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ESRO
ESRO 4
ESRO 4
Credit: Manufacturer Image
European technology satellite. The ESRO series were small Scout-launched probes of near-earth space. Research satellite built by Laboratoire Central de Telecommunications for ESRO, Europe. Launched 1968 - 1969.

AKA: Aurorae;Boreas;IRIS. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-30. Last Launch: 1972-11-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 85 kg (187 lb).


More at: ESRO.

Subtopics

ESRO 2A, 2B (Iris 1, 2) Research, cosmic radiation and solar astronomy satellite built by Hawker Siddely Dynamics, Matra for ESRO, Europe. Launched 1967 - 1968.

ESRO 4 Research, ionosphere, magnetosphere satellite built by Hawker-Siddeley Dynamics for ESRO, Europe. Launched 1972.

Family: Technology, Technology satellite. Country: Europe. Spacecraft: ESRO, HEOS, TD-1A. Launch Vehicles: Scout, Scout B, Scout D-1, Scout D. Launch Sites: Vandenberg, Vandenberg SLC5, Kiruna. Bibliography: 126, 2, 279, 6, 6483, 12323, 12324.
Photo Gallery

ESRO 1AESRO 1A
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ESRO 2AESRO 2A
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IRISIRIS
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IRISIRIS
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1964 July 6 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • MPE Ba-7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1964 July 8 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • MPE Ba-8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1964 October 29 - . 23:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C02 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 March 31 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S03 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1965 April 3 - . 12:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S03 / 2 (SE5) Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1965 August 10 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • Ultraviolet photometer Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1965 September 30 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • MPE Ba-12 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1965 October 2 - . 04:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • MPE Ba-13 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 December 7 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C07 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 December 11 - . 04:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C07 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1965 December 14 - . 12:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C06 / 1 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1966 February 4 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C15 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1966 February 11 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C15 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1966 February 22 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C14 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1966 February 23 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C14 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1966 March 9 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C13 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1966 March 10 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C13 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 May 15 - . 05:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C06 / 2 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1966 May 15 - . 09:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sparrow Arcas.
  • ESRO A23 / 1 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sparrow Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A23 / 2 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sparrow Arcas.
  • ESRO A23 / 3 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 99 km (61 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C22 / 1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sparrow Arcas.
  • ESRO A23 / 4 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sparrow Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A23 / 5 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 7.00 km (4.30 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sparrow Arcas.
  • ESRO A23 / 6 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C22 / 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 June 16 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1966 June 18 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 20 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S08 / 1 (SK7) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 27 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique AGI.
  • FU-154 recovery test - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi). FU154 Technology (recovery) mission..

1966 June 28 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S08 / 2 (SK8) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1966 July 8 - . 19:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S18 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1966 July 13 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S18 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

1966 July 20 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Belier.
  • ESRO B12 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1966 July 25 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Belier.
  • ESRO B12 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1966 November 19 - . 23:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C21 / 1 Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1966 November 26 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S11 / 2 (SK16) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1966 November 29 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C9 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1966 November 30 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C9 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 147 km (91 mi).

1967 February 4 - . 23:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C21 / 2 Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1967 February 16 - . 07:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C10 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1967 February 22 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C10 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1967 April 19 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C24/1 test - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1967 May 22 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S11 / 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1967 May 25 - . 23:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S05 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1967 May 30 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • ESRO 2A - . Payload: Iris 1. Mass: 74 kg (163 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1967-05-29 .

1967 July 31 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C20 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1967 July 31 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C32 / 1 Meteorite mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1967 September 27 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S26 / 1 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1967 October 4 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1.
  • ESRO D34 / 1 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi).

1967 October 4 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S19 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1967 October 7 - . 10:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1.
  • ESRO D30 / 1 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi).

1967 October 7 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S26 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO D34 / 2 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S19 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1967 November 24 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C13 / P Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1967 November 26 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C31 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 21:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C31 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1968 February 1 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C36 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1968 February 4 - . 05:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C36 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1968 March 6 - . 21:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C14 / P Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 March 26 - . 23:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S16 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1968 May 8 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C33 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1968 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier III.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: CNES, ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1968 May 15 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • ESRO C33 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1968 May 17 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • ESRO 2B - . Payload: IRIS. Mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1971-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 3233 . COSPAR: 1968-041A. Apogee: 1,085 km (674 mi). Perigee: 334 km (207 mi). Inclination: 97.2000 deg. Period: 99.00 min.

1968 May 20 - . 15:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C42 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 May 22 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO D30 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1968 June 7 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C42 / 2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1968 June 8 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C32 / 2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 July 30 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C20 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 August 12 - . 12:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2.
  • ESRO A50 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 96 km (59 mi).

1968 August 25 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2.
  • ESRO A50 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1968 October 3 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • ESRO 1A - . Payload: Aurorae. Mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1970-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3459 . COSPAR: 1968-084A. Apogee: 1,538 km (955 mi). Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 93.8000 deg. Period: 103.00 min. Aurora, polar ionosphere investigations. .

