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NASA Greenbelt
American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Greenbelt, USA.

AKA: Goddard Space Flight Center;GSFC;NASA Goddard.



Country: USA. Spacecraft: Landsat, TIROS, IMP, CEPE, GAS, PIX, ISS, Pegsat, SAMPEX, OAST-Flyer, PAMS, FAST, TRMM, SNOE, TRACE, SWAS, WIRE, Landsat 7, Starshine, FUSE, Terra, EO-1, MAP, Simplesat, ST5. Projects: Anik, ATS, Discovery series, Explorer, Small Explorer, STEDI, STS.

1962 December 6 - . 06:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Arcasonde 10.66 sup. Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1963 February 14 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Syncom I; Syncom 1 - . Payload: Syncom 1. Mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 301. Spacecraft: Syncom. Completed Operations Date: 1963-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 553 . COSPAR: 1963-004A. Apogee: 36,739 km (22,828 mi). Perigee: 34,392 km (21,370 mi). Inclination: 33.3000 deg. Period: 1,425.50 min.

    Experimental commsat; lost contact following orbital injection. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Four score. Last known longitude (10 March 1987) 172.58 deg E drifting at 2.429 deg E per day.


1963 April 3 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Explorer 17 - . Payload: AE A (S-6). Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AE. Decay Date: 1966-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 564 . COSPAR: 1963-009A. Apogee: 891 km (553 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 57.6000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. Atmospheric research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1963 April 8 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. FAILURE: Failure.
1963 June 19 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Tiros 7 - . Payload: Tiros G (A-52). Mass: 135 kg (297 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. Decay Date: 1994-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 604 . COSPAR: 1963-024A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 338 km (210 mi). Inclination: 58.2000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Returned over 150000 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1963 July 26 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Syncom 2 - . Mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 301. Spacecraft: Syncom. Completed Operations Date: 1969-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 634 . COSPAR: 1963-031A. Apogee: 35,891 km (22,301 mi). Perigee: 35,891 km (22,301 mi). Inclination: 32.7000 deg. Period: 1,441.50 min.

    NASA's Syncom II synchronous communications satellite was placed in orbit by a Thor/Delta launched from Cape Canaveral. Experimental commsat; 1st geosynchronous satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 55 deg W in 1963; 26 deg W in 1965. Last known longitude (19 July 1995) 68.47 deg E drifting at 0.089 deg W per day.


1963 November 27 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • Explorer 18 - . Payload: IMP A. Mass: 62 kg (136 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. Decay Date: 1965-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 693 . COSPAR: 1963-046A. Apogee: 197,616 km (122,792 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 33.3000 deg. Period: 5,666.20 min. Radiation data; Interplanetary Monitoring Program. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1963 December 21 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Tiros 8 - . Payload: Tiros H (A-53). Mass: 119 kg (262 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 716 . COSPAR: 1963-054A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 667 km (414 mi). Inclination: 58.5000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Returned more than 100,000 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1964 January 21 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Relay 2 - . Payload: Relay B. Mass: 78 kg (171 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Relay. USAF Sat Cat: 737 . COSPAR: 1964-003A. Apogee: 7,540 km (4,680 mi). Perigee: 1,961 km (1,218 mi). Inclination: 46.4000 deg. Period: 194.70 min. Experimental commsat. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1964 August 19 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta D.
  • Syncom 3 - . Payload: Syncom C. Mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 301. Spacecraft: Syncom. Completed Operations Date: 1974-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 858 . COSPAR: 1964-047A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    NASA's Syncom III synchronous communi- cations satellite was launched into orbit by a Thrust Augmented Thor/Delta (TAD) launch vehicle in its first use as a space booster. By the end of August, Experimental commsat; carried Star Flash experiment. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 64 deg W in 1964; 180 deg E in 1964; 25 deg W in 1965; 165 deg E in 1966-1969. Last known longitude (6 December 1974) 6.08 deg W drifting at 0.188 deg W per day.


1964 August 25 - . 13:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4.
  • Explorer 20 - . Payload: IE A (S-48 Ionosphere Explorer). Mass: 44 kg (97 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IE. USAF Sat Cat: 870 . COSPAR: 1964-051A. Apogee: 999 km (620 mi). Perigee: 857 km (532 mi). Inclination: 79.9000 deg. Period: 103.60 min. Ionospheric research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1964 August 28 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2 Agena B. FAILURE: Agena-B cut off too early. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Nimbus 1 - . Payload: Nimbus A. Mass: 376 kg (828 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. Decay Date: 1974-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 872 . COSPAR: 1964-052A. Apogee: 937 km (582 mi). Perigee: 429 km (266 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 98.40 min.

    An Air Force Thor/Agena B was launched from Vandenberg and placed NASA's first Nimbus meteorological satellite into orbit. Returned 27,000 cloud cover images. The spacecraft carried an advanced vidicon camera system for recording and storing remote cloudcover pictures, an automatic picture transmission camera for providing real-time cloud cover pictures, and a high-resolution infrared radiometer to complement the daytime TV coverage and to measure nighttime radiative temperatures of cloud tops and surface terrain. A short second-stage burn resulted in an unplanned eccentric orbit. Otherwise, the spacecraft and its experiments operated successfully until September 22, 1964. The solar paddles became locked in position, resulting in inadequate electrical power to continue operations.


1964 September 5 - . 01:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B.
  • OGO 1 - . Payload: OGO A. Mass: 487 kg (1,073 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OGO. Decay Date: 1980-08-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 879 . COSPAR: 1964-054A. Apogee: 112,657 km (70,001 mi). Perigee: 36,262 km (22,532 mi). Inclination: 88.9200 deg. Period: 3,812.21 min.

    Two experiment booms failed to properly deploy, with one of the booms obscuring a horizon scanner's view of earth. As a result, the spacecraft attitude could not be earth oriented and OGO 1 remained spin stabilized at 5 rpm. Nevertheless, data from all 20 experiments on board was received, although at a 'less than expected capacity' from some of them. Twelve of the experiemnts were particle studies and two were magnetic field studies. In addition, there was one experiment for each of the following types of studies: interplanetary dust, VLF, Lyman-alpha, Gegenschein, atmospheric mass, and radio astronomy. During September 1964, acceptable data were received over 70% of the orbital path. By June 1969, data acquisition was limited to 10% of the orbital path. Spacecraft operation was restricted to Spring and Fall due to power supply limitations. There were 11 such 3-month periods prior to the spacecraft being put into stand-by mode on 25 November 1969. By April 1970 the spacecraft perigee had increased to 46,000 km and the inclination had increased to 58.8 deg. All support was terminated November 1, 1971.


1964 October 4 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • Explorer 21 - . Payload: IMP B. Mass: 62 kg (136 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. Decay Date: 1965-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 889 . COSPAR: 1964-060A. Apogee: 95,590 km (59,390 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 33.5000 deg. Period: 2,097.00 min. Lower than planned orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1964 October 10 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4.
  • Explorer 22 - . Payload: Beacon Explorer B. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Beacon. USAF Sat Cat: 899 . COSPAR: 1964-064A. Apogee: 1,053 km (654 mi). Perigee: 872 km (541 mi). Inclination: 79.7000 deg. Period: 104.30 min. Ionospheric and geodetic data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space..

1964 December 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • Explorer 26 - . Payload: EPE D - 661A Flight 21-3. Mass: 46 kg (101 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: EPE. Decay Date: 1978-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 963 . COSPAR: 1964-086A. Apogee: 10,043 km (6,240 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 19.8000 deg. Period: 205.70 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1965 January 22 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • Tiros 9 - . Payload: Tiros I (A-54). Mass: 138 kg (304 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 978 . COSPAR: 1965-004A. Apogee: 2,563 km (1,592 mi). Perigee: 705 km (438 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1965 February 3 - . 16:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • OSO 2 - . Payload: OSO B2 (S-17). Mass: 247 kg (544 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1989-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 987 . COSPAR: 1965-007A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 32.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Orbiting Solar Observatory; returned solar X-ray, UV, gamma ray data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1965 April 29 - . 14:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4.
  • Explorer 27 - . Payload: Beacon Explorer C. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Beacon. USAF Sat Cat: 1328 . COSPAR: 1965-032A. Apogee: 1,309 km (813 mi). Perigee: 932 km (579 mi). Inclination: 41.2000 deg. Period: 107.70 min. Battery failed in 1968; ionospheric research and geodetic data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space..

1965 May 29 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • Explorer 28 - . Payload: IMP C. Mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. Decay Date: 1968-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 1388 . COSPAR: 1965-042A. Apogee: 261,206 km (162,305 mi). Perigee: 229 km (142 mi). Inclination: 30.5000 deg. Period: 8,419.70 min. Magnetic field, radiation data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1965 October 14 - . 13:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
  • OGO 2 - . Payload: OGO C (S-50). Mass: 507 kg (1,117 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OGO. Decay Date: 1981-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1620 . COSPAR: 1965-081A. Apogee: 1,515 km (941 mi). Perigee: 419 km (260 mi). Inclination: 87.4000 deg. Period: 104.40 min.

    OGO 2 was a large observatory instrumented with 20 experiments designed to make simultaneous, correlative observations of aurora and airglow emissions, energetic particles, magnetic field variations, ionospheric properties, etc., especially over the polar areas. Soon after achieving orbit, difficulties in maintaining earth lock with horizon scanners caused exhaustion of attitude control gas by October 23, 1965, 10 days after launch. At this time, the spacecraft entered a spin mode (about 0.11 rpm) with a large coning angle about the previously vertical axis. Five experiments became useless when the satellite went into this spin mode. Six additional experiments were degraded by this loss of attitude control. By April 1966, both batteries had failed, so subsequent observations were limited to sunlit portions of the orbit. By December 1966, only eight experiments were operational, five of which were not degraded by the spin mode operation. By April 1967, the tape recorders had malfunctioned and only one third of the recorded data could be processed. Spacecraft power and periods of operational scheduling conflicts created six large data gaps so that data were observed on a total of about 306 days of the 2-yr, 18-day total span of observed satellite data to November 1, 1967. The spacecraft was shut down on November 1, 1967, with eight experiments still operational. It was reactivated for 2 weeks in February 1968 to operate the rubidium vapor magnetometer experiment.


1965 November 6 - . 18:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E.
  • Explorer 29 - . Payload: GEOS A. Mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: GEOS. USAF Sat Cat: 1726 . COSPAR: 1965-089A. Apogee: 2,269 km (1,409 mi). Perigee: 1,120 km (690 mi). Inclination: 59.4000 deg. Period: 120.30 min.

    The primary objective of GEOS-A was to provide global geodetic measurements for determining the positions of fiducial control points on the Earth to an accuracy of 10 meters in an Earth centre of mass co-ordinate system, and to determine the structure of the Earth's gravity field to 5 parts in 10 million. Instrumentation included (1) four optical beacons, (2) laser reflectors, (3) a radio range transponder, (4) Doppler beacons, and (5) a range and range rate transponder. These were designed to operate simultaneously to fulfil the objectives of locating observation points (geodetic control stations) in a three dimensional earth centre-of-mass co-ordinate system within 10 m of accuracy, of defining the structure of the earth's irregular gravitational field and refining the locations and magnitudes of the large gravity anomalies, and of comparing results of the various systems onboard the spacecraft to determine the most accurate and reliable system. In January 1967, a failure in the satellite's command system rendered several geodetic systems inoperable. Radio doppler measurements and the passive laser reflector experiment could continue indefinitely, however. Additional Details: here....


