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Gemini space suits
The space suits developed for the Gemini were the first developed for long-duration manned spaceflight and extravehicular activity.



Subtopics

G1C American space suit, tested 1962. NASA Gemini prototype full pressure suit, closed loop. The G-1C lead to the G-2C, G-3C (IVA suits), G-4C (both IVA and EVA suit), and G-5C with a soft head enclosure for the 14 day Gemini 7 mission.

G2C American space suit, tested 1963. The Dave Clark G2C was the prototype IVA space suit for project Gemini. None were flown. The flight versions were G4C and G5C.

G2G American space suit, tested 1962. The BF Goodrich space suit was developed in competition with the Dave Clark G2C suit for Project Gemini. It was not flown.

G3C American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G3C initial Gemini production flight suits were worn aboard Gemini 3, and by the spacecraft commanders of Gemini 6 and 8.

G4C American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G4C flight suits were designed for wear by Gemini astronauts.

G4C AMU American space suit, operational 1966. This space suit was designed to provide thermal protection to astronauts using the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU).

G5C American space suit, operational 1965. This David Clark lightweight suit was developed for long duration project Gemini missions. It was designed to be easily removed during flight and to provide greater comfort than the standard Gemini space suit.

A1C American space suit, tested 1965. For the initial Block I Apollo missions a modification of the Gemini G4C suit was to have been flown. After the death of the Apollo 1 crew on the pad, Block I missions were cancelled and the suit never flew.



1962 April 4 - .
  • B.F. Goodrich Company to develop prototype pressure suits. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G2G.

    Manned Spacecraft Center awarded the Aerospace and Defense Products Division of B.F. Goodrich Company, Akron, Ohio, a cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for $209,701 to design, develop, and fabricate prototype pressure suits. Related contracts went to Arrowhead Products Division of Federal-Mogul Corporation, Los Alamitos, California, and Protection, Inc., Gardena, California. B.F. Goodrich had begun work related to the contract on January 10, 1962. The contract covered two separate pressure suit development programs, neither of them initially identified with a particular manned space flight program. The original Statement of Work required B. F. Goodrich to produce four successively improved prototypes of an advanced full-pressure suit, and two prototypes of a partial-wear, quick-assembly, full-pressure suit. The contract was amended on September 19, 1962, to identify the development programs specifically with Project Gemini.


1962 May 10-11 - .
  • Gemini Project Office directed McDonnell to determine what would be involved in opening and closing the spacecraft hatches in the space environment. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C. Manned Spacecraft Center's Life Systems Division to determine what special pressure suit features would be required to provide crew members with a 15-minute extravehicular capability..

1962 September 19 - .
  • Life Systems Division reported on continuing studies related to extravehicular operations during Gemini missions. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C. These included evaluation of a superinsulation coverall, worn over the pressure suit, for thermal protection; ventilation system requirements and hardware; and methods of maneuvering in proximity to the spacecraft..

1963 July 9 - .
  • Evaluation of the G2C Gemini pressure suit. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G2C.

    During evaluation of the G2C Gemini pressure suit in the engineering mock-up of the Gemini spacecraft at McDonnell, the suit torso was found to have been stretched out of shape, making it an unsatisfactory fit. David Clark Company had delivered the suit to McDonnell earlier in July. Evaluation in the mock-up also revealed that the helmet visor guard, by increasing the height of the helmet, compounded the problem of interference between the helmet and the spacecraft hatch. After preliminary evaluation, McDonnell returned the suit to David Clark with instructions to modify the helmet design to eliminate the fixed visor guard and to correct the torso fit problem. Final evaluation and start of production was delayed for about 6 weeks while the prototype suit was being reworked.


1963 December 17-18 - .
  • The G2C training and qualification pressure suit underwent further evaluation in conjunction with a mock-up review of the spacecraft crew station at McDonnell. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G2C.

