Encyclopedia Astronautica
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VKA
Military Space Force, Russia.

Subtopics

VKA series In 1957, in response to the USAF Dynasoar project, Soviet aviation bureaus were tasked with producing draft project designs for a manned Aero-Space Vehicle (Russian abbreviation VKA). Designs were refined through 1960, at which time the design bureaus were dissolved and incorporated into Chelomei's OKB-52. The engineering work then fed into Chelomei's Raketoplan designs.

VKA Myasishchev M-48 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Myasishchev's first VKA design was a diminutive single-crew star-shaped spaceplane that could be launched by Korolev's R-7 ICBM.

PKA Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1959. Tsybin's VKA design was called the gliding spacecraft (PKA), and would be inserted into orbit by a Vostok launch vehicle.

VKA-23 Design 1 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1960. Myasishchev single-pilot winged spacecraft of 1960, sized for launch to orbit by Korolev's Vostok booster.

VKA-23 Design 2 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Following the very critical review of the first M-48 spaceplane design by the expert commission, Myasishchev went back to the drawing board.

Country: Russia. More at: 11962.

1957 June 30 - .
  • First serious manned winged spacecraft design - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: VKA. Spacecraft: VKA Myasishchev M-48. Myasishchev OKB-23 sketches first serious manned winged spacecraft design..

1959 May 17 - .
  • PKA Spaceplane Draft Project - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev, Tsybin. Spacecraft Bus: VKA. Spacecraft: PKA.

    Tsybinís design was called the gliding spacecraft (PKA). The draft project, undertaken in co-operation with Korolevís OKB-1, was signed by Tsybin on 17 May 1959.The piloted PKA would be inserted into a 300 km altitude orbit by a Vostok launch vehicle. After 24 to 27 hours of flight the spacecraft would brake from orbit, gliding through the dense layers of the earthís atmosphere. At the beginning of the descent, in the zone of most intense heating, the spacecraft would take advantage of a hull of original shape (called ĎLapotokí by Korolev after the Russian wooden shoes that it resembled). After braking to 500 to 600 m/s at an altitude of 20 km, the PKA would glide to a runway landing on deployable wings, which would move to a horizontal position from a stowed vertical position over the back of the spacecraft. Control of the PKA in flight was by rocket jets or aerodynamic surfaces, depending on the phase of flight.


1959 September - .
  • PKA Spaceplane Draft Project Completed - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Myasishchev, Tsybin. Spacecraft Bus: VKA. Spacecraft: PKA.

    The Tsybin bureau was closed down shortly after the draft project was completed. Tsybin and his staff transferred to the Myasishchev bureau in October 1959 (which had its own on-going VKA-23 winged spacecraft project). The Myasishchev bureau was then in turn closed and the staff transferred to Filial 1 of Chelomeiís OKB-52 bureau in 1960. Tsybinís work on the PKA was passed to the Mikoyan bureau and formed the starting point for the design of the Spiral spaceplane.


1960 October 1 - .
  • Ongoing winged manned spacecraft project cancelled - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev, Tsybin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: VKA. Spacecraft: VKA-23 Design 1. In reduction of military-industrical complex, Myasishchev and Tsybin design bureaus are closed and work stopped on the three prototype winged manned spacecraft already built..

2004 June 10 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2406 - . Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-2. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 28352 . COSPAR: 2004-021A. Apogee: 866 km (538 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Delayed from February 17 and 18; March 17 and 31; April 6, 25 and 26..


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