1965 November 29 - . 04:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2 Agena B.
  • Explorer 31 - . Payload: DME A. Mass: 99 kg (218 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DME. USAF Sat Cat: 1806 . COSPAR: 1965-098B. Apogee: 2,833 km (1,760 mi). Perigee: 505 km (313 mi). Inclination: 79.8000 deg. Period: 119.70 min.

    Ionospheric research; data correlated with Alouette 2. The Explorer 31, Direct Measurement Explorer, was launched with a Canadian Alouette II on November 28, 1965, on a Thor-Agena rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The double-launch project, known as ISIS-X was the first in a new co-operative NASA-Canadian Defense Research Board program for International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies. Explorer 31 was in orbit with an apogee just over a kilometre more than Alouette's and with a perigee of just more than a kilometre lower. The orbits were some 3000 km at apogee and 500 km at perigee. Eight ionospheric measurement experiments sampled the environment both forward and after the satellite's path.


1966 April 8 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
  • OAO 1 - . Payload: OAO A1. Mass: 1,774 kg (3,911 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: OAO. USAF Sat Cat: 2142 . COSPAR: 1966-031A. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1966 May 15 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2A Agena B.
  • Nimbus 2 - . Payload: Nimbus C. Mass: 414 kg (912 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 2173 . COSPAR: 1966-040A. Apogee: 1,176 km (730 mi). Perigee: 1,093 km (679 mi). Inclination: 100.3000 deg. Period: 108.00 min.

    The last Thrust Augmented Thor/Agena B was used to place NASA's NIMBUS II meteorological satellite into orbit. TV, IR cloud cover photos. The spacecraft carried an advanced vidicon camera system for recording and storing remote cloud cover pictures, an automatic picture transmission camera for providing real-time cloudcover pictures, and both high- and medium-resolution infrared radiometers (HRIR and MRIR) for measuring the intensity and distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted by and reflected from the earth and its atmosphere. The spacecraft and experiments performed normally after launch until July 26, 1966, when the spacecraft tape recorder failed. Its function was taken over by the HRIR tape recorder until November 15, 1966, when it also failed. Some real-time data were collected until January 17, 1969, when the spacecraft mission was terminated owing to deterioration of the horizon scanner used for earth reference.


1966 May 25 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C1.
  • Explorer 32 - . Payload: AE B. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AE. Decay Date: 1985-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 2183 . COSPAR: 1966-044A. Apogee: 2,723 km (1,691 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Atmospheric Explorer; aeronomy experiments. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1966 June 7 - . 02:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena B.
  • OGO 3 - . Payload: OGO B. Mass: 634 kg (1,397 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OGO. Decay Date: 1981-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2195 . COSPAR: 1966-049A. Apogee: 102,806 km (63,880 mi). Perigee: 19,519 km (12,128 mi). Inclination: 77.6000 deg. Period: 2,911.50 min.

    Orbiting Geophysical Observatory 3. All 21 experiments returned good data. At the time, this was the largest experimental complement ever put into orbit. There were 4 cosmic ray instruments (1 of which included a gamma-ray spectrometer), 4 plasma, 2 trapped radiation, 2 magnetic fields, 5 ionosphere, 3 radio/optical, and 1 micrometeoroid detectors. OGO 3 maintained 3-axis stabilization for 46 days. At that point, an attitude controller failed and the spacecraft was put into a spin on 23 July 1966. The spin period varied from 90-125 seconds. By June 1969, data acquisition was limited to 50% of the orbital path. Routine spacecraft operation was discontinued on December 1, 1969, after which only data from Heppner's experiment (Rubidium + Fluxgate magnetometer) was acquired. By March 1971 spacecraft perigee had increased to 16,400 km and the inclination had increased to 75.8 deg. All spacecraft support terminated on February 29, 1972.


1966 July 1 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • Explorer 33 - . Payload: AIMP D. Mass: 93 kg (205 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. USAF Sat Cat: 2258 . COSPAR: 1966-058A. Apogee: 480,762 km (298,731 mi). Perigee: 265,679 km (165,084 mi). Inclination: 24.1000 deg. Period: 38,792.40 min. Intended to enter lunar orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1966 December 7 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
  • ATS 1 - . Payload: ATS B. Mass: 352 kg (776 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: ATS. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 306. Spacecraft: ATS-1. Completed Operations Date: 1985-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 2608 . COSPAR: 1966-110A. Apogee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Perigee: 35,728 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 12.5000 deg. Period: 1,434.50 min.

    Applications Technology Satellite; communications and meteorological experiments. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 151 deg W in 1966-1968?; over the Americas at 149 deg W in 1968-1982; over the Pacific Ocean 170 deg E in 1982-1985 As of 3 September 2001 located at 167.30 deg E drifting at 0.065 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 59.28W drifting at 0.332E degrees per day.


1967 March 8 - . 16:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • OSO 3 - . Payload: OSO E1. Mass: 281 kg (619 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1982-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2703 . COSPAR: 1967-020A. Apogee: 570 km (350 mi). Perigee: 546 km (339 mi). Inclination: 32.8000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Orbiting Solar Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1967 April 6 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • ATS 2 - . Payload: ATS A. Mass: 370 kg (810 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: ATS. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ATS. Spacecraft: ATS-2. Decay Date: 1969-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 2743 . COSPAR: 1967-031A. Apogee: 11,119 km (6,909 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 218.80 min. Launch vehicle failure left in useless orbit; communications tests..

1967 May 24 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • Explorer 34 - . Payload: IMP F. Mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. Decay Date: 1969-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2817 . COSPAR: 1967-051A. Apogee: 214,379 km (133,208 mi). Perigee: 242 km (150 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 6,358.20 min. Radiation, magnetic field data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1967 July 19 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • Explorer 35 - . Payload: AIMP E. Mass: 104 kg (229 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. USAF Sat Cat: 2884 . COSPAR: 1967-070A. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi). Perigee: 484 km (300 mi). Inclination: 32.4000 deg. Period: 96.26 min.

    Earth magnetic tail measurements. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). The Westinghouse Aerospace Division, under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center, engaged in the system design, integration, assembly and launch support for Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform Satellite, officially designated Explorer 35 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It was launched on July 19, 1967, with the primary objectives of investigation of interplanetary plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field out to and at the lunar distance, in either a captured lunar orbit or a geocentric orbit of the earth. In the geocentric orbit, the apogee was near or beyond the lunar distance. In a lunar orbit, additional objectives included obtaining data on dust distribution, lunar gravitational field, ionosphere, magnetic field, and radiation environment around the moon. AIMP-E also studied spatial and temporal relationships of geophysical and interplanetary phenomena simultaneously being studied by several other National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellites. The investigation in the vicinity of the moon provided for measurements of the characteristics of the interplanetary dust distribution, solar and galactic cosmic rays, as well as a study of the magnetohydrodynamic wake of the earth in the interplanetary medium at the lunar distances.


1967 July 28 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
  • OGO 4 - . Payload: OGO D (NASA S-50A). Mass: 634 kg (1,397 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OGO. Decay Date: 1972-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2895 . COSPAR: 1967-073A. Apogee: 885 km (549 mi). Perigee: 422 km (262 mi). Inclination: 86.0000 deg. Period: 97.80 min.

    OGO 4 was a large observatory instrumented with experiments designed to study the interrelationships between the aurora and airglow emissions, energetic particle activity, geomagnetic field variation, ionospheric ionization and recombination, and atmospheric heating which take place during a period of increased solar activity. After the spacecraft achieved orbit and the experiments were deployed into an operating mode, an attitude control problem occurred. This condition was corrected by ground control procedures until complete failure of the tape recording systems in mid-January 1969. At that time, due to the difficulty of maintaining attitude control without the tape recorders, the attitude control system was commanded off, and the spacecraft was placed into a spin-stabilized mode about the axis which was previously maintained vertically. In this mode, seven of the remaining experiments were turned off since no meaningful data could be observed by them. On October 23, 1969, the satellite was turned off. It was reactivated again in January 1970 for 2 months to obtain VLF observations.


1967 October 18 - . 15:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C1.
  • OSO 4 - . Payload: OSO D. Mass: 272 kg (599 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1982-06-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 3000 . COSPAR: 1967-100A. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi). Perigee: 552 km (342 mi). Inclination: 32.9000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Extreme UV solar observations. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1967 November 5 - . 23:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
  • ATS 3 - . Payload: ATS C. Mass: 365 kg (804 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: ATS. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ATS. Spacecraft: ATS-3. USAF Sat Cat: 3029 . COSPAR: 1967-111A. Apogee: 35,837 km (22,268 mi). Perigee: 35,736 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 14.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Communications tests. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 45 deg W in-100 deg W in 1968-1970; over the Americas at 69 deg W in 1971-1976; over the Americas at 105 deg W in 1977-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 105.90 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 105.23W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


1967 December 13 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • TTS 1 - . Payload: TTS A. Mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Tracking network technology satellite. Spacecraft: TTS. Decay Date: 1968-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3067 . COSPAR: 1967-123B. Apogee: 490 km (300 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 32.9000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Test and Training Satellite; tested Apollo tracking network. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1968 January 11 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • Explorer 36 - . Payload: GEOS B. Mass: 209 kg (460 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: GEOS. USAF Sat Cat: 3093 . COSPAR: 1968-002A. Apogee: 1,574 km (978 mi). Perigee: 1,081 km (671 mi). Inclination: 105.8000 deg. Period: 112.20 min.

    The geodetic instrumentation systems included (1) four optical beacons, (2) two C-band radar transponders, (3) a passive radar reflector, (4) a sequential collation of range radio range transponder, (5) a Goddard range and range rate transponder, (6) laser reflectors, and (7) Doppler beacons. Non-geodetic systems included a laser detector and a Minitrack interferometer beacon. The objectives of the spacecraft were to optimise optical station visibility periods and to provide complementary data for inclination-dependent terms established by the Explorer 29 (GEOS 1) gravimetric studies. The spacecraft was placed into a retrograde orbit to accomplish these objectives. Operational problems occurred in the main power system, optical beacon flash system, and the spacecraft clock, and adjustments in scheduling resulted in nominal operations.


1968 March 4 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
  • OGO 5 - . Payload: OGO E. Mass: 634 kg (1,397 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OGO. Decay Date: 2011-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3138 . COSPAR: 1968-014A. Apogee: 111,034 km (68,993 mi). Perigee: 36,021 km (22,382 mi). Inclination: 50.3000 deg. Period: 3,746.50 min.

