Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Buran Analogue
Part of Buran Family
Aeroburan Analogue
Aeroburan Analogue
Aeroburan Analogue in landing flare
Credit: from Semenov, et. al., Buran, 1995.
Russian manned spaceplane. This Buran OK-GLI 'Analogue' was a version of the Buran spaceplane equipped with jet engines to allow it to be flown in handling and landing system tests at subsonic speed in the earth's atmosphere.

Status: Operational 1985.

It had the same aerodynamic, center of gravity, and inertial characteristics as the orbiter.

Its main purpose was to conduct the repetitive tests necessary to develop the automated landing system. The OK-GLI differed from the space-rated orbiters in being equipped with four AL-31 turbojet engines, with a total thrust of 40 metric tons, mounted at 4 degrees off the horizontal axis. These allowed the analogue to take off from conventional air fields. After reaching 5,000 m altitude, the engines would be shut off, and a manual or automatic landing would be accomplished. The analogue was equipped with the same essential systems as the orbiter, including the RM-1 and RM-2 ejection seats, the GSP and VIU navigation systems; the landing gear, landing system antennae, thermal sensors, and first and second group accelerometers. Prior to completion the OK-GLI was used on the 3M-T transport to test fight characteristics of the 3M-T/orbiter combination, the OK-launch vehicle interface attach points, and to develop the optimal transport configuration. It had been claimed that some of these tests were to be manned, and that on the first such flight cosmonauts Georgi Shonin and Yevgeni Khrunov were involved in an accident when the 3M-T ran off the runway. However it was now known that the payload capacity of the 3M-T was limited to 50 metric tons, so this story seems unlikely (an empty orbiter would weigh at least 70 metric tons). After these tests the OK-GLI was returned to the shop for completion. Thereafter it began a series of test flights to verify the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the design and develop the manual and automatic flight and landing systems. The aircraft was retired to the Zhukovskiy test center near Moscow, where it was often rolled out for exhibition during air shows.

Family: Spaceplane, Suborbital. Country: Russia. Launch Sites: Baikonur Jubilee. Agency: Molniya bureau. Bibliography: 189, 81.


Photo Gallery

Aeroburan back viewAeroburan back view


Aero Buran In FlightAero Buran In Flight
Credit: RKK Energia


Aeroburan CrewAeroburan Crew
Aeroburan crew after flight
Credit: RKK Energia


Aero BuranAero Buran
Aero Buran on display at Ramenskoye.



1984 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
  • Buran Analog BST-02 taxi test 1 - . Crew: Stankevicius, Volk. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stankevicius, Volk. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran Analogue. Maximum speed 45 kph. Time 5 minutes. Thereafter to PRSO test stand for full-scale equipment tests; then to PDST pilot-dynamics test stand for further tests..

1985 August 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 November 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 November 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 January 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 May 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 June 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 June 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 December 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 February 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 February 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 March 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 May 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 June 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 January 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 February 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
  • Buran Analog BST-02 flight 25 - . Crew: Stankevicius, Volk. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stankevicius, Volk. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran Analogue. Time 19 minutes. Final Buran Analog flight test. At the same time development of the auto-land system aboard the Tu-154 test bed is completed as well..

1989 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.

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