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Air/Kerosene
Air/Kerosene propellant. The propellants used in a conventional jet engine. Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines. It is used to burn aviation-grade kerosene, commercial grade JP-4 or JP-5, their military equivalents, or special high-temperature blends such as those used in the SR-71.

Fuel Density: 0.806 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -73 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 147 deg C.

Subtopics

An-124 Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, 900 kph at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

An-225 Subsonic rocket carrier. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

Atar 9K SNECMA turbojet engine. Out of Production.

B-1A Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. N. American Bomber-variable geometry. Maximum release conditions: Bomb bay mounted, 16,364 kg (9.4 m length x 2.5 m diameter x 2.5 m span) at 2,096 kph at 11,900 m altitude.

B-47 Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

B-57A Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

B-58 Mach 2 rocket carrier. Convair Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Belly mounted, 21,818 kg (22.5 m length x 1.9 m diameter x 7.1 m wingspan) at 2,130 kph at 12,195 m altitude (Kingfisher).

Bull Goose-1 Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Buran M-42 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Cancelled 1957. Several variants of the Myasishchev Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile M-42 cruise stage were studied, including a piloted version.

Buran M-42 stage Ramjet missile stage. Boosted by 4 x Glushko-engined boosters. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude with 3,500 kg warhead. Wing area 98 square meters; diameter of ramjet 2.0 m. Never reached flight test. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass.

Buran M-44 Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle.

Burya Ramjet missile stage. Boosted by 2 x R-11 derivative boosters. 6,500 km tested, 8,000 km specified, cruise at Mach 3.2 at 18-20 km altitude with 2,350 kg warhead. Flight tested 1957 - 1960. Wing area 60 square meters; diameter of ramjet inlet 1.7 m. Total missile mass 97,215 kg; gross masses prorated, empty masses estimated.

C-130 Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

C-17 Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

CGM-13B stage Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

CIM-10B stage Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

D-18T Lotarev turbofan engine. Used on An-225 launch aircraft for Interim HOTOL, MAKS concepts. Development ended 1988.

EKR Ramjet Bondaryuk ramjet engine. EKR Stage 2. Study 1953. Study for an experimental winged cruise missile. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles.

EKR Stage 2 Ramjet test vehicle stage. Second stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Range 730 km with flight time of 927 seconds. Lift to drag 2.51, wing area 3.31 square meters. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles.

F100-100 Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. In Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

F101 Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. In Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

F-104A Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

F-106 Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Convair Interceptor-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Weapons bay mounted, 1,957 kg at 2,141 kph at 16,067 m altitude

F-15 Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. McDonnell Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: 545 kg (2.0 m length x 0.5 m wingspan) at 2,580 kph at 11,582 m altitude (ASAT).

F2H2 Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

F3H Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

F-4 Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. McDonnell Fighter-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: 5,442 kg at 2,353 kph at 17,820 m altitude

F-6 Turbojet powered rocket launch aircraft. Douglas (Heinemann) designed fighter-delta wing. Used as zero stage for Caleb miniature satellite launcher. Maximum release conditions: 3,628 kg at 1,166 kph at 16,768 m altitude

F-6A Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Navy fighter used to launch Caleb air-launched rocket. Launch conditions 3,000 lbs at 40,000 feet at 480 mph at 56 degree angle.

F-86D Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Gerakl Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. NPO Molniya-1000 cargo aircraft, catamaran layout, twin-fuselage triplane. Release conditions: Suspended load, 450,000 kg, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

J57-19 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Used on B-52 launch aircraft for X-15A. First flight 1959.

J57-8 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960.

J58 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

J75-17 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

J79- 5 GE turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

J79-17 GE turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

J85-GE-5 GE turbojet engine. Carries SpaceShipOne to release point 65 km from Mohave Airport base, then releases it at 15 km altitude at 215 kph. Wing area 43.5 sq m.

J93-3 GE turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

JT9D-3A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

Kholod Turbo-ramjet powered rocket launch aircraft. Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Spiral 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s.

L-1011 Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Lockheed airliner swept wing. Release conditions: Belly-mounted, 36,800 kg, 17.1 m length x 7.9 m span at 925 kph at 11,890 m altitude

Matador M-16 Allison turbojet engine, cruise motor for Matador M-16.

MGM-109H Ramjet missile stage.

MiG-25 Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. Mikoyan Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 750 kg (6.3 m length x 2.2 m wingspan) at 3,161 kph at 24,000 m altitude

Mirage 4A Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Dassault Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Belly mounted, 7,256 kg at 2,345 kph at 20,000 m altitude

MX-775-1 Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

NASA 747 Boeing turbofan-powere swept wing airliner, modified to carry shuttle on its back. Also considered as launch aircraft for Manned Sortie Vehicle and air-launched Minuteman and Peacekeeper. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 109,000 kg payload, 37.2 m length x 24.0 m span at 538 kph at 5183 m.