    OGO 5 carried 25 experiments, 17 of which were particle studies, and two were magnetic field studies. In addition, there was one each of the following types of experiments: radio astronomy, UV spectrum, Lyman-alpha, solar X ray, plasma waves, and electric field. By April 1971, spacecraft perigee had increased to 26,400 km and inclination had increased to 54 deg. The spacecraft attitude control failed on August 6, 1971, after 41 months of normal operation. The spacecraft was placed in a standby status on October 8, 1971. Four experiments (Meyer, Blamont, Thomas, and Simpson) were reactivated for the period from June 1 to July 13, 1972, after which all operational support terminated. Spacecraft orbit parameters changed significantly over the spacecraft life.


1968 July 4 - . 17:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta J.
  • Explorer 38 - . Payload: RAE A. Mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: RAE. USAF Sat Cat: 3307 . COSPAR: 1968-055A. Apogee: 5,861 km (3,641 mi). Perigee: 5,835 km (3,625 mi). Inclination: 120.9000 deg. Period: 224.30 min. Radio Astronomy Explorer; Earth, solar, cosmic radio emission data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1968 August 10 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur. FAILURE: Centaur oxidizer leak. No restart.. Failed Stage: U.
  • ATS 4 - . Payload: ATS D. Mass: 391 kg (862 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: ATS. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 306. Spacecraft: ATS-4. Decay Date: 1968-08-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 3344 . COSPAR: 1968-068A. Apogee: 769 km (477 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 29.1000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

    Applications Technology Satellite that was to have been put into a geosynchronous transfer orbit, instead was left in a nearly-useless LEO orbit. ATS-4 included two cesium contact ion engines. Flight test objectives were to measure thrust and to examine electromagnetic compatibility with other spacecraft subsystems. The 5 cm diameter thrusters were designed to operate at 0.02 kW and provide about 89 microN thrust at about 6700 s specific impulse. The thrusters had the capability to operate at 5 setpoints from 18 to 89 microN. Thrusters were configured so they could be used for East-West station-keeping. Prior to launch, a 5 cm cesium thruster was life tested for 2245 hours at the 67 microN thrust level. However the Centaur upper stage did not achieve a second burn and the spacecraft remained attached to the Centaur in a 218 km by 760 km orbit. It was estimated that the pressure at these altitudes was between 10^-6 and 10^-8 Torr. Each of the two engines was tested on at least two occasions each over the throttling range. Combined test time of the two engines was about 10 hours over a 55 day period. The spacecraft re-entered the atmosphere on October 17, 1968. TheATS-4 flight was the first successful orbital test of an ion engine. There was no evidence of IPS electromagnetic interference related to spacecraft subsystems. Measured values of neutralizer emission current were much less than the ion beam current, implying inadequate neutralization. The spacecraft potential was about -132V which was much different than the anticipated value of about -40V.


1968 November 8 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • TTS 2; TATS 2 (TETR 2) - . Payload: TETR 2. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Tracking network technology satellite. Spacecraft: TTS. Decay Date: 1979-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3534 . COSPAR: 1968-100B. Apogee: 945 km (587 mi). Perigee: 375 km (233 mi). Inclination: 32.9000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Test and Training Satellite; test vehicle for NASA Manned Space Flight Network. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1968 December 7 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
  • OAO 2 - . Payload: OAO A2. Mass: 2,012 kg (4,435 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: OAO. USAF Sat Cat: 3597 . COSPAR: 1968-110A. Apogee: 758 km (470 mi). Perigee: 749 km (465 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 99.90 min.

    Orbiting Astronomical Observatory; carried 11 telescopes; performed X-ray, UV, IR observations of stars. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit


1969 January 22 - . 16:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C1.
  • OSO 5 - . Payload: OSO F. Mass: 291 kg (641 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1984-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3663 . COSPAR: 1969-006A. Apogee: 559 km (347 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 33.0000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. Orbiting Solar Observatory; solar radiation data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1969 April 8 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • AS&E Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 07:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • Nimbus 3 - . Payload: Nimbus B2. Mass: 575 kg (1,267 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 3890 . COSPAR: 1969-037A. Apogee: 1,130 km (700 mi). Perigee: 1,071 km (665 mi). Inclination: 100.4000 deg. Period: 107.30 min.

    Primary experiments consisted of a satellite infrared spectrometer (SIRS) for determining the vertical temperature profiles of the atmosphere, an infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) for measuring the emission spectra of the earth-atmosphere system, both high- and medium-resolution infrared radiometers (HRIR and MRIR) for yielding information on the distribution and intensity of infrared radiation emitted and reflected by the earth and its atmosphere, monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) for detecting solar UV radiation, image dissector camera system for providing daytime cloudcover pictures in both real-time mode using the real time transmission system and tape recorder mode using the high data rate storage system, radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) SNAP-19 to assess the operational capability of radioisotope power for space applications, and an interrogation, recording and location system (IRLS) experiment designed to locate, interrogate, record, and retransmit meteorological and geophysical data from remote collection stations. Nimbus-3 was successful and performed normally until July 22, 1969, when the IRIS experiment failed. The HRIR and the SIRS experiments were terminated on January 25, 1970, and June 21, 1970, respectively. The remaining experiments continued operation until September 25, 1970, when the rear horizon scanner failed. Without this horizon scanner, it was impossible to maintain proper spacecraft attitude, thus making most experimental observations useless. All spacecraft operations were terminated on January 22, 1972.


1969 June 5 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • OGO 6 - . Payload: OGO F. Mass: 634 kg (1,397 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OGO. Decay Date: 1979-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3986 . COSPAR: 1969-051A. Apogee: 1,089 km (676 mi). Perigee: 397 km (246 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 99.70 min.

    OGO 6 was a large observatory instrumented with 26 experiments designed to study the various interrelationships between, and latitudinal distributions of, high-altitude atmospheric parameters during a period of increased solar activity. On June 22, 1969, the spacecraft potential dropped significantly during sunlight operation and remained so during subsequent sunlight operation. This unexplained shift affected seven experiments which made measurements dependent upon knowledge of the spacecraft plasma sheath. During October 1969, a string of solar cells failed, but the only effect of the decreased power was to cause two experiments to change their mode of operation. Also during October 1969, a combination of manual and automatic attitude control was initiated, which extended the control gas lifetime of the attitude control system. In August 1970, tape recorder (TR) no. 1 operation degraded, so all recorded data were subsequently taken with TR no. 2. By September 1970, power and equipment degradation left 14 experiments operating normally, 3 partially, and 9 off. From October 14, 1970, TR no. 2 was used only on Wednesdays (world days) to conserve power and extend TR operation. In June 1971, the number of 'on' experiments decreased from 13 to 7, and on June 28, 1971, the spacecraft was placed in a spin-stabilized mode about the yaw (Z) axis and turned off due to difficulties with spacecraft power. OGO 6 was turned on again from October 10, 1971, through March 1972, for operation of experiment 25 by The Radio Research Laboratory, Japan.


1969 June 21 - . 08:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • Explorer 41 - . Payload: IMP G. Mass: 174 kg (383 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. Decay Date: 1972-12-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3990 . COSPAR: 1969-053A. Apogee: 98,159 km (60,993 mi). Perigee: 80,374 km (49,941 mi). Inclination: 86.0000 deg. Period: 4,906.30 min. Cislunar radiation data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1969 August 9 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N.
  • OSO 6 - . Payload: OSO G. Mass: 290 kg (630 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1981-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 4065 . COSPAR: 1969-068A. Apogee: 554 km (344 mi). Perigee: 489 km (303 mi). Inclination: 32.9000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. Orbiting Solar Observatory; solar physics experiments. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • PAC 1 - . Mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: PAC. Decay Date: 1977-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4066 . COSPAR: 1969-068B. Apogee: 552 km (342 mi). Perigee: 486 km (301 mi). Inclination: 32.9000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Package Attitude Control; semi-active gravity gradient stabilization tests. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1969 August 12 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
  • ATS 5 - . Payload: ATS E. Mass: 821 kg (1,809 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: ATS. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ATS. Spacecraft: ATS-5. Completed Operations Date: 1984-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4068 . COSPAR: 1969-069A. Apogee: 36,024 km (22,384 mi). Perigee: 35,992 km (22,364 mi). Inclination: 14.5000 deg. Period: 1,447.40 min.

    Applications Technology Satellite; communications tests. Launch vehicle successfully put the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft maneuvered into geostationary orbit at 108 degrees W. The purpose of this flight was to demonstrate North-South Stationkeeping of a geosynchronous satellite. ATS-5 was equipped with an ion engine package identical to that on ATS-4. Once in geosynchronous orbit the spacecraft could not be despun as planned, and thus the spacecraft gravity gradient stabilization could not be implemented. The spacecraft spin rate was about 76 revolutions per minute, and this caused an effective 4g acceleration on the cesium feed system. The high g-loading on the cesium feed system caused flooding of the discharge chamber, and normal operation of the thruster with ion beam extraction could not be performed. The IPS was instead be operated as a neutral plasma source, without high-voltage ion extraction, along with the wire neutralizer to examine spacecraft charging effects. The neutralizer was also operated by itself to provide electron injection for the spacecraft charging experiments. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 105 deg W in 1969-1977; over the Americas at 70 deg W in 1977-1983. As of 1 September 2001 located at 15.48 deg E drifting at 2.807 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 111.70E drifting at 2.819W degrees per day.


1970 April 8 - . 08:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • Nimbus 4 - . Payload: Nimbus D. Mass: 620 kg (1,360 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 4362 . COSPAR: 1970-025A. Apogee: 1,099 km (682 mi). Perigee: 1,088 km (676 mi). Inclination: 100.1000 deg. Period: 107.10 min.

    A Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/Agena D space booster lifted NASA's Nimbus 4 meteorological satellite into orbit from Vandenberg. This was the 400th launch.. of the Thor booster that was originally developed by the Air Force as an intermediate range ballistic missile (IRBM) in the 1950s. Environmental research. Primary experiments consisted of an image dissector camera system for providing daytime cloudcover pictures both in real-time and recorded modes, temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for measuring daytime and nighttime surface and cloudtop temperatures as well as the water vapor content of the upper atmosphere, infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) for measuring the emission spectra of the earth/atmosphere system, satellite infrared spectrometer (SIRS) for determining the vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor in the atmosphere, a monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) for detecting solar UV radiation, a backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) detector for monitoring the vertical distribution and total amount of atmospheric ozone on a global scale, a filter wedge spectrometer (FWS) for accurate measurement of IR radiance as a function of wavelength from the earth/atmosphere system, a selective chopper radiometer (SCR) for determining the temperatures of six successive 10-km layers in the atmosphere from absorption measurements in the 15-micrometer CO2 band, and an interrogation, recording, and location system (IRLS) for locating, interrogating, recording, and retransmitting meteorological and geophysical data from remote collection stations. The spacecraft performed well until April 14, 1971, when attitude problems started. The experiments then operated on a limited time basis until September 30, 1980.


1970 December 11 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6.
  • CEPE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Spacecraft: CEPE. USAF Sat Cat: 4794 . COSPAR: 1970-106B. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Inclination: 101.7042 deg. Period: 114.92 min.

