Encyclopedia Astronautica
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VVS 1993
In 1993 the Russian Air Force surveyed more practical methods of achieving a manned space bomber than the cancelled VKS program. These incorporated concepts and technology developed for both the VKS and OK programs. There was no funding to further pursue the program.

Status: Cancelled 1994.

Subtopics

MiG-2000 Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched single stage to orbit vehicle with air-breathing propulsion to Mach 5 (subsonic combustion). The sled would accelerate the launch vehicle to Mach 0.8. Propellants were slush hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The vehicle would have a 3000 km cross-range on re-entry.

17K-AM A small two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle proposed for the Russian Air Force in 1993.

Ajax Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched, air-breathing, single stage to orbit, horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia.

Herakles Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle design by NPO Molniya / TsAGI that would utilize air launch from a giant cargo aircraft capable of lifting 900 metric ton payloads. The single stage to orbit spaceplane would be released at subsonic velocity.

MIGAKS Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Turbojet/ramjet-powered two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Mach 6 stage separation. The orbiter had a 2000 km cross-range capability with landing on airfields with runways of 3500 m length or more.

ASA Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched airbreathing single stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia.

LII Spaceplane Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1973 LII (the Gromov Experimental Flight Institute at Zhukovsky) designed several alternate spaceplane concepts for air-launch from the An-225 transport. These were similar to the various MAKS concepts.



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