Navaho G-26 AV Mach 3 ramjet test vehicle. Separates from booster at 14,600 m, Mach 3. Mach 2.75 cruise, 5,600 km range, payload 2500 kg in 2.59 m x 1.50 m compartment.

Navaho G-38 AV Ramjet-powered missile stage. Separates from booster at 21,600 m, Mach 3. Mach 3.25 cruise, 10,200 km range, payload 4545 kg in 3.76 m x 1.78 m weapons bay. Empty mass estimated.

Navaho X-10 stage Air/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Aerodynamic test vehicle for Navaho missile; Max speed Mach 2.08; range 1320 km.

NB-52 Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Boeing Bomber-swept wing. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 25,000 kg (19.1 m length x 6.7 m span) at 880 kph at 11,448 m altitude

NK-231 Kuznetsov turbofan engine. Tu-160. Development ended 1992. Turbofan engine used in Tu-160. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

R-31 engine Lyulka turbojet engine. MiG-25. Out of Production. Used in MiG-25. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

RB-211-22B Rolls Royce turbofan engine. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Used on L1011 launch aircraft for Pegasus, Pegasus XL. First flight 1990.

RD-012U Bondaryuk ramjet engine. Burya. Out of production. 1.2 m diameter ramjet to be used in Burya cruise missile. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. First flight 1957.

RD-018 Bondaryuk ramjet engine. Buran missile, early version. Out of Production. 1.8 m diameter ramjet engine initially considered for Buran M-42. RD-020 adopted later during development.

RD-020 Bondaryuk ramjet engine. Buran M-42. Development ended 1957. Ramjet for Buran cruise missile. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude.

RD-36-41 Lyulka turbojet engine. T-4. Out of Production. Used in Sukhoi March 3 aircraft. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust.

RJ47 Wright ramjet engine. Development ended 1958. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Used on Navaho G-38 launch vehicle.

SR-71/M-12 Jet-powered rocket carrier vehicle. Lockheed Reconnaissance-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Piggy-back, 9,091 kg (12.1 m length x 5.2 m span) at 3,300 kph at 24,390 m (D-21).

T-4 Mach 3 rocket carrier. Sukhoi experimental interceptor - delta wing with forward canards. A modification to be used as first stage in Sukhoi proposal for Spiral manned spaceplane project. Maximum release conditions: 25,000 kg at 3,000 kph at 20,000 m altitude

Tu-121 cruise vehicle Turbojet powered cruise missile stage. KR-15-300 engine by OKB-300 (now MZ Soyuz), rated for 15 hour endurance.

Tu-160 Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Tupolev Bomber-variable geometry. Maximum release conditions: Belly-mounted, 9,977 kg at 2,451 kph at 18,292 m altitude

White Knight Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Carries SpaceShipOne to release point 65 km from Mohave Airport base, then releases it at 15 km altitude at 215 kph. Wing area 43.5 sq m.

XB-70 Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. N. American Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Piggy-back, 27,273 kg (19.1 m length x 6.7 m span) at 3,193 kph at 21,341 m altitude

XJ40-WE-1 Wright turbojet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Used on Navaho X-10 launch vehicle. First flight 1955.

XM-51 American turbojet engine.

XRJ47-W-5 Wright ramjet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Used on Navaho G-26 launch vehicle. First flight 1956.

Engines: Atar 9K, D-18T, EKR Ramjet, F100-100, F101, J79- 5, J79-17, J57-8, J57-19, J58, J75-17, J85-GE-5, J93-3, JT9D-3A, Matador M-16, NK-231, R-31 engine, RB-211-22B, RD-012U, RD-018, RD-020, RD-36-41, RJ47, XRJ47-W-5, XJ40-WE-1, XM-51. Spacecraft: Buran M-42, Buran M-44. Stages: B-47, B-57A, Bull Goose-1, C-130, C-17, F-104A, F-86D, MX-775-1, EKR Stage 2, White Knight, F-106, F-15, F-4, Mirage 4A, MiG-25, SR-71/M-12, B-58, T-4, L-1011, B-1A, NB-52, Tu-160, XB-70, NASA 747, An-124, Kholod, F2H2, Buran M-42 stage, Navaho G-38 AV, F-6A, Burya, Tu-121 cruise vehicle, F-6, F3H, CGM-13B stage, CIM-10B stage, MGM-109H, An-225, Gerakl, Navaho G-26 AV, Navaho X-10 stage.

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