1970 December 12 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • Explorer 42 - . Payload: SAS A. Mass: 143 kg (315 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: SAS. Decay Date: 1979-04-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4797 . COSPAR: 1970-107A. Apogee: 570 km (350 mi). Perigee: 521 km (323 mi). Inclination: 3.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 March 13 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M6.
  • Explorer 43 - . Payload: IMP I. Mass: 288 kg (634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. Decay Date: 1974-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5043 . COSPAR: 1971-019A. Apogee: 203,130 km (126,210 mi). Perigee: 1,845 km (1,146 mi). Inclination: 31.2000 deg. Period: 5,957.90 min.

    In its first use at Cape Canaveral, a NASA Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/ Delta boosted Explorer 43 into orbit. This was the first "Super Six" configuration Thor/Delta, with strap-on solid-rocket boosters motors, to be launched from the Eastern Test Range. Earth magnetosphere research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1971 September 29 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N.
  • OSO 7 - . Payload: OSO H. Mass: 635 kg (1,399 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1974-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5491 . COSPAR: 1971-083A. Apogee: 572 km (355 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 33.1000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Orbiting Solar Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • TETR 3 - . Payload: TETR D. Mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Tracking network technology satellite. Spacecraft: TETR. Decay Date: 1978-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5492 . COSPAR: 1971-083B. Apogee: 570 km (350 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 33.0000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Test satellite for NASA's Manned Space Flight Network. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 October 21 - . 11:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6. FAILURE: Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • ITOS B - . Payload: ITOS B. Mass: 308 kg (679 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. Decay Date: 1972-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 5565 . COSPAR: 1971-091A. Apogee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Perigee: 293 km (182 mi). Inclination: 102.5000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Unusable orbit..

1971 November 15 - . 05:52 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • Explorer 45 - . Payload: SSS A. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SSS. Decay Date: 1992-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5598 . COSPAR: 1971-096A. Apogee: 18,149 km (11,277 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 322.80 min. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1972 July 23 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0900.
  • Landsat 1 - . Payload: ERTS A. Mass: 816 kg (1,798 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Nimbus. Spacecraft: Landsat 1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 6126 . COSPAR: 1972-058A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 898 km (557 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 103.10 min.

    The first Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/Delta to be launched from Vandenberg AFB using nine solid rocket motors successfully placed the Environmental Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-A) in orbit. Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1972 August 21 - . 10:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
  • OAO 3 - . Payload: OAO-C. Mass: 2,204 kg (4,858 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: OAO. USAF Sat Cat: 6153 . COSPAR: 1972-065A. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 713 km (443 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. UV observations of stellar objects. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit.

1972 September 23 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 1604.
  • Explorer 47 - . Payload: IMP H. Mass: 376 kg (828 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. USAF Sat Cat: 6197 . COSPAR: 1972-073A. Apogee: 235,600 km (146,300 mi). Perigee: 201,100 km (124,900 mi). Inclination: 17.2000 deg. Period: 17,670.00 min. Investigated cislunar radiation, Earth's magnetosphere, interplantary magnetic field. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1972 November 15 - . 22:13 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1.
  • Explorer 48 - . Payload: SAS B. Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: SAS. Decay Date: 1976-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6282 . COSPAR: 1972-091A. Apogee: 526 km (326 mi). Perigee: 526 km (326 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1972 December 11 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0900.
  • Nimbus 5 - . Payload: Nimbus E. Mass: 722 kg (1,591 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 6305 . COSPAR: 1972-097A. Apogee: 1,101 km (684 mi). Perigee: 1,088 km (676 mi). Inclination: 100.1000 deg. Period: 107.20 min.

    Environmental research. Primary experiments included a temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for measuring day and night surface and cloudtop temperatures as well as the water vapor content of the upper atmosphere, electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) for mapping the microwave radiation from the earth's surface and atmosphere, infrared temperature profile radiometer (ITPR) for obtaining vertical profiles of temperature and moisture, Nimbus E microwave spectrometer (NEMS) for determining tropospheric temperature profiles, atmospheric water vapor abundances, and cloud liquid water contents, selective chopper radiometer (SCR) for observing the global temperature structure of the atmosphere, and a surface composition mapping radiometer (SCMR) for measuring the differences in the thermal emission characteristics of the earth's surface.


1973 June 10 - . 14:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 1913.
  • Explorer 49 - . Payload: RAE B. Mass: 328 kg (723 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: RAE. USAF Sat Cat: 6686 . COSPAR: 1973-039A. Radio Astronomy Explorer; measured galactic, stellar radio noise. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1973 October 26 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 1604.
  • Explorer 50 - . Payload: IMP J. Mass: 371 kg (817 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. USAF Sat Cat: 6893 . COSPAR: 1973-078A. Apogee: 244,361 km (151,838 mi). Perigee: 190,749 km (118,525 mi). Inclination: 31.6000 deg. Period: 17,576.70 min. Solar flare and radiation monitor. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1973 December 16 - . 06:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 1900.
  • Explorer 51 - . Payload: AE C. Mass: 658 kg (1,450 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AE. Decay Date: 1978-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 6977 . COSPAR: 1973-101A. Apogee: 4,306 km (2,675 mi). Perigee: 155 km (96 mi). Inclination: 68.1000 deg. Period: 132.50 min. Atmospheric Explorer; upper atmospheric research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1974 May 17 - . 09:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • SMS 1 - . Payload: SMS A. Mass: 243 kg (535 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: SMS. Completed Operations Date: 1981-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7298 . COSPAR: 1974-033A. Apogee: 36,303 km (22,557 mi). Perigee: 36,216 km (22,503 mi). Inclination: 15.5000 deg. Period: 1,460.30 min.

    Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 45 deg W in 1974-1975; over the Atlantic Ocean 75 deg W in 1975; over the Americas at 105 deg W in 1976-1978; over the Americas at 91 deg W in1978; over the Atlantic Ocean 75 deg W in 1979; over the Atlantic Ocean 70 deg W in 1979; over the Pacific Ocean 132 deg W in 1980 As of 3 September 2001 located at 84.60 deg W drifting at 5.986 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 116.51E drifting at 5.981W degrees per day.


1974 May 30 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • ATS 6 - . Payload: ATS F. Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: ATS. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ATS. Spacecraft: ATS-6. Completed Operations Date: 1979-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7318 . COSPAR: 1974-039A. Apogee: 35,444 km (22,023 mi). Perigee: 35,184 km (21,862 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,412.00 min.

    An Air Force Titan IIIC boosted NASA's Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) into orbit from Cape Canaveral. Built by Application Technology Satellite; experimental communications satellite. The purpose of the ATS-6 flight experiment was to demonstrate north-south stationkeeping of a geosynchronous satellite using two cesium ion engine systems. Thruster development tests included a life test of 2614 hours and 471 cycles. Thruster input power was 0.15 kW, which resulted in a thrust of 4.5 mN at a specific impulse of 2500 s. One of the ion engines operated for about one hour and the other for 92 hours. Both of the engines failed to provide thrust on restart due to discharge chamber cesium flooding. The feed system flooding problem caused overloading of the discharge and high voltage power supplies. This failure mechanism was verified through a series of ground tests. However engine operation demonstrated an absence of EMI related to spacecraft systems, verified predictions of spacecraft potential with engines operating, and demonstrated compatibility with the spacecraft's star tracker. It was found that the ion engines or just the neutralizer could discharge large negative spacecraft potentials at all times. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 94 deg W in 1974-1975; over the Indian Ocean 35 deg E in 1975-1976; over the Americas at 140 deg W in 1976-1979. As of 2 September 2001 located at 172.56 deg W drifting at 6.144 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 29.12W drifting at 6.125E degrees per day.


1975 January 22 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Landsat 2 - . Payload: Landsat B. Mass: 953 kg (2,101 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Nimbus. Spacecraft: Landsat 1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 7615 . COSPAR: 1975-004A. Apogee: 913 km (567 mi). Perigee: 900 km (550 mi). Inclination: 99.3000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1975 February 6 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • SMS 2 - . Payload: SMS B. Mass: 627 kg (1,382 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: SMS. Completed Operations Date: 1982-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7648 . COSPAR: 1975-011A. Apogee: 36,060 km (22,400 mi). Perigee: 35,941 km (22,332 mi). Inclination: 12.0000 deg. Period: 1,447.10 min.

    Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at (GOES W) 115 deg W in 1975-1976; over the Pacific Ocean (GOES W) 135 deg W in 1976-1978; over the Atlantic Ocean (GOES E) 75 deg W in 1979-1981; over the Americas at 106 deg W in 1982 As of 29 August 2001 located at 123.04 deg W drifting at 2.760 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 127.44E drifting at 2.742W degrees per day.


1975 May 7 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout F-1.
  • Explorer 53 - . Payload: SAS C. Mass: 195 kg (429 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: SAS. Decay Date: 1979-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7788 . COSPAR: 1975-037A. Apogee: 507 km (315 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 3.0000 deg. Period: 94.70 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1975 June 12 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Nimbus 6 - . Payload: Nimbus F. Mass: 829 kg (1,827 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 7924 . COSPAR: 1975-052A. Apogee: 1,114 km (692 mi). Perigee: 1,101 km (684 mi). Inclination: 100.0000 deg. Period: 107.40 min.

    Environmental research. The experiments selected for Nimbus-6 were the earth radiation budget (ERB), electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR), high-resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS), limb radiance inversion radiometer (LRIR), pressure modulated radiometer (PMR), scanning microwave spectrometer (SCAMS), temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR), tracking and data relay experiment (T+DRE), and the tropical wind energy conversion and reference level experiment (TWERLE). This complement of advanced sensors was capable of mapping tropospheric temperature, water vapor abundance, and cloud water content; providing vertical profiles of temperature, ozone, and water vapor; transmitting real-time data to a geostationary spacecraft (ATS 6); and yielding data on the earth's radiation budget.


1975 June 21 - . 11:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 1910.
  • OSO 8 - . Payload: OSO I. Mass: 1,066 kg (2,350 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1986-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7970 . COSPAR: 1975-057A. Apogee: 553 km (343 mi). Perigee: 539 km (334 mi). Inclination: 32.9000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. Orbiting Solar Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1975 October 6 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Explorer 54 - . Payload: AE D. Mass: 676 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AE. Decay Date: 1976-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8353 . COSPAR: 1975-096A. Apogee: 3,819 km (2,373 mi). Perigee: 151 km (93 mi). Inclination: 90.1000 deg. Period: 126.80 min. Atmospheric Explorer; atmospheric research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1975 November 20 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Explorer 55 - . Payload: AE E. Mass: 721 kg (1,589 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AE. Decay Date: 1981-06-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 8440 . COSPAR: 1975-107A. Apogee: 3,002 km (1,865 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 19.7000 deg. Period: 117.70 min. Atmospheric Explorer. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1977 October 22 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • ISEE 1 - . Payload: ISEE A. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ISEE. Decay Date: 1987-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10422 . COSPAR: 1977-102A. Apogee: 137,806 km (85,628 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 3,441.00 min. International Sun-Earth Explorer. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1978 March 5 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Landsat 3 - . Payload: Landsat C. Mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Nimbus. Spacecraft: Landsat 1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 10702 . COSPAR: 1978-026A. Apogee: 915 km (568 mi). Perigee: 895 km (556 mi). Inclination: 98.9000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..
  • PIX - . Payload: PIX 1 / Delta 139. Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: PIX. Decay Date: 1981-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 10704 . COSPAR: 1978-026C. Apogee: 920 km (570 mi). Perigee: 903 km (561 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 103.20 min. Plasma Interaction Experiment. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1978 April 26 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1.
  • HCMM - . Payload: AEM 1. Mass: 134 kg (295 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AEM. Decay Date: 1981-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10818 . COSPAR: 1978-041A. Apogee: 641 km (398 mi). Perigee: 560 km (340 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; prodeuced thermal maps of atmosphere. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1978 August 12 - . 15:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • ISEE 3 - . Payload: ISEE C. Mass: 479 kg (1,056 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ISEE. USAF Sat Cat: 11004 . COSPAR: 1978-079A. Apogee: 1,089,200 km (676,700 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 67,852.90 min.

