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Safir
Part of Nodong 1 Family
Iran's first orbital launch vehicle, based on the Shahab 3 intermediate range ballistic missile with upper stages.

AKA: Kavoshgar; Safir-2; Shahab 6. Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-08-16. Last Launch: 2015-02-02. Number: 7 . Payload: 25 kg (55 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf). Gross mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Height: 22.00 m (72.00 ft). Diameter: 1.25 m (4.10 ft). Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

high resolution Yantar-4K. The project was to be implemented in two phases: the Yantar-4K1, launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle.

In November 2004 US intelligence sources stated that the version of the missile used in 2004 tests had been stretched 15% and equipped with a larger payload fairing, indicating possible preparations for the long-announced Iranian indigenous satellite launch. A stretched Shahab-3 with improved performance, topped with two upper stages, would be equivalent to the French Diamant launcher of the 1960's. It would certainly be capable of orbiting the 60 kg Mesbah satellite mentioned in the press, and possibly the 170 kg mentioned for the follow-on satellite.

Photographs had circulated since 1998 of a Shahab-3 outfitted as the 'Iris' satellite launcher, complete with an improbably large payload fairing. This is unlikely unless the Iranians planned a leap to Lox/LH2 upper stage engine technology for the upper stage. This may not have been as improbably as it may sound. The Chinese achieved a similar feat with their CZ-3 upper stage in 1984, becoming the third nation to fly this technology.

The following are two possible reconstructions:

Storable liquid propellant first and second stages, solid propellant kick stage.

Stage Gross Mass Empty Mass Isp Delta-V
              kg         kg vac     m/s
    1     15,000      1,350 250   3,770 
    2      2,000        200 255   3,528 
    3        300         50 200   2,102 
Payload       80                  9,400 

Storable liquid propellant first stage, Lox/LH2 upper stage.

Stage Gross Mass Empty Mass Isp Delta-V
              kg         kg vac     m/s
    1     15,000      1,350 250   3,760 
    2      2,000        200 425   5,774 
Payload      400                  9,534 

LEO Payload: 25 kg (55 lb) to a 245 km orbit at 55.00 degrees. Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket.

Family: orbital launch vehicle, Shahab. Country: Iran. Spacecraft: Fajr, Navid, Rasad, Omid. Launch Sites: Semnan. More at: 8579.



2008 August 16 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Safir. FAILURE: Second stage failed catastrophically..
  • Omid - . Nation: Iran. Agency: IRSA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Omid. Spacecraft: Omid. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

    Iranian suborbital launch in support of development of an indigenous satellite launch capability. Western analysts claimed it was a failed satellite launch attempt, and that the second stage of the launch vehicle failed catastrophically at 152 km altitude.


2009 February 2 - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Safir.
  • Omid - . Mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Nation: Iran. Agency: IRSA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Omid. Spacecraft: Omid. Decay Date: 2009-04-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 33506 . COSPAR: 2009-004A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 55.5500 deg. Period: 90.70 min. First Iranian satellite launched by an Iranian launch vehicle..

2011 June 15 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Safir.
  • Rasad - . Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: Iran. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Rasad. Spacecraft: Rasad. Decay Date: 2011-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 37675 . COSPAR: 2011-025A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 236 km (146 mi). Inclination: 55.7000 deg. Satellite with an imaging payload..

2012 February 3 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Safir.
  • Navid - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Iran. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navid. Spacecraft: Navid. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 2012-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 38075 . COSPAR: 2012-005A. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 87.60 min. Earth observation satellite with 400 m resolution built by Iran University of Science and Technology in Tehran..

2012 May 23? - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Safir. FAILURE: Reported orbital launch failure.
2012 Sep 22? - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Safir. FAILURE: Reported orbital launch failure.
2015 February 2 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Semnan. Launch Complex: Semnan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Safir.
  • Fajr - . Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: Iran. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Fajr. Spacecraft: Fajr. Decay Date: 2015-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 40387 . COSPAR: 2015-006A. Apogee: 469 km (291 mi). Perigee: 224 km (139 mi). Inclination: 55.5000 deg.

    Fourth Iranian satellite, and Iran's first successful orbital launch since February 2012. Fajr (Aurora) had a technology payload with a cold-gas thruster developed by Iran Electronics Industries. There is suggestive evidence (mostly based on satellite imagery of launch pad damage revealed by the magazine Jane's Intelligence Review) that Iran had two launch failures in 2012, as well as more speculative evidence of further launch failures since then. The satellite did not seem to make any orbital maneuvers. The orbit decayed from an initial 223 km x 470 km to 196 km x 293 km by February 22, and then after falling to 134 km x 155 km early on February 26 it reentered. The Safir rocket stage orbit decayed a bit more slowly, and was at 203 km x 325 km on Feb 26.



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