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Russian surface-to-air missile. Developed Tunguska - extended-range truck-mounted single-vehicle missile-gun anti-aircraft system for the export market.

AKA: 9M335;Sosna. Status: Operational 2000. Gross mass: 66 kg (146 lb). Height: 3.20 m (10.40 ft). Diameter: 0.17 m (0.55 ft). Span: 0.52 m (1.70 ft).

Long range plans for further development of the Tugunska system centred on the ZPRK Pantsir-S vehicle, then later the Pantsir-S1. This system was designed to destroy strategically important targets. It was based on the in-service Tugunska-M1, but was capable of attacking a universal range of targets - tactical aircraft, helicopters, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, glide bombs, target designating aircraft, naval vessels, and fixed land targets. The vehicle was equipped with 12 x 57E6 surface-to-air missiles and 2 x 2A72 30mm guns with 750 rounds of ammunition. NPO Fazatron designed the frequency-agile millimetre range Shlem radar. This could detect targets of 2 to 3 square metres radar cross-section at 30 km range, and track them from 24 km range. The system could also operate in passive mode, with the radar quiet and detect a target using an infrared sensor, with the computer processing the signal for automatic tracking of the target.

Two targets could be simultaneously tracked while missiles were guided against them. The vehicle was capable of destroying 12 targets per minute. The missile was capable of destroying targets at altitudes of from 5 to 8000 m, and at ranges from 1 to 20 km. The gun system was capable against targets from 0 to 3000 m altitude, and at 200 m to 4 km range. The overall system had a 5 to 6 second reaction time, and a single-missile kill probability of between 60% and 80%.

The surface-to-air missile was 3.2 m long and weighed 90 kg, consisting of a booster stage and a smaller diameter dart second stage. The solid rocket motor of the first stage accelerated the missile to 1300 m/s; the dart, with a 16 kg warhead and contact and proximity fuses, then continued to the target. The system was quick enough that a shoot-look-shoot attack concept was used. The success of the first missile in destroying the target could be assessed before firing a second missile. It was not necessarily to fire two missiles simultaneously to ensure destruction of the target as in earlier systems.

The 30mm gun had a normal rate of fire of 700 rounds/minute, and a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s. The ZPRK vehicle had a total weight of 20 tonnes and was operated by a crew of three. The Russian variant of the Pantsir system used the Ural-5323 four-axle truck. In 1995 a naval version of the system, designated Palash, was developed. This used the same surface-to-air missile, but the guns were uprated to the AK-630M model capable of a firing rate of 1000 rounds/minute. A guns-only variant of the system was also available.

Country: Russia. Agency: Nepobidimy.

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