Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Air/Lox/LH2
Air/Lox/LH2 tripropellant scheme. Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidizer. In single-stage-to-orbit variants the air may be liquefied prior to use, and later the motor converts to pure rocket propulsion, using on-board liquid oxygen for the final push to orbit. In the air augmented rocket, air is collected by an intake surrounding the rocket body, and used to augment the rocket exhaust.

Subtopics

N1-MOK stage Air/LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Ultimate derivative of N1 Block A: Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 400 kg MKBS orb

NK-33 LH2 Mod + 4 x LACE Kuznetsov air augmented rocket engine. N1-MOK. Study 1974. Ultimate derivative of NK-9. Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters.

Nova MM R10E-2 stage Air/LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been October 1980. Expendable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle.

Nova MM R10R-2 stage Air/LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been October 1980. Recoverable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle.

Sabre Rolls Royce air augmented rocket engine. Used Air/LOx/LH2. Developed -1995. In development for Skylon launch vehicle; descendent of RB545 developed for abandoned HOTOL space launcher.

Tu-2000 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This Soviet equivalent to the US X-30 single-stage-to-orbit scramjet aerospaceplane began development in1986. Three versions were planned: a Mach 6 test vehicle, under construction at cancellation of the program in 1992; a Mach 6 intercontinental bomber; and a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle.

Engines: NK-33 LH2 Mod + 4 x LACE, Sabre. Launch Vehicles: Tu-2000. Stages: Nova MM R10E-2 stage, Nova MM R10R-2 stage, N1-MOK stage.

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