    International Sun-Earth Explorer; later renamed the International Cometary Explorer. Measured interaction between solar wind and Earth; rendezvoused with comet Giacobini-Zinner September 11, 1985. After several passes through the Earth's magnetotail, with gravity assists from lunar flybys in March, April, September and October of 1983, a final close lunar flyby (119.4 km above the moon's surface) on December 22, 1983, ejected the spacecraft out of the Earth-Moon system and into a heliocentric orbit ahead of the Earth, on a trajectory intercepting that of Comet Giacobini-Zinner. A total of fifteen propulsive maneuvers (four of which were planned) and five lunar flybys were needed to carry out the transfer from the halo orbit to an escape trajectory from the earth-moon system into a heliocentric orbit. The primary scientific objective of ICE was to study the interaction between the solar wind and a cometary atmosphere. As planned, the spacecraft traversed the plasma tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, and made in situ measurements of particles, fields, and waves. It also transited between the Sun and Comet Halley in late March 1986, when other spacecraft (Giotto, Planet-A, MS-T5, VEGA) were also in the vicinity of Comet Halley on their comet rendezvous missions. ICE became the first spacecraft to directly investigate two comets. An update to the ICE mission was approved by NASA headquarters in 1991. It defined a Heliospheric mission for ICE consisting of investigations of coronal mass ejections in coordination with ground-based observations, continued cosmic ray studies, and special period observations such as when ICE and Ulysses are on the same solar radial line. As of January 1990, ICE was in a 355 day heliocentric orbit with an aphelion of 1.03 AU, a perihelion of 0.93 AU and an inclination of 0.1 degree. This will bring it back to the vicinity of the earth-moon system in August, 2014. Termination of operations of ISEE 3 was authorized May 5, 1997.

    International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 spacecraft, also known as the International Cometary Explorer after its trip to P/Giacobini-Zinner in 1985, returned to the vicinity of the Earth in August 2014 following 30 years in solar orbit. On April 18 ISEE 3 was in a 0.927 x 1.034 AU x 0.06 deg solar orbit at a distance of 28.9 million km from Earth. A group of enthusiasts attempted to revive the spacecraft. ISEE 3 was the first spacecraft at the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point. However, in a special 1986 ceremony NASA Administrator James Fletcher transferred ownership of the spacecraft from NASA to the Smithsonian Institution. Additional Details: here....


1978 October 13 - . 11:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • Tiros N - . Mass: 734 kg (1,618 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 11060 . COSPAR: 1978-096A. Apogee: 845 km (525 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.70 min.

    An Atlas booster launched a TIROS-N prototype weather satellite designed and funded by NASA for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The launch took place at Vandenberg AFB and was successful. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1978 October 24 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Nimbus 7 - . Payload: Nimbus G. Mass: 907 kg (1,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 11080 . COSPAR: 1978-098A. Apogee: 957 km (594 mi). Perigee: 943 km (585 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 104.10 min.

    Environmental research. The experiments carried were a limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere (LIMS), stratospheric and mesopheric sounder (SAMS), coastal-zone color scanner (CZCS), stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM II), earth radiation budget (ERB), scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), solar backscatter UV and total ozone mapping spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS), and temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR). These sensors were capable of observing several parameters at and below the mesospheric levels. After 11 years in orbit, three experiments, SAM II, SBUV/TOMS, and ERB, were still functioning successfully.

  • CAMEO - . Payload: CAMEO Li Canister/CAMEO Ba Canister. Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: CAMEO. USAF Sat Cat: 11081 . COSPAR: 1978-098B. Apogee: 968 km (601 mi). Perigee: 924 km (574 mi). Inclination: 99.4000 deg. Period: 104.00 min. Released barium cloud..

1978 December 16 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914.
  • DRIMS - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Anik. Decay Date: 1979-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11154 . COSPAR: 1978-116B. Apogee: 1,832 km (1,138 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 105.26 min.

    First use of the Delta Redundant Inertial Measurement System (DRIMS). DRIMS improved the inertial measurement unit introduced with DIGS, but kept the DIGS guidance computer. DRIMS added redundancy on all axes of motion. The Delta upper stage was tracked as a separate functional object with this designation on this launch.


1979 February 18 - . 16:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1.
  • SAGE - . Payload: AEM 2. Mass: 147 kg (324 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SAGE. Decay Date: 1989-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11270 . COSPAR: 1979-013A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 456 km (283 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 94.20 min. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1979 October 30 - . 14:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • Magsat - . Payload: AEM 3. Mass: 181 kg (399 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magsat. Decay Date: 1980-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11604 . COSPAR: 1979-094A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 352 km (218 mi). Inclination: 96.8000 deg. Period: 93.70 min. Measured near-Earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1980 February 14 - . 15:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910.
  • SMM - . Payload: Solar Maximum Mission. Mass: 2,315 kg (5,103 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MMS. Spacecraft: SMM. Decay Date: 1989-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11703 . COSPAR: 1980-014A. Apogee: 408 km (253 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Solar Maximum Mission; solar observatory; repaired 4/9/84 by STS-41C in orbit. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1981 August 3 - . 09:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3913. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Dynamics Explorer 1 - . Payload: DE A. Mass: 403 kg (888 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Dynamics Explorer. USAF Sat Cat: 12624 . COSPAR: 1981-070A. Apogee: 23,232 km (14,435 mi). Perigee: 528 km (328 mi). Inclination: 88.6000 deg. Period: 409.20 min. Dynamics Explorer 1..
  • Dynamics Explorer 2 - . Payload: DE B. Mass: 403 kg (888 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Dynamics Explorer. Decay Date: 1983-02-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 12625 . COSPAR: 1981-070B. Apogee: 1,002 km (622 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Dynamics Explorer 2..

1982 July 16 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920.
  • Landsat 4 - . Payload: Landsat D. Mass: 1,942 kg (4,281 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MMS. Spacecraft: Landsat 4-5. USAF Sat Cat: 13367 . COSPAR: 1982-072A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 693 km (430 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1983 January 26 - . 02:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910.
  • PIX 2 - . Payload: PIX II. Mass: 1,073 kg (2,365 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Spacecraft: IRAS. USAF Sat Cat: 13778 . COSPAR: 1983-004B. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 856 km (532 mi). Inclination: 100.0285 deg. Period: 102.30 min.

1983 April 4 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • TDRS 1 - . Payload: TDRS A. Mass: 2,268 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 13969 . COSPAR: 1983-026B. Apogee: 35,976 km (22,354 mi). Perigee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Inclination: 7.4000 deg. Period: 1,442.20 min.

    Element of satellite communications network, deployed from STS-6 5 April 1983. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 67 deg W in 1983; 41 deg W in 1983-1989; 79 deg W in 1989-1990; 170 deg W in 1990-1993; 85 deg E in 1994-1995; 49 deg W in 1996-on. As of 5 September 2001 located at 49.36 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 48.98W drifting at 0.029W degrees per day.


1984 August 16 - . 14:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3924.
  • Solar Cell Experiment - . Payload: STP. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Spacecraft: AMPTE. USAF Sat Cat: 15202 . COSPAR: 1984-088D. Apogee: 4,019 km (2,497 mi). Perigee: 546 km (340 mi). Inclination: 28.9185 deg. Period: 133.62 min.

1984 October 5 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • ERBS - . Payload: Challenger F6 / ERBS. Mass: 226 kg (498 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ERBS. USAF Sat Cat: 15354 . COSPAR: 1984-108B. Apogee: 589 km (365 mi). Perigee: 576 km (357 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1985 June 17 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Spartan 1 - . Payload: Spartan 101. Mass: 1,008 kg (2,222 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1985-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15831 . COSPAR: 1985-048E. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Released by STS 51G 20 June 1985, retrieved 22 June 1985..

1986 July 26 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1986 July 26 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1986 July 27 - . 00:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1986 July 27 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1986 July 27 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1986 July 27 - . 23:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
1988 September 29 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • TDRS 3 - . Payload: TDRS C. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 19548 . COSPAR: 1988-091B. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA communications; 171 deg W; deployed from STS-26 . Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 151 deg W in 1988; 171 deg W in 1989-1990; 174 deg W in 1990-1991; 62 deg W in 1991-1994;171 deg W in 1994-1995; 85 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 26 August 2001 located at 85.17 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 84.98E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.


1989 March 13 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • TDRS 4 - . Payload: TDRS D. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 19883 . COSPAR: 1989-021B. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 4.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Deployed from STS 29 13 March 1989; NASA communications; 41 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 41 deg W in 1989-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 41.04 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.81W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.


1989 November 18 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 5920-8.
  • COBE - . Mass: 2,265 kg (4,993 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: COBE. USAF Sat Cat: 20322 . COSPAR: 1989-089A. Apogee: 886 km (550 mi). Perigee: 873 km (542 mi). Inclination: 98.9000 deg. Period: 102.60 min. Cosmic Background Explorer; measured background galactic infrared radiation. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1990 April 5 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Edwards.. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus.
  • Pegsat - . Payload: Pegsat / Orion 38. Mass: 178 kg (392 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Pegsat. Decay Date: 1998-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 20546 . COSPAR: 1990-028A. Apogee: 507 km (315 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 94.1000 deg. Period: 93.70 min. Chemical release experiment. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1990 April 24 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • HST Hubble Space Telescope - . Payload: Hubble Space Telescope. Mass: 10,863 kg (23,948 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HST. USAF Sat Cat: 20580 . COSPAR: 1990-037B. Apogee: 596 km (370 mi). Perigee: 590 km (360 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. Hubble Space Telescope; deployed from STS-31 4/25/90. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1991 April 5 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Compton Observatory - . Payload: Gamma Ray Observatory. Mass: 15,620 kg (34,430 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: GRO. Decay Date: 2000-06-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 21225 . COSPAR: 1991-027B. Apogee: 453 km (281 mi). Perigee: 448 km (278 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.60 min.

