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VKS-R
Part of VKS series Family
VKS-R
VKS-R
Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled launched, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, LOx/LH2 launch vehicle. 290 metric ton and 550 metric ton versions considered. Studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s. The wheeled sled would get the vehicle up to a velocity where the wings could provide lift, allowing lower-thrust engines to be used than in a vertical-takeoff design. This saved weight, but velocity losses during lifting flight to orbit almost cancelled the advantage, resulting in the approach being unattractive in comparison to pure vertical-launch or air-launch designs.

Status: Study 1988. Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Gross mass: 290,000 kg (630,000 lb). Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

LEO Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.00 degrees.

Family: orbital launch vehicle, Sled-Launched, Winged. Country: Russia. Agency: Molniya bureau.



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