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NASA Huntsville
Army Ballistic Missile Agency, USA.

AKA: ABMA;Army Ballistic Missile Agency;NASA Marshall.



People: Dannenberg, Stuhlinger, Dahm, Chappell, Johnston, Leslie. Country: USA. Engines: Fastrac. Spacecraft: Stuhlinger Mars 1957, Stuhlinger Mars 1962, Gemini Pecan, NASA Mars Flyby 1965, JAG Mars Flyby 1966, Apollo LTA, Apollo 120 in Telescope, Apollo LMAL, Skylab, Apollo ASTP Docking Module, HEAO, Science and Applications Manned Space Platform, STS External Tank Station, HST, Chandra. Launch Vehicles: Detko ATV. Projects: Apollo, ASTP.

1957 March 1 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: Missile break-up attributed to overheating in the tail section.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi).

    The first Jupiter flight was fired at 1651 hours EST from AMR. The missile achieved a 48,000 foot altitude. Flight terminated at 7.4 seconds because of missile break-up. Failure was attributed to overheating in the tail section. The trajectory to this point was as predicted.


1957 April 26 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Fired from AMR at 1512 hours EST to test the design version of the airframe and rocket engine. The flight terminated at 93 seconds because of propellant slosh. The missile achieved an altitude of 60,000 feet. The flight was partially successful..

1957 May 31 - . 18:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Army Jupiter IRBM was fired 1,500 miles, limit of its designed range, and to an altitude of 250-300 miles, the first successful launching of an IRBM. Fired from AMR at 1308 hours EST to test the range capability and performance of rocket engine and control system. Although the missile was 253 nm short of its estimated 1,400 nm impact point, this was the first successful flight of the Jupiter. All phases of the test were successful during this first firing of the IRBM in the western world


1957 August 28 - . 21:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    The fourth Jupiter was fired from AMR at 1602 hours EST over IRBM range and was the second successful flight of the series. The range error was 27.5 nm with a 36.5 nm lateral error. Range was predicted for 146 nm. LOX was cut off at 170 seconds. All flight missions were fulfilled satisfactorily. Separation occurred 5 seconds after burnout, as programmed, This was the first test of separation of body from thrust unit.


1957 October 23 - . 01:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    The fifth Jupiter was fired from the AMR at 2007 hours EST. This was the first flight with a heat protected nose cone. The ST-90 inertial guidance stabilised platform was operated with partially closed circuits. Cut-off was effected by the guidance system at 170.37 seconds. Since fuel was not depleted, flight time was 9.5 seconds longer than had been predicted for an approximate 1,100 nm range. The range error was 10.2 nm with a 3.4 nm lateral error. The nose cone survived re-entry and impacted in the general vicinity of the predicted impact point. Again, a successful flight.


1957 November 27 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: At 202 seconds of flight mechanical failure of the turbo-pump caused a complete loss of thrust.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 2110 hours EST. Main stage, lift-off, and powered flight were normal. The missile passed through the critical dynamic pressure period and followed the prescribed trajectory until 202 seconds of flight when the engine thrust was terminated. From an analysis covering the period before thrust termination, mechanical failure of the turbo-pump stopped the flow of propellants to the combustion chamber causing a complete loss of thrust. Telemetry signals ceased at 232 seconds. The missile was at an altitude of 65,000 feet when an explosion was observed from the Test Centre above the horizon. The long range mission of this flight was not accomplished; however, other primary and secondary missions were considered successful.


1957 December 19 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: Thrust ended abruptly at 116.87 seconds of flight due to turbo-pump malfunction.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF.

    Fired from AMR at 1507 hours EST. The main-stage, lift-off, and powered flight were normal. The missile followed the prescribed trajectory. Thrust ended abruptly at 116.87 seconds of flight which resulted in a short-range impact. Failure was again attributed to turbo-pump malfunction. The long-range mission. was not accomplished; however, other primary and secondary missions were successfully accomplished. The abrupt shutdown of the power plant resulted in a range of approximately 149 nm and an altitude of approximately 50 nm.


