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Viking
Viking Mars lander
Viking Mars lander
Credit: NASA
American Mars lander. First successful soft landings made at two locations on the Martian surface and returned the first images from the surface.

Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-02-11. Last Launch: 1975-09-09. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb).

The orbiters extensively mapped the surface of the planet. Viking was designed to orbit Mars and to land and operate on the planet's surface. Two identical spacecraft, each consisting of a lander and an orbiter, were built. These spacecraft were launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida in 1975. They spent nearly a year cruising to Mars. Viking 1 reached Mars orbit June 19, 1976, and Viking 2 began orbiting August 7, 1976. Viking 1 landed on Mars July 20, 1976 on the western slope of Chryse Planitia (the Plains of Gold) at 22.3 deg N latitude, 48 deg longitude.

Subtopics

Viking sounding rocket American sounding rocket. The Viking sounding rocket, originally code-named Neptune, was conceived in 1945 by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as having the same altitude capability as the V-2 but only one third the mass. Martin was given the contract to develop the rocket, and Reaction Motors the engine. The advanced design featured a gimbaled pump-fed engine, a fuel tank integral with the fuselage. All rockets would be static-tested and certified before launch. The first launch was on 3 May 1949. Viking was abandoned in 1954 as too expensive, but Martin's experience on the design led to the first stage of the Vanguard orbital launch vehicle and the Titan ICBM.

Viking Type 9 American sounding rocket. Increased-diameter version of the basic Viking.

Viking Type 9-1 LOx/Alcohol rocket stage. 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,800 kg (14,991 lb).

Viking-1 LOx/Alcohol rocket stage. 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,500 kg (9,921 lb).

Viking 2 SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In production. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV space launchers. First flight 1979.

Viking 4 SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV, PSLV. First flight 1979.

Viking 2B SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 2/3. First flight 1984.

Viking 4B SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 4. First flight 1984.

Viking 5C SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 42L, Ariane 44L, Ariane 44LP. First flight 1988.

Family: Mars lander. Country: USA. Launch Vehicles: Titan, Mars tactical rocket, Titan IIIE. Projects: Mars. Launch Sites: Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral LC41. Agency: NASA. More at: 7018. Bibliography: 2, 279, 4197, 4198, 4199, 4200, 4201, 4202, 4203, 4204, 4205, 4206, 4207, 4208, 4209, 4210, 4211, 4212, 4213, 4214, 4215, 4216, 6.
Photo Gallery

Viking 1 LanderViking 1 Lander
Credit: Manufacturer Image


VikingViking
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Viking-DSViking-DS
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Viking 10Viking 10
Credit: © Thomas Kladiva - Thomas Kladiva


Viking Test Seq 02Viking Test Seq 02


Viking Test Seq 03Viking Test Seq 03


Viking Test Seq 07Viking Test Seq 07


Viking Test Seq 01Viking Test Seq 01


Viking Test Seq 08Viking Test Seq 08


Viking Test Seq 04Viking Test Seq 04


Viking Test Seq 05Viking Test Seq 05


Viking Test Seq 06Viking Test Seq 06



1966 January 16 - .
  • National Academy of Sciences report outlining research objectives in lunar and planetary exploration for the 1970s and early 1980s. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking.

    The Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences issued a report outlining research objectives in lunar and planetary exploration for the 1970s and early 1980s. The report affirmed earlier recommendations by the Space Science Board to NASA that unmanned exploration of Mars should have first priority in the post- Apollo space era. Secondary importance was assigned to detailed investigation of the lunar surface and to unmanned Venus probes. Clearly, the report reflected a predominant mood within the scientific community that scientific research in space take predominance over manned programs whose chief objectives, said the report, were 'other than scientific.' Additional Details: here....


1974 February 11 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Viking Dynamic Simulator - . Payload: VDS. Mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking.

1975 August 20 - . 21:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • Viking 1 Orbiter - . Payload: Viking 1. Mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking. USAF Sat Cat: 8108 . COSPAR: 1975-075A.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new oxydizer accumulator developed for the HIE. Combined Mars orbiter and lander mission; orbiter inserted in Mars orbit 6/19/76; lander soft landed on Martian surface 7/20/76Mars. Mars Orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

  • Viking 1 Lander - . Payload: Viking 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking. Decay Date: 1976-07-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 9024 . COSPAR: 1975-075C.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new oxydizer accumulator developed for the HIE. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1975 September 9 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • Viking 2 Orbiter - . Mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking. USAF Sat Cat: 8199 . COSPAR: 1975-083A.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new Command Receiver Set. A fire occurred at the launch site following launch and caused $2 million damage to the Aerospace Ground Equipment building. Combined Mars orbiter and lander mission; orbiter inserted in Mars orbit 8/7/76; lander soft landed on Martian surface 9/3/76Mars. Mars Orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

  • Viking 2 Lander - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking. Decay Date: 1976-08-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 9408 . COSPAR: 1975-083C.

    A Titan HIE carrying a Viking payload was successfully launched from LC-41, Eastern Test Range. This was the first flight of a new Command Receiver Set. A fire occurred at the launch site following launch and caused $2 million damage to the Aerospace Ground Equipment building. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1976 July 20 - .
  • Viking 1, Mars Landing - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking.

1976 July 20 - .
  • Viking 1 landed on Mars - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking.

    Viking 1 reached Mars orbit June 19, 1976. Landing was planned for the US Bicentennial on July 4, but was delayed until a suitable landing site was located. The lander separated from the orbiter and touched down on the western slope of Chryse Planitia (the Plains of Gold) at 22.3 deg N latitude, 48 deg longitude.


1976 August 7 - .
  • Viking 2, Mars Orbit Insertion - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking.

1976 September 3 - .
  • Viking 2, Mars Landing - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Viking. Spacecraft: Viking.


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