    Astrophysical laboratory for gamma ray observations; deployed from STS-37 4/7/91; renamed Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was intentionally deorbited on by NASA over the objections of the scientific community on June 3, 2000. NASA decided to end the mission after several orientation gyroscope failures. They felt that if another gyroscope was lost, the heavy spacecraft might eventually reenter out of control.


1991 August 2 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • TDRS 5 - . Payload: TDRS E. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 21639 . COSPAR: 1991-054B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA communications; 174 deg W; deployed from STS-43 8/2/91. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 174 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 174.28 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 171.61W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


1991 September 12 - . 23:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • UARS - . Payload: Discovery F13 / UARS. Mass: 6,795 kg (14,980 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MMS. Spacecraft: UARS. Decay Date: 2011-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21701 . COSPAR: 1991-063B. Apogee: 582 km (361 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min.

    Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite; deployed from STS-48 on 15 Sepetember 1991. It studied the depletion of the ozone layer, confirming that CFCs cause the `ozone hole', and improved models of upper atmosphere chemistry, including studies of methane in the Antarctic, sulphur dioxide from volcanoes, and global wind measurements. Some media hysteria surrounded its reentry on 24 September 2011, but it apparently came down unobserved in the Pacific Ocean east of Hawaii.


1992 June 7 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 6920-10.
  • EUVE - . Mass: 3,275 kg (7,220 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MMS. Spacecraft: EUVE. Decay Date: 2002-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 21987 . COSPAR: 1992-031A. Apogee: 524 km (325 mi). Perigee: 510 km (310 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 95.00 min.

    Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer; mapped galactic EUV sources. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer was switched off on February 2, 2001. NASA decided to terminate funding for the mission, even though the spacecraft was still operating well. The sky survey was completed in January 1993 and after that the EUVE was used by guest astronomers for observations of specific targets. The final observations were made on January 26, 2001. After end-of-life tests of the never-used backup high voltage supplies and checking the remaining battery capacity, EUVE was stabilized pointing away from the Sun and sent into safehold at 2359 GMT on January 31. The transmitters were commanded off on February 2.


1992 July 3 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • SAMPEX - . Mass: 158 kg (348 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SAMPEX. Decay Date: 2012-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22012 . COSPAR: 1992-038A. Apogee: 670 km (410 mi). Perigee: 506 km (314 mi). Inclination: 81.7000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. First Small Explorer mission; Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1993 January 13 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • TDRS 6 - . Payload: TDRS F. Mass: 2,530 kg (5,570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 22314 . COSPAR: 1993-003B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA communications; deployed from STS-54 1/13/93. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg W in 1993; 138 deg W in 1993; 46 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 46.99 deg W drifting at 0.017 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 173.51W drifting at 0.006E degrees per day.


1993 April 8 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,289 kg (2,841 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1993-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22623 . COSPAR: 1993-023B. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Studied solar corona and galaxy; deployed from STS-56 4/11/93; Shuttle Point Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy; retrieved 4/13/93..

1994 August 19 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1994 August 20 - . 02:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1994 August 22 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion sounding rocket.
1994 August 24 - . 13:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1994 August 25 - . 01:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1994 September 9 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,288 kg (2,839 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23253 . COSPAR: 1994-059B. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 252 km (156 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.68 min. Deployed from STS-64 9/13/94; retrieved 9/15/94; solar studies..

1994 September 12 - . 15:34 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 35 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 September 15 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 36 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 September 23 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 September 23 - . 21:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 September 24 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 September 24 - . 21:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 November 1 - . 09:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-10.
  • Wind - . Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Wind. USAF Sat Cat: 23333 . COSPAR: 1994-071A. Apogee: 1,578,658 km (980,930 mi). Perigee: 48,840 km (30,340 mi). Inclination: 19.6500 deg. Period: 318,240.00 min.

    Solar wind research in L-1 halo orbit; part of International Solar Terrestrial Physics program. 221 day orbit. NASA's Wind probe made its 32nd lunar flyby on August 19, 2000, with a closest approach of 7600 km to the surface. This placed it on a 2 million km apogee orbit, adjusted on August 26 to an approximately 567000 x 1620000 km x 21.8 deg `Distant Prograde Orbit', reaching apogee on September 29 2000.


1995 March 15 - . 20:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
1995 March 19 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 37 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1995 March 25 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10CM1.
  • Ionosphere / release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1995 March 27 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 38 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1995 July 13 - . 13:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • TDRS 7 - . Payload: TDRS G. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23613 . COSPAR: 1995-035B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA communications; deployed from STS-70 on 7/13/95. Stationed at 149.8 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg W in 1995-1996; 171 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 171.48 deg W drifting at 0.017 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 150.85W drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.


1995 July 26 - . 09:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
1995 August 8 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
1995 August 28 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 September 2 - . 01:13 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Thunderstorm III Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 September 7 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1995-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23668 . COSPAR: 1995-048B. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Released by STS-69 9/8/95; retrieved 9/10/95; examined solar corona..

1995 October 25 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 October 28 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FOT 12 (30 Dor) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 November 5 - . 16:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1995 November 14 - . 17:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1995 November 19 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • WISP 2 Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 November 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1995 November 24 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1995 November 27 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1995 November 27 - . 08:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1995 December 4 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: LC36 Tower. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • XQC F1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1995 December 30 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10.
  • XTE - . Payload: Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: XTE. USAF Sat Cat: 23757 . COSPAR: 1995-074A. Apogee: 583 km (362 mi). Perigee: 565 km (351 mi). Inclination: 23.0000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. X-ray Timing Explorer; X-ray astronomy..

1996 January 11 - . 09:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • OAST-Flyer - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: OAST-Flyer. Decay Date: 1996-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23763 . COSPAR: 1996-001B. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. GPS receiver, amateur radio tests; examined effect of solar radiation on satellite explosive devices; deployed from STS 72 1/14/96; retrieved 1/16/96..

1996 February 17 - . 20:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-8.
  • NEAR - . Payload: Discovery 1. Mass: 818 kg (1,803 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Discovery series. Class: Asteroids. Type: Asteroid probe. Spacecraft: NEAR. Decay Date: 2001-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 23784 . COSPAR: 1996-008A.

    Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was the first of NASA's Discovery missions, a series of small-scale spacecraft designed to proceed from development to flight in under three years for a cost of less than $150 million. The spacecraft's mission was to rendezvous with and achieve orbit around the asteroid Eros in January 1999, and study the asteroid for one year. However as it flew by the Earth on 23 January 1998, a problem caused an abort of the first encounter burn. The mission had to be rescoped for a later encounter but successfully entered orbit around Eros on Valentine's Day 2000 and ended the mission by gently landing on its surface on 12 February 2001.


1996 February 23 - . 19:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 February 23 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 February 24 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-10.
  • Polar - . Mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Polar. USAF Sat Cat: 23802 . COSPAR: 1996-013A. Apogee: 50,423 km (31,331 mi). Perigee: 5,554 km (3,451 mi). Inclination: 86.3000 deg. Period: 1,070.20 min. HEO. Fields and particles, auroral studies; part of International Solar Terrestrial Physics program..

1996 March 6 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1996 May 19 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • PAMS STU - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: PAMS. Decay Date: 1996-10-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 23876 . COSPAR: 1996-032D. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi). Perigee: 132 km (82 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 87.20 min. LEO. Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite; deployed from STS 77 5/22/96; attitude control technology test. Reentered Oct 26..

1996 June 4 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: LC36 Athena. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • XQC F2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1996 June 17 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Radio astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 June 20 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • DARTFire 1 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 June 26 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • USC-1 SOHO Cal Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi).

1996 July 2 - . 07:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • TOMS-EP - . Mass: 248 kg (546 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: T100. Spacecraft: TOMS-EP. USAF Sat Cat: 23940 . COSPAR: 1996-037A. Apogee: 746 km (463 mi). Perigee: 705 km (438 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. LEO. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe; atmospheric ozone mapping. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1996 August 12 - . 18:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • HOMER Aeronomy / education mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1996 August 21 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • FAST - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: FAST. USAF Sat Cat: 24285 . COSPAR: 1996-049A. Apogee: 4,163 km (2,586 mi). Perigee: 353 km (219 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 132.70 min. Second Small Explorer mission. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1996 October 16 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • DARTFire 2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 October 21 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FPT 1 (Jupiter) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 October 29 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1996 November 4 - . 17:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: RW04/22. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. FAILURE: The rocket functioned perfectly but the separation system failed to release the payload.. Failed Stage: P.
  • HETE - . Mass: 124 kg (273 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STEDI. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HETE. Decay Date: 2002-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24645 . COSPAR: 1996-061A. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min.

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Its prime objective was to carry out the first multiwavelength study of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with UV, X-ray, and gamma ray instruments. A unique feature of the mission was its capability to localise bursts with several arcsecond accuracy, in near real-time aboard the spacecraft. These positions were to be transmitted to the ground, and picked up by a global network of primary and secondary ground stations (SGS), enabling sensitive follow-up studies. However the satellite was never released from its payload fitting. Although signals were received, the solar panels could not deploy, and it went silent after a few days when its batteries ran down. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ.


1996 November 13 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SERTS-96 (07) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 November 17 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
1997 February 26 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • DARTFire 3 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 March 13 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 May 2 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 May 8 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1997 May 15 - . 19:16 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NCAR / CU-6 MXUVI Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 May 29 - . 04:56 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Radio astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 August 8 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
  • COORS / ROCKI (CRISTA) Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1997 August 11 - . 18:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • USC-2 SOHO Cal Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi).

1997 August 25 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-8.
  • ACE - . Payload: ACE. Mass: 785 kg (1,730 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: APL. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ACE. USAF Sat Cat: 24912 . COSPAR: 1997-045A. Apogee: 128,196 km (79,657 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Period: 86,411.37 min. Earth-Sun L1 point.

1997 September 2 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Anna Plains. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • DUNDEE 1 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 September 5 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Anna Plains. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • DUNDEE 2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 September 10 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Anna Plains. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • DUNDEE 3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 September 10 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 September 10 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • DARTFire 4 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 September 11 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Anna Plains. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • DUNDEE 4 (MSX) Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 September 19 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 September 30 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • HRTS 10 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 October 16 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EIT-CALROC Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi).

1997 November 5 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
1997 November 14 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SCARI 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 November 18 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SERTS-97 (08) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 November 19 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1997-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25062 . COSPAR: 1997-073B. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Retrieved by OV-102 Nov 25.

1997 November 27 - . 21:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-II.
  • TRMM - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: TRMM. Decay Date: 2015-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 25063 . COSPAR: 1997-074A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 395 km (245 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. TRMM was an international mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall. The spacecraft and four instruments were provided by the USA, while Japan provided one instrument and launch services..

1997 December 2 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: SvalRak. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1997 December 3 - . 09:06 GMT - . Launch Site: SvalRak. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
1998 February 25 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EDDY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1998 February 26 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • SNOE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Colorado. Program: STEDI. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: SNOE. Decay Date: 2003-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 25233 . COSPAR: 1998-012A. Apogee: 581 km (361 mi). Perigee: 529 km (328 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

    SNOE, the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer. Small satellite built by the University of Colorado to measure the Nitric Oxide density as a function of altitude. First satellite in the STEDI (Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative) program. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.


