar exploration phase untilizing an extended LM with increased landed payload weight and staytime capability. (3) A lunar orbital survey and exploration phase using the AAP-1A carrier or the LM/ATM to mount remote sensors and photographic equipment on a manned polar orbit mission. (4) A lunar surface rendezvous and exploration phase which would use a modified LM in an unmanned landing to provide increased scientific payload and expendables necessary to extend an accompanying manned LM mission to two weeks duration.



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