    In general, the suit was found to be acceptable to the crew and compatible with the spacecraft. The helmet design had been corrected satisfactorily and no new design problems were encountered. Eleven G2C suits, including five astronaut suits, would be delivered by the end of February 1964. The remaining 23 suits were scheduled for a March 1964 delivery date, when qualification and reliability testing would begin. The qualification program would be managed by the Crew Systems Division of Manned Spacecraft Center.


1964 April 30 - .
  • AiResearch completed tests of the G2C suit to determine carbon dioxide washout efficiency, suit pressure drop, and outlet dew point of various metabolism rates. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G2C. Crew Systems Division began qualification and reliability testing of the suit during April..

1964 August 22 - .
  • Amendment to the Gemini flight suit contract, - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 3. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G3C.

    Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Procurement and Contracts Division reported that the amendment to the Gemini flight suit contract covering G3C flight suits and related equipment for Gemini-Titan (GT) 3 had been sent to the contractor, David Clark Company. The first four Gemini flight suits, to be used in GT-3, were delivered to MSC late in August. Because of earlier problems in fitting training suits, astronauts had had preliminary fittings of the flight suits before final delivery.


1964 October 17 - .
  • First Gemini extravehicular prototype suit. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McDivitt. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C.

    Crew Systems Division reported that the first Gemini extravehicular prototype suit had been received from the contractor and assigned to Astronaut James A.McDivitt for evaluation in the Gemini mission simulator. Crew Systems Division reported that the first Gemini extravehicular prototype suit had been received from the contractor and assigned to Astronaut James A. McDivitt for evaluation in the Gemini mission simulator. During the test, McDivitt complained of some bulkiness and immobility while the suit was in the unpressurized condition, but the bulk did not appear to hinder mobility when the suit was pressurized. The thermal/micrometeoroid cover layer had been installed on a test suit sent to Ling-Temco-Vought for thermal testing in the space simulator chamber.


1964 October 26 - .
  • Russell L. Schweickart spent eight days in a Gemini space suit to evaluate Gemini biomedical recording instruments. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G3C. While in the suit, the astronaut flew several zero-g flight profiles, went through a simulated four-day Gemini mission, and experienced several centrifuge runs..

1964 December 7 - .
  • A four-day comfort test of the Gemini space suit was started as part of the suit qualification test program. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G3C. The test utilized a human volunteer and ended successfully on December 11. The suited subject used Gemini food and bioinstrumentation and the Gemini waste management systems hardware..

1964 December 28 - .
  • Crew Systems Division received a prototype G4C extravehicular Gemini space suit for testing. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C.

    This suit contained a thermal/micrometeoroid cover layer, a redundant closure, and the open visor assembly for visual, thermal, and structural protection. Zero-gravity tests in January 1965 showed the suit to be generally satisfactory, but the heavy cover layer made moving around in it awkward. The cover layer was redesigned to remove excess bulk. The new cover layer proved satisfactory when it was tested in February.


1965 March 29 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Full EVA considered for Gemini 4. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth, Low, George, Mueller, Seamans. Flight: Gemini 4. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C.

    The possibility of doing more than the previously planned stand-up form of extravehicular activity (EVA) was introduced at an informal meeting in the office of Director Robert R. Gilruth at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Present at the meeting, in addition to Gilruth and Deputy Director George M. Low, were Richard S. Johnston of Crew Systems Division (CSD) and Warren J. North of Flight Crew Operations Division. Johnston presented a mock-up of an EVA chestpack, as well as a prototype hand-held maneuvering unit. North expressed his division's confidence that an umbilical EVA could be successfully achieved on the Gemini-Titan 4 mission. Receiving a go-ahead from Gilruth, CSD briefed George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for Mannned Space Flight, on April 3 in Washington. He, in turn, briefed the Headquarters Directorates. The relevant MSC divisions were given tentative approval to continue the preparations and training required for the operation. Associate Administrator of NASA, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., visited MSC for further briefing on May 14. The enthusiasm he carried back to Washington regarding flight-readiness soon prompted final Headquarters approval.