1998 March 11 - . 23:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Coqui Dos LaTuR Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi).

1998 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • TRACE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: TRACE. USAF Sat Cat: 25280 . COSPAR: 1998-020A. Apogee: 652 km (405 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.10 min.

    NASA's third Small Explorer, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), was successfully launched by an Orbital Pegasus XL. The L-1011 carrier aircraft took off from Vandenberg and dropped the Pegasus over the Pacific Ocean. TRACE, a project led by Lockheed's solar physics group, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope which will study the Sun. The telescope mirrors were made by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. TRACE had an 8.5 arcmin field of view and 1 arcsecond resolution. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.


1998 April 18 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SCARI 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 April 18 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 May 22 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NITE Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi).

1998 June 16 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Cincinatti / OhioSGC Aeronomy / education mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1998 August 15 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EEV CCD X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 October 29 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1998-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 25521 . COSPAR: 1998-064C. Apogee: 560 km (340 mi). Perigee: 549 km (341 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 95.74 min. Retrieved by Discovery November 3 1998..

1998 November 2 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SOPHIE (NCAR / CU-7) Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 November 18 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 December 6 - . 00:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • SWAS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SWAS. USAF Sat Cat: 25560 . COSPAR: 1998-071A. Apogee: 611 km (379 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 96.80 min.

    On December 3 the Orbital Sciences L-1011 Stargazer took off from Vandenberg AFB Runway 30/12 carrying a Pegasus XL launch vehicle with the SWAS satellite aboard. It reached the drop box at 36.0N 123.0W over the Pacific, but due to a software-related problem the range ordered the launch scrubbed and the L-1011 returned to base. After a further delay due to weather, the L-1011 took off at 23:58 GMT on December 5 and SWAS reached orbit and separated from the third stage at 01:09 GMT. SWAS, the Sub-millimetre Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz sub-millimetre receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. SWAS was used to study the cooling of molecular cloud cores, the sites of star formation in our galaxy, by measuring lines from molecular oxygen and water. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.


1999 February 11 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • ENSTROPHY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 1,071 km (665 mi).

1999 February 20 - . 04:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SPINR 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1999 March 5 - . 02:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • WIRE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: WIRE. Decay Date: 2011-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 25646 . COSPAR: 1999-011A. Apogee: 582 km (361 mi). Perigee: 537 km (333 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg.

    NASA's long-delayed WIRE (Wide Field Infrared Explorer) astronomy satellite was the fifth Small Explorer (SMEX) mission managed by NASA-Goddard. The L-1011 Stargazer launch aircraft took off from Vandenberg's runway 30/12 at 01:55 GMT on March 2 for the first launch attempt. The planned 02:56 GMT launch was cancelled at T-46 seconds due to a problem with the tail fin release mechanism of the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. The second attempt was successful, with the Pegaus XL being dropped at 36 degrees N x 123 degrees W over the Pacific Ocean at 02:56 GMT. However the WIRE ran into serious trouble shortly after orbit injection. The cover of the solid hydrogen telescope ejected prematurely, and the cryogenic coolant evaporated and vented, spinning the satellite out of control. WIRE was going to make an infrared photometry survey, generating a large catalog of galaxies and quasars. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.


1999 March 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • XQC F3 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1999 April 12 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • WISP 4 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi).

1999 April 15 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10.
  • Landsat 7 - . Mass: 1,969 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Valley Forge. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS N. Spacecraft: Landsat 7. USAF Sat Cat: 25682 . COSPAR: 1999-020A. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 702 km (436 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.

    The vehicle entered a 175 km x 706 km x 98.2 deg initial orbit. 57 minutes after launch the Delta stage burned again to circularize the orbit at 668 km x 698 km and Landsat 7 separated from the stage. The Delta stage then burned to depletion of its propellant, into a 184 km x 710 km x 107.5 deg orbit that would decay quickly. The Landsat 7 remote sensing satellite was to be operated by NASA/Goddard until October 2000, when operations would be transferred to the US Geological Survey.


1999 May 7 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • VAULT Demo Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1999 May 18 - . 05:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL/HAPS.
  • TERRIERS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: AeroAstro. Class: Technology. Type: Military technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HETE. Spacecraft: TERRIERS. USAF Sat Cat: 25735 . COSPAR: 1999-026A. Apogee: 493 km (306 mi). Perigee: 484 km (300 mi). Inclination: 97.1000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

    TERRIERS was part of NASA's Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative (STEDI), which was a precursor program to the UNEX (University Explorer) series. STEDI was managed by USRA (the Universities Space Research Association) for NASA, while UNEX was to be more directly managed by NASA-GSFC. TERRIERS was to be operated by the space physics group at Boston University for ionosphere studies, and carried TESS, a set of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrographs to get electron density and thermosphere emission profiles. The GISSMO instrument measured the solar EUV flux. The spacecraft was built by AeroAstro and based on HETE. TERRIERS was placed in the correct orbit, but it failed to orient its solar panel to the Sun and ran out of battery power by May 20. Controllers were optimistic that when its orbit processes to a better sun angle the satellite could be revived. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ. Additional Details: here....


1999 May 27 - . 10:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Starshine - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: ISS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Starshine. Decay Date: 2000-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 25769 . COSPAR: 1999-030B. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg.

    At 0:721 GMT on June 5 the Starshine satellite was ejected into a 379 x 396 km x 51.6 degree orbit from a canister at the rear of STS-96 Space Shuttle Discovery's payload bay. The small Starshine satellite, built by NRL, was to be observed by students as part of an educational exercise.


1999 June 14 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • JHU FOT 14 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1999 June 20 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV.
  • QuikScat - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Ball. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft: BCP-2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25789 . COSPAR: 1999-034A. Apogee: 802 km (498 mi). Perigee: 802 km (498 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.90 min.

    NASA's QuikScat carried the SeaWinds scatterometer for remote sensing of ocean winds. The Titan 2ís second stage shut down at 02:20 GMT and then coasted to apogee still attached to the QuikScat. The Titan second stage vernier thrusters ignited at apogee to raise perigee, leaving QuikScat in a 280 km x 813 km x 98.7 degree parking orbit. The QuikScat's own hydrazine propulsion system then fired to raise the perigee over a period of weeks.


1999 June 24 - . 15:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-10.
  • FUSE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Germantown. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MidStar. Spacecraft: FUSE. USAF Sat Cat: 25791 . COSPAR: 1999-035A. Apogee: 760 km (470 mi). Perigee: 745 km (462 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg. Period: 99.90 min.

    The Delta 3-m payload fairing was successfully jettisoned and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer was placed in a 754 km x 769 km x 25.0 degree initial orbit. After separation the Delta second stage then a depletion burn and was left in a 182 x 915 km x 19.1 degree orbit from which it would quickly decay out of orbit. Checkout of FUSE in orbit was proceeding well as of July 1.


1999 June 24 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SERTS-99 (09) Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1999 August 18 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • USC-3 (SOHO Cal) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi).

1999 August 24 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1999 September 27 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi).

1999 December 17 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • MG. Pool Boiling Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1999 December 18 - . 18:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Terra - . Payload: EOS-AM1. Mass: 4,854 kg (10,701 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Valley Forge. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: Terra. USAF Sat Cat: 25994 . COSPAR: 1999-068A. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 702 km (436 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. First launch in NASA's Earth Observing System program. Terra carried multispectral imagers, a radiation budget instrument, a detector to measure CO and methane pollution, and an instrument to study cloud top and vegetation properties..

2000 February 12 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • JHU FOT 15 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2000 February 26 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX. FAILURE: Failure.
  • J-PEX Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

2000 March 25 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7326-9.5.
  • IMAGE - . Mass: 536 kg (1,181 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMAGE. USAF Sat Cat: 26113 . COSPAR: 2000-017A. Apogee: 45,461 km (28,248 mi). Perigee: 1,408 km (875 mi). Inclination: 89.4260 deg. Period: 854.09 min.

    Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration was a MIDEX (mid-sized Explorer mission) developed by NASA-Goddard and the SWRI (Southwest Research Institute) of San Antonio, Texas. The spin-stabilised spacecraft carried a set of neutral atom and ultraviolet imagers, and antennae to study radio wavelength emissions from the magnetosphere plasma. The RPI radio plasma imager has four long wire antennae which will be deployed to a span of half a kilometre.


2000 May 6 - . 06:34 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi).

2000 May 17 - . 10:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • SPIRIT 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

2000 June 13 - . 16:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
2000 June 21 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
2000 June 30 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • TDRS 8 - . Payload: TDRS-H. Mass: 3,180 kg (7,010 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 26388 . COSPAR: 2000-034A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 5.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Launch delayed from June 29. First Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, using a Hughes HS 601 satellite bus. It included an S-band phased array antenna and two Ku/Ka band reflectors 4.6 meters in diameter. The satellite was launched into a a 167 x 577 km x 28.3 deg parking orbit at 13:05 GMT. The Centaur upper stage made a second burn at 13:21 GMT, releasing the satellite into a subsynchronous transfer orbit of 237 x 27,666 km x 27.0 deg. The satellite's own Primex/Marquardt R4D liquid apogee engine would be used to maneuver the satellite into its final geosynchronous orbit. Stationed at 151 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 149.99 deg W drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 145.38E drifting at 3.007W degrees per day.


2000 July 6 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2000 July 7 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Oriole. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Oriole.
2000 July 17 - . 06:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

2000 July 26 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SERTS-00 (10) Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2000 August 5 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SPINR Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 406 km (252 mi).

2000 September 5 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2000 October 9 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein DZ. Launch Pad: RW06/24. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus H.
  • HETE-2 - . Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: MIT. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HETE. USAF Sat Cat: 26561 . COSPAR: 2000-061A. Apogee: 641 km (399 mi). Perigee: 598 km (372 mi). Inclination: 1.9497 deg. Period: 97.02 min.

    First orbital launch from Kwajalein. Second High Energy Transient Explorer; built by MIT using leftover parts from the first HETE. This failed to operate because of a Pegasus adapter failure during launch in November 1996. MIT operates the satellite, while the program is managed by NASA GSFC as an Explorer mission of opportunity. HETE's main instrument is FREGATE, the French Gamma Telescope, a hard X-ray spectrometer operating in the 6 to 400 keV energy range. This gamma ray burst detector, together with a Wide Field X-ray Monitor hard X-ray coded mask telescope, is used to trigger searches with the two Soft X-ray Imagers which have 33-arcsecond spatial resolution. This will let astronomers get precise locations for gamma-ray bursts, allowing detailed follow-up with optical instruments. The satellite is in a 595 x 636 km x 2.0 deg equatorial orbit, and sends data to a network of small ground terminals spaced around the equator. Air dropped in Kwajalein DZ.


2000 October 13 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
2000 November 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-10.
  • EO-1 - . Mass: 529 kg (1,166 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Swales. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: EO-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26619 . COSPAR: 2000-075A. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 702 km (436 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.