1958 May 18 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Gaslight Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    AM-5, carrying America's first tactical type re-entry nose cone, was fired from AMR at 0005 hours EST. This was also the first flight test. for first and second stage separation. Impact was 28.3 nm under and 15.6 nm to the right at a range of about 1,275 nm after approximately 960 seconds of flight. In less than five hours, the nose cone was recovered - the world's first recovery of an IRBM nose cone.


1958 July 17 - . 09:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Gaslight Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 0404 hours EST to a pre-calculated range of 1,241.3 nm. The nose cone impacted 1.0 nm short and 1.5 nm to the right of the predicted impact point. This was the first flight test of the complete inertial guidance system. The nose cone recovery mission was successful. This was also the second successful flight test of a full scale tactical type nose cone, as well as a successful flight test of the Jupiter lightweight, high explosive warhead.


1958 August 27 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 1815 hours EST. The countdown was normal. Operations were interrupted by one hold -- a 15 minute delay for minor adjustments. Ignition, main-stage, and lift-off were normal. The missile followed the pre-selected trajectory closely during powered flight, though cut-off was effected by fuel depletion rather than by pre-set guidance cut-off. The nose cone impacted 39 nm short and 15.7 nm to the left of the pre-calculated range of 1,246 nm. Jupiter 7 was the first flight test of the warhead and fuse system. This also marked the second flight test of the :Jupiter all-inertial guidance system, the fourth flight test of the NAA S-3D engine operating at 150,000 pounds thrust, and the first flight test of the solid propellant spin rocket and vernier motor.


1958 October 10 - . 03:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: Destroyed after 49 seconds of erratic flight caused by fire in the tail section.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 2249 hours EST. The missile was destroyed after 49 seconds of erratic flight caused by fire in the tail section. The fire was believed to have started by a pin-hole leak near the thrust transducer which burned through the fuel and LOX transducer lines. This was the first Jupiter missile to use swivelled turbine exhaust for roll contral, also first use of solid vernier control.


1958 December 13 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Bioflight 1 Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Gordo launched into space. Fired from AMR at 0353 hours EST. The missile's nose cone impacted in the pre-selected target area at a range of approximately 1,302 nm. The significant mission of the missile was the flight of a South American squirrel monkey `Gordo' up to and down from outer space. Although nose cone recovery efforts failed because the float mechanism attached to the nose cone did not function, telemetry data provided useful biomedical information and disclosed that the Navy-trained squirrel monkey had withstood the space flight and reentry phase without any adverse physiological effects. Gordo was in a weightless state for 8.3 minutes, he experienced a 10g pressure in takeoff, and a 40g pressure upon reentry at 10,000 miles per hour. The flight was considered one of the outstanding achievements of space research. The impact was 5.2 nm over and 0.75 nm to the right of impact point. The overshoot was caused by interaction which occurred at separation between the booster and aft sections. A temporary cable connecting the two bodies had not been removed prior to launch.


1959 January 22 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Tactical test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Tactical Test. The first Chrysler production qualification missile was fired from AMR at 1910 hours EST. The nose cone impacted in the pre-selected target area at a range of 1,302 nm. Miss distance was 3 nm over and 1 nm to the left of the target. The overshoot was caused by failure of the vernier engine to cut off high resistance of the squib firing circuit. Primary missions were successfully accomplished.


1959 February 27 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 1850 hours EST. The primary mission of impacting the nose cone in a pre-calculated target (MILS Network) was successfully accomplished, The nose cone impacted in the 1,302 nm target area, 2.8 nm over, with no lateral deviations. Again, the vernier engine ran to cut-off rather than the commanded 14 seconds -- a near perfect flight. For the first rime, missile roll was controlled by a turbine exhaust nozzle designed to eliminate problems experienced on previous flights.


