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Pioneer 10-11
Pioneer 10
Pioneer 10
Credit: NASA
American outer planets probe. Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only). Jupiter (10,11), Saturn (11) flyby satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1972 - 1973.

Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-03-03. Last Launch: 1973-04-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 258 kg (568 lb).

Instruments aboard the two craft studied Jupiter and Saturn's atmospheres, magnetic fields, moons, and rings, as well as the interplanetary magnetic and dust particle environment, the solar wind, and cosmic rays. Following their planetary encounters, the vehicles continued on escape trajectories from the solar system. Both spacecraft carry a plaque with a drawing depicting a man, woman, and the location of the sun and earth in the galaxy as greetings to any extraterrestrial who may find the vehicles.


On-orbit dry mass: 258 kg. Spin stabilized at ~5 rpm. Attitude controlled by direction finding on communications radio beam. Hexagonal structure of aluminum with boron-epoxy tubes. Hydrazine propulsion with 6 x 1-lbf thrusters.40 AHr AgCd battery.49 kbits data storage.2.74 m diameter. parabolic HGA, medium gain and low gain antennas provide S-band communications from 2048 to 16 bps through NASA DSN stations. Deployable 6.6 m boom for magnetometer. One star (Canopus) sensor and two sun sensors for attitude knowledge. The spacecraft body was mounted behind a 2.74-m-diameter parabolic dish antenna that was 46 cm deep. The spacecraft structure was a 36-cm-deep flat equipment compartment, the top and bottom being regular hexagons. Its sides were 71 cm long. One side joined a smaller compartment that carried the scientific experiments. The high-gain antenna feed was situated on three struts, which projected forward about 1.2 m. This feed was topped with a medium-gain antenna. A low-gain omnidirectional antenna extended about 0.76 m behind the equipment compartment and was mounted below the high-gain antenna. Power for the spacecraft was obtained by four SNAP-19 radioisotope thermonuclear generators (RTG), which were held about 3 m from the center of the spacecraft by two three-rod trusses 120 degrees apart. A third boom extended 6.6 m from the experiment compartment to hold the magnetometer away from the spacecraft. The four RTG's generated about 155 W at launch and decayed to approximately 140 W by the time the spacecraft reached Jupiter, 21 months after launch. There were three reference sensors: a star sensor for Canopus which failed shortly after Jupiter encounter and two sun sensors. Attitude position could be calculated from the reference directions to the earth and the sun, with the known direction to Canopus as a backup. Three pairs of rocket thrusters provided spin-rate control and changed the velocity of the spacecraft, the spin period near the end of the mission being 14.1 seconds. These thrusters could be pulsed or fired steadily by command. The spacecraft was temperature-controlled between minus 23 degrees C and plus 38 degrees C. A plaque was mounted on the spacecraft body with drawings depicting a man, a woman, and the location of the sun and the earth in our galaxy.

Communications were maintained via (1) the omnidirectional and medium-gain antennas which operated together while connected to one receiver and (2) the high-gain antenna which was connected to another receiver. These receivers could be interchanged by command to provide some redundancy. Two radio transmitters, coupled to two traveling-wave tube amplifiers, produced 8 W at 2292 MHz each. Uplink was accomplished at 2110 MHz, while data transmission downlink was at 2292 MHz. The data were received by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) at bit rates up to 2048 bps en route to Jupiter and at 16 bps near end of the mission.


Fifteen experiments were carried to study the interplanetary and planetary magnetic fields; solar wind parameters; cosmic rays; transition region of the heliosphere; neutral hydrogen abundance; distribution, size, mass, flux, and velocity of dust particles; Jovian aurora; Jovian radio waves; atmosphere of Jupiter and some of its satellites, particularly Io; and to photograph Jupiter and its satellites. Instruments carried for these experiments were magnetometer, plasma analyzer, charged particle detector, ionizing detector, non-imaging telescopes with overlapping fields of view to detect sunlight reflected from passing meteoroids, sealed pressurized cells of argon and nitrogen gas for measuring the penetration of meteoroids, UV photometer, IR radiometer, and an imaging photopolarimeter, which produced photographs and measured polarization. Further scientific information was obtained from the tracking and occultation data. Pioneer 11 also carried a low-sensitivity fluxgate magnetometer.

More at: Pioneer 10-11.

Family: Outer planets. Country: USA. Launch Vehicles: Atlas, Atlas SLV-3C Centaur, Atlas SLV-3D Centaur. Projects: Pioneer series. Launch Sites: Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral LC36A, Cape Canaveral LC36B. Agency: NASA, NASA Ames, TRW. Bibliography: 2, 278, 296, 4017, 6, 12957.
Photo Gallery

Pioneer 10Pioneer 10
Credit: Manufacturer Image

1972 March 3 - . 01:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
1973 April 6 - . 02:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
1973 December 3 - .
1974 December 2 - .
1979 September 1 - .
1995 September 30 - .
2003 January 22 - .

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