    First use of a Delta dual payload attach fitting. The Earth Orbiter 1 satellite was part of NASA's New Millenium Program. Complementing the New Millenium's Deep Space series, EO-1 was a NASA-Goddard satellite which demonstrated technology for the next generation Landsat. It flew in formation with Landsat-7 for comparison purposes, using a hydrazine thruster to adjust its orbit. The satellite used a MIDEX-derived bus built by Swales Aerospace; dry mass was 566 kg. The main instruments were ALI (Advanced Land Imager) and the Hyperion 220-band imaging spectrometer. At 1835 GMT the Delta second stage completed its first burn and entered a 185 x 713 km x 98.2 deg transfer orbit. At 1920 GMT the orbit was circularised and EO-1 separated at 1925 GMT into a 682 x 729 km x 98.2 deg orbit.


2001 June 21 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • TXI Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi).

2001 June 30 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. Launch Pad: SLC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7425-10.
  • MAP - . Mass: 840 kg (1,850 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Infrared astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: MAP. USAF Sat Cat: 26859 . COSPAR: 2001-027A. Apogee: 379,553 km (235,842 mi). Perigee: 4,704 km (2,922 mi). Inclination: 27.8000 deg. Period: 14,669.70 min.

    NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was placed in a 167 x 204 km x 28.8 deg parking orbit at 1958 GMT. At 2104 GMT the second stage ignited again for a 4 second burn, raising the orbit to around 181 x 308 km; the third stage spun up and ignited at 2108 GMT, accelerating MAP to a highly elliptical orbit of 182 x 292,492 km x 28.7 deg. MAP used on-board fuel to tweak the orbit and make a lunar flyby at fourth apogee on July 30, arriving at the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrangian point 1.5 million km from Earth three months later. From L2, MAP was to measure fluctuations in the cosmic 3 Kelvin microwave background with the degree of precision required to answer questions about the big bang and the total mass and fate of the universe. By July 22 the MAP probe was in a 4055 x 355,935 km x 28.0 deg orbit. It flew past the Moon on July 30 at 1639 GMT at an altitude of 5200 km above the lunar surface.


2001 December 6 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • WISP 5 comet study Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 February 8 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NCAR / CU-8 Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 March 8 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • TDRS 9 - . Payload: TDRS-I. Mass: 3,192 kg (7,037 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 27389 . COSPAR: 2002-011A. Apogee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 8.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Launch delayed from October 31, November 13 and 26, 2001 and February 6 due to contract dispute with Boeing over performance of earlier satellites of the series. The Centaur upper stage entered a 167 x 578 km parking orbit and then placed the payload into a 247 x 29135 km x 27.1 deg subsynchronous transfer orbit. NASA's TDRS-I (TDRS-9) data relay satellite used a Boeing BSS-601 bus and was to provide S, Ku and Ka band communications for the Shuttle and International Space Station. After launch a problem developed with the fuel supply from one of the satellite's four propellant tanks. The tanks were paired, so losing one tank cuts the propellant supply in half. A test burn of the General Dynamics R-4D apogee motor raised the orbit to 433 x 29146 km x 26.4 deg on March 11 and a larger perigee burn raised the apogee to geostationary altitude, 429 x 35800 km, on March 13. A further burn on March 19, raised the orbit to 3521 x 35789 km and lowered the inclination to 21.4 deg. A burn on March 25 raised the orbit further to 8383 x 35811 km and lowered inclination to 17.4 deg. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 62.04W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.


2002 April 30 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • MSSTA III Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

2002 May 10 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
2002 May 16 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
2002 June 5 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
2002 June 5 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
2002 June 11 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NUVIEWS 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 June 14 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • VAULT 2 (LyA loops) Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi).

2002 July 1 - . 23:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • MM-MW-08 MacWAVE Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2002 July 2 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Lynx. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Lynx.
  • PACBLITZ 02 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 July 3 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Lynx. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Lynx.
  • PACBLITZ 02 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 July 5 - . 00:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • MM-MW-23 MacWAVE Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

2002 August 6 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • USC-4 (SOHO SEM) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 November 18 - . 02:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • ISIS Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 November 20 - . 01:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • VALPE (fairing) test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

2002 December 5 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • TDRS 10 - . Payload: TDRS-J. Mass: 3,190 kg (7,030 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 27566 . COSPAR: 2002-055A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 7.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Delayed from October 29, November 21 and 23. The third and final Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite satellite separated from the Centaur upper stage 30 minutes after launch. This completed the $800 million, three satellite contract. Last launch of the Atlas 2A booster. Flight delayed from October 29, November 21 and 23. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 40.92W drifting at 0.012E degrees per day.


2002 December 14 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: SvalRak. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10CM1.
2003 January 24 - . 20:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • MacWAVE Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

2003 January 28 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • HIBAR Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi).

2003 January 28 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • MacWAVE Plasma / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2003 February 6 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NUVIEWS 3 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2003 March 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC2. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10CM1.
  • HEX H Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

2003 March 25 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC3. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • HEX V Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 12:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JOULE Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC5. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
  • JOULE Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 12:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC2. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • JOULE Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

2003 April 17 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • BDPR Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2003 June 10 - . 06:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • DEBI (Bowshock) Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi).

2003 June 30 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • Release M / Dtr Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi).

2003 June 30 - . 05:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • Release M / Dtr Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

2003 June 30 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • Intermediate Layers Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

2003 June 30 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • Release M / Dtr Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

2003 July 15 - . 07:02 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • CWAS Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2003 July 15 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • CWAS Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2003 August 1 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Mk 70 Orion.
2003 August 12 - . 18:23 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • LASP / CU-9 (SEE) Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2003 August 20 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
2003 October 3 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • SPIRIT 2 Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2003 October 24 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Mk 70 Orion.
2003 December 5 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • USC-5 (SOHO SEM) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2003 December 5 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EIT Cal? Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2003 December 16 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FOT 17 / LIDOS Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2004 January 16 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • BDPR / VULCAM Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

2004 January 22 - . 08:57 GMT - . Launch Site: SvalRak. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10CM1.
  • SERSIO Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 790 km (490 mi).

2004 April 13 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Mk 70 Orion.
2004 June 1 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • ISIS (Cyg Loop) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2004 August 7 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi).

2004 August 7 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2004 August 7 - . 09:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2004 August 15 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi).

2004 August 15 - . 08:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2004 August 15 - . 08:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2004 August 27 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2004 September 3 - . 20:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

2004 September 7 - . 23:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2004 September 17 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2004 September 17 - . 09:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

2004 September 20 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2004 September 23 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Mk 70 Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
2004 October 15 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • LASP / CU-10 (SEE) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2004 November 24 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
2005 January 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
2005 May 5 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • MCAFT-1 / IBSi Missile defense / biology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

2005 June 28 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier ASAS.
2005 July 7 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • VAULT 3 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2005 August 3 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • USC-6 (SOHO SEM) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2005 December 20 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • Water recovery test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2006 February 8 - . 18:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • MOSES Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi).

2006 March 22 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • ST5-A - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ST5. USAF Sat Cat: 28980 . COSPAR: 2006-008A. Apogee: 4,539 km (2,820 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 105.6000 deg. Period: 136.90 min.

    Space Technology 5 was one of NASA's New Millenium Program projects. It consisted of three small spacecraft, each a half meter in each dimension, with a small extensible magnetometer boom. Study of the magnetosphere was however secondary to the Nanosat Constellation Trailblazer technology mission. This was to demonstrate fully functional nanosatellites, which included a cold gas microthruster and miniaturized telemetry/command and power systems. The Pegasus rocket was dropped from the L-1011 carrier aircraft over the Pacific at 123 deg W x 36 deg N. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.

  • ST5-B - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ST5. USAF Sat Cat: 28981 . COSPAR: 2006-008B. Apogee: 4,540 km (2,820 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 105.6000 deg. Period: 136.90 min. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • ST5-C - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ST5. USAF Sat Cat: 28982 . COSPAR: 2006-008C. Apogee: 4,539 km (2,820 mi). Perigee: 303 km (188 mi). Inclination: 105.6000 deg. Period: 136.90 min. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

2006 April 5 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • Descent imagery / RSO Planetary test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

2006 April 12 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EUNIS Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi).

2006 May 22 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
2006 July 1 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • ESPRIT (SPIRIT 3) Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2006 August 21 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
2006 August 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
2006 October 28 - . 17:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • LASP / CU-11 (SEE / EVE) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2006 November 7 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • USC-7 (SOHO SEM) Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2006 November 21 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Cygnus diffuse spec X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2007 January 19 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JOULE II Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2007 January 19 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • JOULE II Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2007 January 19 - . 12:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • JOULE II Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2007 February 14 - . 09:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • HEX-II V-1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2007 February 14 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • HEX-II H Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2007 February 14 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • HEX-II V-2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2007 February 14 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • HEX-II V-3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2007 June 21 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • Star tracker / ACS test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2007 August 3 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • MASS 1 (NLCs) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2007 August 6 - . 22:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • MASS 2 (NLCs) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2007 August 13 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FOT 18 / LIDOS 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

2007 September 6 - . 21:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
2007 October 30 - . 04:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • MidLat Spread F Plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi).

2007 November 6 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EUNIS Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2008 January 11 - . 05:23 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX Mod 2.
  • JHU FOT 19/LIDOS 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi).

2008 April 14 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
2008 May 1 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
2008 June 27 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion sounding rocket.
2008 July 14 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Mk 70 Orion.
2008 October 20 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
2009 January 10 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Improved Orion.
  • NASA 30.073UO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

2009 January 29 - . 09:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.242UE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Aurora.

2009 January 29 - . 09:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • NASA 21.139UE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi). Aurora.

2009 February 18 - . 09:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • NASA 41.076 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Atmosphere.

2009 February 18 - . 10:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • NASA 41.078 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Atmosphere.

2009 February 18 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • NASA 41.079 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Atmosphere.

2009 February 18 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • NASA 41.077 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Atmosphere.

2009 February 25 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.226UG - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). IR Astron..

2009 May 28 - . 16:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • NASA 41.080NR - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Hypersonic.

2009 June 26 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • NASA 41.083UO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi). Education.

2009 June 29 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.244UG - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). UV Astron.

2009 August 17 - . 12:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.254NR - . Mass: 210 kg (460 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Reentry test.

2009 November 14 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.252UH - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. X-ray astronomy payload. X-ray spectroscopy instrument scanned the Cygnus Loop region..

2009 December 17 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • NASA 41.086UO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Airglow.

2010 February 9 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
2010 March 27 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA1. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Malemute.
  • NASA 12.067GT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Test launch.

2010 May 3 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.258UE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Solar EUV payload.

2010 May 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.270UG - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). UV Astronomy payload.

2010 June 24 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • NASA 41.088UO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi). Educational payload.

2010 July 11 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.265UG - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Astronomy payload.

2010 July 30 - . 18:21 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.213NS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation..

2010 August 4 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • NASA 12.073GT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 693 km (430 mi). Qualification test of a new version of the Black Brant's Nikha solid motor..

2010 August 23 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NASA 36.219US - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Solar UV payload (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectropgraph)..

2010 September 21 - . 13:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • NASA 41.082NP - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Carried SubTEC-III technology experiment..


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