1959 April 4 - . 00:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 1934 hours EST. The primary mission of impacting a nose cone in a pre-calculated target area (MILS Network) was successfully accomplished with an impact of 0.8 nm under end 5.0 nm to the left of the 1,302 nm range. The lateral miss was believed to have been caused by a drifting gyro.


1959 May 7 - . 01:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 2047 hours EST. All primary missions were essentially successful, although the impact was 69 nm short and 4.9 nm to the right of the 1,302 nm predicted impact point. This undershoot was due to thrust controller deviation which commanded the exceedingly high thrust level during the main power flight pre-selected flight path. Cut-off occurred at 144 seconds of flight.


1959 May 14 - . 05:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 0052 hours EST to test impact accuracy. This shot may be considered as having hit the target. The impact was: .26 nm over and 0.4 nm to the left of the predicted point of impact. Accuracy of the MILS Network was approximated at plus-or-minus 0.25 nm. All primary and secondary missions were accomplished except for photographic recording of the second separation. This could not be accomplished because of the firing date.


1959 May 28 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Bioflight 2 Test/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 483 km (300 mi).

    Able and Baker recovered after spaceflight. Fired from AMR at 0235 hours EST. The flight was successful with impact ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 nm from the target. The missile travelled a 1,302 nm range. The significant mission of the missile was to test the effects of cosmic radiation, increased gravity, and weightlessness on live passengers and biomedical experiments of material housed in the nose cone. On board were an American-born rhesus monkey, Able; a squirrel monkey, Baker; and the biomedical experiments -- yeast , corn, mustard seeds, fruit-fly larvae, human blood, mould spore, and fish eggs. Able and Baker were recovered unharmed within one and one-half hours after lift-off. This milestone marked the first recovery of living creatures from a flight through near space. The biomedical experiments were for NASA analysis. Telemetry data disclosed that the responses of the animals were normal for the conditions they were experiencing. During the boost phase, when the higher g-loads were being sustained, body temperature, respiration, pulse rate, and heartbeat rose but were well within tolerable limits. During the weightless period along the trajectory arc, the physiological responses of Able and Baker approached normal - so near, in fact, that according to telemetry data, Baker appeared either to doze or to become drowsy. Upon reentry, the responses rose again, but at landing the animals were nearing a settled physiological state. This flight was another milestone proving that life could be sustained in a space environment.


1959 July 10 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 2001 hours EST to test missile accuracy. All primary and secondary missions were successfully accomplished and impact was well within 1 nm of the pre-selected point, approximately 1,302 nm downrange -- a miss distance of only 0.48 nm short and 0.09 nm to the right.


1959 August 27 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Short range research and development mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    A short range (300 nm) IRBM, was fired from AMR at 2030 hours EST. The nose cone impacted 0.03 nm short and, 0.22 nm to the right, of the intended target. This was the first Jupiter missile to be programmed for a short range flight. All primary and secondary missions were accomplished.


1959 September 15 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM. FAILURE: The flight was erratic at lift-off and the missile destroyed itself after 13 seconds, just before command destruct. Failure of a silver soldered connection joint to the pressure sphere caused destruction of the missile.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Bioflight 3 Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Scheduled for launch at 0430 hours EST, was fired from AMR at 1645 hours EST. The nose cane housed several NASA biological specimens, including 14 mice..

1959 October 1 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 2028 hours EST. The primary mission of impacting the nose cone in a pre-calculated target area was successfully accomplished . The missile covered a pre-calculated range of 1,299.4 nm, with the nose cone impacting within 1.25 nm of the predicted point. In addition to the usual ST-90 Stabiliser Platform, the missile carried a second system for relative accuracy and for drift investigations. It also housed a telemetry system. A significant mission was to determine environmental flight conditions.


