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Mars lander
Category of spacecraft.



Subtopics

Von Braun Landing Boat American manned Mars lander. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars lander based on engineering analysis. The enormous glider would have a wingspan of 153 m, and land on Mars horizontally either on skis, skids, or wheels on a prepared runway.

1956 Von Braun Landing Boat American manned Mars lander. Study 1956. The 1956 modification of Von Braun's Landing Boat design was reduced in mass by 12%, and the wingspan by 10%.

Ford Mars Lander American manned Mars lander. Study 1963. The Mars lander assumed in NASA studies from 1964 to 1966 was a lifting body conceived by Ford Aeronutronic in May-December 1963. Given a go-ahead by 1965, it would be available for Mars missions by 1975.

Voyager 1973 American Mars lander. Cancelled 1967. The original Voyager project was an ambitious NASA project to hurl a 3 metric ton spacecraft using a Saturn IB-Centaur booster toward Mars by 1969.

MEM American manned Mars lander. Study 1967. The Mars Excursion Module was designed by North American for the Marshall Spaceflight Center in an October 1966-August 1967 study.

Mars 5NM Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1974. The 5NM was the first attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1970 to 1974.

Phoenix Mars Lander Null

Mars M-71 Russian Mars lander. Mars spacecraft built by Lavochkin for 1971 campaign. The spacecraft consists of a bus/orbiter module and an attached descent/lander module. Mars orbiter, landers satellite, Russia. Launched 1971.

Mars M-73 Russian Mars lander. The M-73 spacecraft series was built for 1973 Mars missions. Mars lander, Russia. Launched 1973.

Viking American Mars lander. First successful soft landings made at two locations on the Martian surface and returned the first images from the surface. Launched 1975.

EA Russian manned Mars lander. Studied 1978-1986. Mars landing craft originally designed for aborted 1972 Aelita Mars study by OKB-1, and revived in the 1980's for new Energia-launched Mars expedition studies.

Mars 5M Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1978. The 5M was a second attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1974 to 1978.

STCAEM MEV American manned Mars lander. Study 1991. The reference Mars Excursion vehicle (MEV) was a manned lander that could transport a crew of four to the surface.

Cargo Lander Reference Version 1 American manned Mars lander. Study 1993.

Crew Lander Reference Version 1 American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The first version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander.

Cargo Lander Reference Version 3 American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The second version of the NASA Cargo Lander for the design reference mission 3.0 was similar in concept to the first but mass was reduced nearly 30% by a thorough study and scrub of each element.

Crew Lander Reference Version 3 American manned Mars lander. Study 1996. The second version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander.

Mars Polar Lander American Mars lander. The Mars Polar Lander had the mission of studying Martian volatiles (frozen water and carbon dioxide) and climate history. The Martian polar regions were the best places to conduct these studies. No telemetry was received from the lander from just prior to its reentry on 3 December 1999. The investigation team concluded that just 40 m above the Martian surface the deployment of the landing legs was interpreted by the spacecraft as touchdown on the surface, shutting down the engines. The fiasco led to major changes in future planetary probes, including adequate funding and telemetry all the way to the surface. Mars lander operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1999.

MER American Mars lander. NASA's rover mission design for the 2003 Mars launch opportunity.

Phoenix American Mars lander. Mars lander based on surplus hardware from the cancelled Mars Surveyor 2001 and the failed Mars Polar Lander (whence the Phoenix designation). Mars Lander built by University of Arizona (Science); Lockheed Martin Space Systems (Spacecraft) for NASA, USA. Launched 2007.

MSL American Mars rover. Heavy, radioisotope-powered robotic Mars rover planned for an October 2010 arrival at Mars. It would carry instruments to definitively search for life in the soil. Mars rover satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 2011.



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