1968 October 7 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1968 October 8 - . 11:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C35 / 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1968 October 15 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C45 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1968 November 1 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C45 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 November 1 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Arcas VI PCA Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1968 November 22 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • Solar BCS Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1968 November 25 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S43 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1968 December 3 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1968 December 5 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • HEOS 1 - . Payload: HEOS A1. Mass: 108 kg (238 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: HEOS. Decay Date: 1975-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3595 . COSPAR: 1968-109A. Apogee: 202,780 km (126,000 mi). Perigee: 20,020 km (12,430 mi). Inclination: 60.5000 deg. Period: 6,704.30 min. Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1969 February 25 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 3 (R127) Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C49 / 1 (R3) Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A40 / 4 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C49 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1969 March 15 - . 20:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S43 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1969 March 15 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C52 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1969 April 13 - . 08:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 7 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1969 April 13 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 5 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 2 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C39 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 6 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1969 April 15 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C39 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi).

1969 June 5 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C35 / 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1969 July 5 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S38 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 July 6 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S64 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1969 July 11 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S38 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1969 July 13 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S64 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1969 August 11 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C51 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1969 August 14 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C58 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1969 October 1 - . 22:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • ESRO 1B - . Payload: Boreas. Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1969-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4114 . COSPAR: 1969-083A. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 85.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min.

    Ionospheric and auroral investigations; lower than planned orbit. Fourth satellite of ESRO. Also registered by the United States in A/AC.105/INF.220 as United States space object 1969-83A, with category B and orbital parameters 90.6 min, 280 x 339 km x 85.1 deg.


1969 October 5 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S29 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1969 October 10 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C52 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1969 October 17 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S29 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1969 October 24 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • ESRO S68 / 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1969 November 10 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S46 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1969 November 27 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C62 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 November 27 - . 06:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C62 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 January 24 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S56A / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 February 4 - . 05:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C57 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1970 February 6 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC.
  • ESRO S44 / 1 Stellar ultraviolet Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1970 February 10 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S72 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1970 February 14 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S66 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C37 / 1 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 24 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S70 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S61 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1970 February 26 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S61 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1970 April 2 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S66 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1970 April 3 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C57 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1970 April 4 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S28 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1970 June 7 - . 07:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C48 / 1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 June 22 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S68 / 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1970 July 3 - . 19:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S63 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 8 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S63 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S56A / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1970 July 24 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S65 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 July 27 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S65 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 August 9 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C58 / 2 Ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C51 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1970 August 19 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C48 / 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 October 16 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S53 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1970 October 19 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S58 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 27 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S67 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1970 October 29 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S67 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi).

1970 December 6 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S69 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1971 January 8 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 January 15 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 14:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C37 / 2 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1971 January 19 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Skua.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 4 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 5 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1971 January 23 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 6 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C60 / 1 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C60 / 2 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • ESRO P40 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 January 27 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 47 km (29 mi).

1971 January 27 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C78 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 January 28 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S46 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 17:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 9 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1971 January 31 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 10 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1971 February 3 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 11 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S80 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S80 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1971 February 7 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S80 / 3 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1971 February 8 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 12 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 48 km (29 mi).

1971 February 9 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 13 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 February 11 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 14 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1971 February 12 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 15 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 February 22 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S85 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 26 - . 10:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S54 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S16 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 March 11 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S55 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1971 March 15 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S87 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1971 March 24 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S87 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 March 25 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S56B / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S56B / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S73 Solar X-ray/Zodiacal mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1971 July 30 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Zenit C.
  • ESRO Z82/1 - . Nation: Italy. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 26 km (16 mi).

1971 July 31 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2C.
  • ESRO C59/1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 August 1 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2C.
  • ESRO C59/2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1971 September 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S47 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 12 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S81 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S89 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 November 16 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S44 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1971 November 22 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C78 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1971 November 25 - . 17:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S70/2 Ionosphere/VLF Radio mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1971 December 14 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S82/2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1972 January 21 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2C.
  • ESRO C76/1 Particles/Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1972 January 22 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2C.
  • ESRO C76/2 Particles/Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1972 January 31 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta L.
  • HEOS 2 - . Payload: HEOS A2. Mass: 123 kg (271 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: HEOS. Decay Date: 1974-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5814 . COSPAR: 1972-005A. Apogee: 240,164 km (149,230 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 89.9000 deg. Period: 7,477.10 min. Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; particles and fields data. Fifth satellite of ESRO. Also registered as US object 1972-05A in A/AC.105/INF.248 with orbit 7835.4 min, 439 x 248160 km x 90.2 deg, category B. .

1972 February 28 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S84 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi).

1972 February 28 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S90 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi).

1972 March 2 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4.
  • ESRO S77 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1972 March 12 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N.
  • TD-1A; Thor Delta 1A - . Payload: TD 1A. Mass: 472 kg (1,040 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: TD-1A. Decay Date: 1980-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5879 . COSPAR: 1972-014A. Apogee: 550 km (340 mi). Perigee: 523 km (324 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Sixth satellite of ESRO. Also registered as US object 1972-14A in A/AC.105/INF.255 with orbit 95.3 min, 525 x 548 km x 97.5 deg, category B. .

1972 March 24 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S75 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1972 March 30 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4.
  • ESRO S75 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1972 June 25 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S91 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1972 September 24 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4.
  • ESRO S77 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1972 October 13 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S105 Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1972 November 2 - . 06:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC.
  • ESRO S95 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1972 November 20 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S94 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1972 November 22 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1.
  • ESRO 4 - . Mass: 114 kg (251 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1974-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6285 . COSPAR: 1972-092A. Apogee: 1,173 km (728 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 91.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Polar ionosphere investigations. Seventh ESRO satellite. Mass 115 kg. Also registered by the United States as 1972-92A, in A/AC.105/INF.267, with orbital parameters 98.8 min, 244 x 1160 km x 91.1 deg, category B. .


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