1959 October 22 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    The first full range tactical prototype, was fired from AMR at 2220 hours EST. All missions assigned to the flight was successfully accomplished. The missile covered a prescribed range of 1,600.448 nm, with the nose cone impacting 0.9 nm short and 0.6 nm to the right. This was the fourth Chrysler-assembled missile to be flight tested.


1959 November 5 - . 00:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 1938 hours EST to a pre-selected range of 1,299.4 nm. The nose cone impacted 0.56 nm short and 0.09 nm right of the impact point. The test successfully accomplished all intended missions. This was the first highly successful, Chrysler-assembled Jupiter fired in the test program sad was the first fired without static firing.


1959 November 19 - . 01:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Successfully fired from AMR at 2031 hours EST to a pre-calculated range of 664.8 nm. Nose cone impacted 0.9 nm over and 1.0 nm left of the target. This was the first medium range flight for a tactical prototype..

1959 December 10 - . 00:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Fired from AMR at 1908 hours EST. The original countdown of 480 minutes was shortened to 240 minutes. The flight was successful in all phases. The nose cone impacted 0.3 nm over and 2.0 nm right of the 2,299.4 nm range..

1959 December 17 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Fired from AMR at 1903 hours EST to a prescribed distance of 300 nm. The flight was successful in all phases. Impact was 0.3 nm to the right of the 300 nm range. .

1960 January 26 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Fired from AMR at 1948 hours EST to a prescribed range of: 1,299.4 nm. The nose cone impacted 0.04 nm over and 3.27 nm to the left. All missions were successfully accomplished despite elevated temperatures in the tail section. The primary mission of this flight was to test the two-way deflector launch section and to analyse elevated temperatures in the tail


1960 February 5 - . 00:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville, USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). The 28th R&D firing was from AMR at 1919 hours EST to a pre-calculated range of 1,299 nm. The flight successfully accomplished all primary and secondary missions. The nose cone impacted 0.65 nm short and 0.52 nm right of the intended target..

1960 October 20 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter IRBM.
  • LST test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    Jupiter missile Live System Test 217, the first to be fired under simulated tactical conditions using GSE prescribed for the Jupiter deployed to NATO I, was fired from AMR at 1102 hours EST. The missile successfully accomplished all primary and secondary missions. The nose cone impacted 1.1 nm over and 0.2 nm right of the pre-determined target 962.5 nm downrange.


1963 February 28 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart. FAILURE: Failure.
1963 March 27 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart. FAILURE: Failure.
1963 April 25 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart. FAILURE: Failure.
1963 May 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 May 10 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 June 5 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 July 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 August 7 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 August 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 August 22 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart. FAILURE: Failure.
1963 August 22 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 October 29 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 October 29 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1963 October 29 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1964 January 29 - . 16:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Saturn 5 - . Payload: Saturn-SA 5. Mass: 17,100 kg (37,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Apollo. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry test vehicle. Spacecraft: Jupiter nose cone. Decay Date: 1966-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 744 . COSPAR: 1964-005A. Apogee: 740 km (450 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 31.4000 deg. Period: 94.80 min.

    First first mission of Block II Saturn with two live stages. SA-5, a vehicle development flight, was launched from Cape Kennedy Complex 37B at 11:25:01.41, e.s.t. This was the first flight of the Saturn I Block II configuration (i.e., lengthened fuel tanks in the S-1 and stabilizing tail fins), as well as the first flight of a live (powered) S-IV upper stage. The S-1, powered by eight H-1 engines, reached a full thrust of over 680,400 kilograms (1.5 million pounds) the first time in flight. The S-IV's 41,000 kilogram (90,000-pound-thrust cluster of six liquid-hydrogen RL-10 engines performed as expected. The Block II SA-5 was also the first flight test of the Saturn I guidance system.


