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Orel
Oreol Variant 6
Oreol Variant 6
In the late 1990's the Russian space industry undertook the Orel program to evaluate technology for future launch vehicles. The goals included evaluation of possible concepts for a future Russian launcher, reusable launch vehicle key technology research and analysis of "X-vehicle" flight demonstrators for technology validation.

Status: Study 1999.



Subtopics

Orel V2 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This preferred near-term configuration was a semi-reusable vertical takeoff/horizontal landing two stage launch vehicle. It would use a flyback booster, expendable second stage, and a small manned spaceplane. This was preferred to the Orel V3, which was essentially the earlier MMKS/OK-M1 system with a flyback booster, expendable core tank, and small spaceplane with recoverable main engines.

Orel V7 RSSLV-2 Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Version with LOx/LH2 propellants.

Orel V7 RSSLV-3 Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Tripropellant LOx/Kerosene (RG-1)/LH2 version.

Orel V4 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff, horizontal landing two stage to orbit concept. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6.

Orel V5 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertically launched two stage to orbit concept consisting of horizontal landing booster, vertical landing orbiter. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6.

Orel V6 Fully reusable vertical takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit launch vehicle. The preferred long-term alternative of the Russian Orel launch vehicle study of the 1990's.

Norma Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Semi-reusable vertically launched two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The flight profile featured a reusable flyback booster launched from a modular launch platform, an expendable second stage with a reusable orbiter that would have landed vertically. Development cost estimated at $13 billion.

Family: orbital launch vehicle, Winged. Country: Russia.

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