1965 May 15 - .
  • Qualification of the G4C extravehicular suit was completed. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 4. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C.

    This suit was basically the same as the G3C suit except for modifications which included a redundant zipper closure, two over-visors for visual and physical protection, automatic locking ventilation settings, and a heavier cover layer incorporating thermal and micrometeoroid protection. Six G4C suits would be at the launch site for the Gemini 4 flight crews by the end of May.


1965 May 19 - .
  • All extravehicular equipment planned for the Gemini 4 mission qualified. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 4. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C.

    All extravehicular equipment planned for the Gemini 4 mission, including the ventilation control module, the extravehicular umbilical assembly, and the hand-held maneuvering unit, had been qualified. The flight hardware was at the launch site ready for flight at the end of May.


1965 August 12 - .
  • Gemini VII crew to use the new lightweight G5C space suit. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 7. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G5C. Gemini Program Office informed the NASA-McDonnell Management Panel of the decision to fly the new, lightweight G5C space suit on Gemini VII. . Additional Details: here....

1965 November 29 - .
  • Gilruth requests concurrence of NASA Headquarters for doffing the G5C pressure suits during orbital flight in Gemini VII. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 7. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G5C.

    Director Robert R. Gilruth, Manned Spacecraft Center, requested the concurrence of NASA Headquarters in plans for doffing the G5C pressure suits during orbital flight in Gemini VII. Both astronauts wanted to remove their suits after the second sleep period and don them only for transient dynamic conditions, specifically rendezvous and reentry. Additional Details: here....


1965 December 4 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Both stages of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 were removed from storage and arrived at complex 19 two hours after the launch of Gemini VII. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G5C.

    Spacecraft No. 6 was returned to complex 19 on December 5. Within 24 hours after the launch of Gemini VII, both stages of GLV-6 were erected, spacecraft and launch vehicle were mated, and power was applied. Subsystems Reverification Tests were completed December 8. The only major problem was a malfunction of the spacecraft computer memory. The computer was replaced and checked out December 7-8. The Simulated Flight Test, December 8-9, completed prelaunch tests. The launch, initially scheduled for December 13, was rescheduled for December 12.


1966 February 23 - .
  • The astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU) scheduled to be tested on the Gemini IX mission was delivered to Cape Kennedy. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C AMU.

    The receiving inspection revealed nitrogen leaks in the propulsion system and oxygen leaks in the oxygen supply system. Reworking these systems to eliminate the leakage was completed on March 11. Following systems tests, the AMU was installed in spacecraft No. 9 (March 14-18).


1966 March 17 - .
  • The extravehicular life support system (ELSS) for Gemini spacecraft No. 9 was delivered to Cape Kennedy. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C AMU. Compatibility tests involving the ELSS, the astronaut maneuvering unit, and the spacecraft were completed March 24. The ELSS was returned to the contractor on April 6 for modification..

1966 April 18 - .
  • The extravehicular life support system (ELSS) for Gemini spacecraft No. 9 was returned to Cape Kennedy and underwent an electrical compatibility test with the astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU). - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C AMU.

    An ELSS/AMU Joint Combined System Test was run the following day and rerun April 21. The ELSS was then delivered to Manned Spacecraft Center for tests (April 22) while the AMU was prepared for installation in the adapter. The ELSS was returned to the Cape April 26. AMU Final Systems Test and installation for flight were accomplished May 7. The ELSS was serviced and installed for flight May 16.


1966 September 23 - .
  • NASA Headquarters deleted the AMU experiment from the Gemini XII mission. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft Bus: Gemini space suits. Spacecraft: G4C AMU.

    The astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU), which had been installed in Gemini spacecraft No. 12 on September 17, was removed as the spacecraft was undergoing final preparations for movement to complex 19. NASA Headquarters deleted the AMU experiment from the extravehicular activities (EVA) planned for the Gemini XII mission. Additional Details: here....



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