1964 February 13 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1964 February 13 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1964 February 14 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1964 August 19 - . 19:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1964 August 21 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1964 August 24 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1964 August 28 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1964 October 1 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1964 October 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1964 October 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1964 October 16 - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart. FAILURE: Failure.
1964 October 22 - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1964 November 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1964 November 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Hopi Dart.
1965 February 16 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Pegasus 1 - . Payload: Pegasus 1. Mass: 10,400 kg (22,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Apollo. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: Pegasus satellite. Decay Date: 1978-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1085 . COSPAR: 1965-009A. Apogee: 726 km (451 mi). Perigee: 510 km (310 mi). Inclination: 31.7000 deg. Period: 97.00 min.

    A Saturn I vehicle SA-9 launched a multiple payload into a high 744 by 496 km (462 by 308 mi) earth orbit. The rocket carried a boilerplate (BP) CSM (BP-16) and, fitted inside the SM, the Pegasus I meteoroid detection satellite. This was the eighth successful Saturn flight in a row, and the first to carry an active payload. BP-16's launch escape tower was jettisoned following second-stage S-IV ignition. After attaining orbit, the spacecraft were separated from the S-IV. Thereupon the Pegasus I's panels were deployed and were ready to perform their task, i.e., registering meteoroid impact and relaying the information to the ground.


1965 February 17 - . 19:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 February 24 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 February 26 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 March 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 March 10 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 March 10 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 March 17 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 March 24 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 March 31 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 April 7 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 April 14 - . 17:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 April 17 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 April 21 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 April 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 May 12 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 May 25 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Pegasus 2 - . Payload: Pegasus 2. Mass: 10,464 kg (23,069 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Apollo. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: Pegasus satellite. Decay Date: 1979-11-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1381 . COSPAR: 1965-039A. Apogee: 740 km (450 mi). Perigee: 502 km (311 mi). Inclination: 31.7000 deg. Period: 97.00 min.

    Pegasus 2 was a meteoroid detection satellite. The Saturn I launch vehicle (SA-8) placed the spacecraft, protected by a boilerplate CSM (BP-26), into a 740-by-509-km (460-by-316-mi) orbit. Once in orbit, the dummy CSM was jettisoned. Pegasus 2, still attached to the second stage of the launch vehicle, then deployed its 29-m (96-ft) winglike panels. Within several hours, the device began registering meteoroid hits.


1965 May 26 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 June 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 June 11 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 June 16 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 June 23 - . 17:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 June 30 - . 15:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 July 7 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 July 14 - . 17:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart. FAILURE: Failure.
1965 July 21 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 July 23 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 July 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 July 30 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Pegasus 3 - . Payload: Pegasus 3. Mass: 10,500 kg (23,100 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Apollo. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: Pegasus satellite. Decay Date: 1969-08-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 1467 . COSPAR: 1965-060A. Apogee: 449 km (278 mi). Perigee: 441 km (274 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 93.40 min.

    NASA launched Pegasus 3, third of the meteoroid detection satellites, as scheduled at 8:00 a.m. EST, from Cape Kennedy. As earlier, an Apollo spacecraft (boilerplate 9) served as the payload's shroud. This flight (SA-10) marked the end of the Saturn I program, which during its seven-year lifetime had achieved 10 straight successful launches and had contributed immeasurably to American rocket technology.


1965 August 13 - . 17:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 August 18 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 August 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 September 1 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 September 17 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 September 22 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 September 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 October 6 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 October 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 October 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 October 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 November 1 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 November 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 November 17 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 November 24 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 November 29 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 December 8 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 December 17 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1965 December 22 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 January 5 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 January 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 January 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 January 27 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 February 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 February 22 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 February 25 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 February 26 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 July 4 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 July 5 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Uprated Saturn I.
  • Apollo 203 - . Payload: Saturn S-IVB-203. Mass: 26,500 kg (58,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Apollo. Decay Date: 1966-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 2289 . COSPAR: 1966-059A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 31.9000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    First orbital test Saturn IB; no spacecraft. AS-203 lifted off from Launch Complex 37, Eastern Test Range, at 10:53 a.m. EDT in the second of three Apollo-Saturn missions scheduled before manned flight in the Apollo program. All objectives - to acquire flight data on the S-IVB stage and instrument unit - were achieved.

    The uprated Saturn I - consisting of an S-IB stage, S-IVB stage, and an instrument unit - boosted an unmanned payload into an original orbit of 185 by 189 kilometers. The inboard engine cutoff of the first stage occurred after 2 minutes 18 seconds of flight and the outboard engine cutoff was 4 seconds later. The S-IVB engine burned 4 minutes 50 seconds. No recovery was planned and the payload was expected to enter the earth's atmosphere after about four days.


1966 July 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 August 24 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1966 August 25 - . 19:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1967 January 24 - . 08:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1967 November 8 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1967 November 9 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1968 January 23 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1968 April 4 - . 18:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1968 April 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1968 May 6 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1968 May 6 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
1968 May 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • HE Loki Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1968 May 6 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1968 May 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1968 May 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1968 May 20 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • HE Loki Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1968 May 20 - . 16:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
1968 October 11 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1968 November 20 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 March 19 - . 17:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 March 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 March 23 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 March 25 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 March 27 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 March 31 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 6 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 7 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 8 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 9 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 15 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 16 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 17 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1973 May 14 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: LUT2. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Skylab 1 - . Payload: Skylab Orbital Workshop. Mass: 74,783 kg (164,868 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Skylab. Decay Date: 1979-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6633 . COSPAR: 1973-027A. Apogee: 439 km (272 mi). Perigee: 427 km (265 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

    First and only US space station to date. Project began life as Apollo Orbital Workshop - outfitting of an S-IVB stage with docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. Curtailment of the Apollo moon landings meant that surplus Saturn V's were available, so the pre-equipped, five times heavier, and much more capable Skylab resulted.

    An unexpected telemetry indication of meteoroid shield deployment and solar array wing 2 beam fairing separation was received 1 minute and 3 seconds after liftoff. However, all other systems of the OWS appeared normal, and the OWS was inserted into a near-circular Earth orbit of approximately 435 km altitude. The payload shroud was jettisoned, and the ATM with its solar array was deployed as planned during the first orbit. Deployment of the Workshop solar array and the meteoroid shield was not successful. In fact the xternal solar/meteoroid shield had ripped off 63 seconds into ascent, tearing away one solar panel wing and debris jamming the remaining panel. Without shield temperatures soared in station. Repairs by crews led to virtually all mission objectives being met.

    Following the final manned phase of the Skylab mission, ground controllers performed some engineering tests of certain Skylab systems--tests that ground personnel were reluctant to do while men were aboard. Results from these tests helped to determine causes of failures during the mission and to obtain data on long term degradation of space systems.

    Upon completion of the engineering tests, Skylab was positioned into a stable attitude and systems were shut down. It was expected that Skylab would remain in orbit eight to ten years. It was to have been visited by an early shuttle mission, reboosted into a higher orbit, and used by space shuttle crews. But delays in the first flight of the shuttle made this impossible.

    On July 11, 1979, Skylab disintegrated when it re-entered the earth's atmosphere after a worldwide scare over its pending crash. The debris stretched from the south-east Indian Ocean into Western Australia. Additional Details: here....


1975 July 15 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: LUT1. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Saturn S-IVB-210 - . Payload: Saturn S-IVB-210. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: ASTP. Decay Date: 1975-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 8033 . COSPAR: 1975-066B. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi). Perigee: 152 km (94 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 87.60 min.

1976 May 4 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2913.
  • Lageos - . Payload: Lageos 1. Mass: 411 kg (906 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Lageos. USAF Sat Cat: 8820 . COSPAR: 1976-039A. Apogee: 5,947 km (3,695 mi). Perigee: 5,839 km (3,628 mi). Inclination: 109.9000 deg. Period: 225.50 min.

    LAGEOS (Laser Geodetic Satellite) was a very dense (high mass-to-area ratio) laser retroreflector satellite which provided a permanent reference point in a very stable orbit for such precision earth-dynamics measurements as crustal motions, regional strains, fault motions, polar motion and earth-rotation variations, solid earth tides, and other kinematic and dynamic parameters associated with earthquake assessment and alleviation. The performance in orbit of LAGEOS was limited only by degradation of the retroreflectors, so many decades of useful life can be expected. The high mass-to-area ratio and the precise, stable (attitude-independent) geometry of the spacecraft, together with the orbit, made this satellite the most precise position reference available. Because it is visible in all parts of the world and has an extended operation life in orbit, LAGEOS can serve as a fundamental standard for decades. Additional Details: here....


1977 August 12 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • HEAO 1 - . Payload: HEAO A. Mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HEAO. Decay Date: 1979-03-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10217 . COSPAR: 1977-075A. Apogee: 447 km (277 mi). Perigee: 429 km (266 mi). Inclination: 22.7000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. High Energy Astronomical Observatory; surveyed sky in X-ray band. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1978 November 13 - . 05:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • HEAO 2 - . Payload: HEAO B. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HEAO. Decay Date: 1982-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11101 . COSPAR: 1978-103A. Apogee: 548 km (340 mi). Perigee: 526 km (326 mi). Inclination: 23.5000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. High Energy Astronomy Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1985 July 29 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • PDP - . Payload: Challenger F8 / PDP. Mass: 285 kg (628 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: PDP. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15929 . COSPAR: 1985-063B. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. Plasma Diagnostics Package; released by STS 51F 8/1/85, retrieved 8/2/85. .

1993 March 30 - . 03:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • SEDS 1 - . Payload: SEDS 1 End Mass/Tether. Mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: SEDS. Decay Date: 1993-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 22582 . COSPAR: 1993-017B. Apogee: 719 km (446 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 36.0000 deg. Period: 93.62 min. Small Expendable-tether Deployer System. .

1996 May 18 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). First flight of the DC-XA; aeroshell caught fire during slow landing. Reached altitude of 244 m during a 62 second flight..

1996 June 7 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Maximum structural stresses with 50% full LOX tank. Reached altitude of 590 m during a 64 second flight..

1996 June 8 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi). 26-hour rapid turnaround demostration; new altitude and duration record. Reached altitude of 3140 m during a 142 second flight..

1996 July 31 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA. FAILURE: Landing strut 2 failed to extend; vehicle tipped over and LOX tank exploded; vehicle destroyed..
  • Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Reached altitude of 1250 m during a 140 second flight..

1996 November 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: AMROC. Launch Vehicle: Hyperion.
1996 November 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: AMROC. Launch Vehicle: Hyperion.
1997 January 8 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: AMROC. Launch Vehicle: Hyperion.
1997 April 25 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: AMROC. Launch Vehicle: Hyperion.
1999 July 23 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Chandra - . Payload: OV-102. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Chandra. USAF Sat Cat: 25867 . COSPAR: 1999-040B. Apogee: 128,769 km (80,013 mi). Perigee: 20,046 km (12,455 mi). Inclination: 45.1000 deg. Period: 3,808.60 min.

    The Chandra Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was one of NASA’s four Great Observatories (along with Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the SIRTF). Chandra will study the composition and nature of galaxies, stellar objects and interstellar phenomena as well as basic issues in theoretical physics using the most sensitive X-ray telescope ever built. The IUS under-performed and placed Chandra in an orbit about 900 km lower than planned. Therefore Chandra's own IPS propulsion system had to be used to make up the difference. The first such manoeuvre was at 01:11 GMT on July 25 when the IPS engines fired for 5 minutes to raise perigee to 1192 km. Further perigee burns on July 31, August 4, and August 7 raised the orbit to its final 10,000 km x 140.000 km. Additional Details: here....



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