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Hayabusa
Hayabusa
Hayabusa
Credit: NASDA
Japanese asteroid probe which recovered a sample from the surface of asteroid (25143 Itokawa/1998 SF36) and returned it to earth. Built by NEC for JAXA, Japan. Launched 2003 and capsule recovered in Australia in 2010.

AKA: Falcon;Muses-C. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-05-09. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 415 kg (914 lb).

Hayabusa (formerly Muses-C) was also a technology demonstration mission. Other scientific objectives of the mission included detailed studies of the asteroid's shape, spin state, topography, color, composition, density, photometric and polarimetric properties, interior and history.

Following launch, the original name Muses-C was changed to Hayabusa (the Japanese word for falcon) and the spacecraft was put into a transfer orbit to bring it to asteroid 25143 Itokawa (1998 SF36), a 0.3 x 0.7 km near-Earth object. The ion engines were successfully test-fired starting on 27 May 2003 to the middle of June. Rendezvous with the asteroid was in September 2005. After overcoming many technical difficulties, the spacecraft was believed to have recovered some surface material and was navigated back to earth. The re-entry capsule landed near Woomera, Australia, in June 2010. Despite the many malfunction 1500 grains of material from the surface of the asteroid were returned, which proved to be of composition similar to meteorites recovered on earth.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

The Hayabusa spacecraft had a box-shaped main body 1.5 m along each side and 1.05 m high. The launch mass was 530 kg, including 50 kg of chemical propellant and 65 kg of xenon gas. Two solar panel wings with a total array area of 12 square meters protruded from the side and a 1.5 m diameter high-gain parabolic antenna was mounted on top on a two-axis gimbal.

Hayabusa was propelled during cruise phases by two microwave ion thruster engines, which used a microwave discharge to ionize xenon gas. The ionized plasma was accelerated by high-voltage electrodes through four thruster heads which protrude from one side of the spacecraft body to provide a peak thrust of 20 mN using 1 kW power. A nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine propulsion system with a peak thrust of 22 N was used for maneuvering. The spacecraft was powered by gallium-arsenide solar cells producing 700 kW at 1 AU and a 15 A-hr rechargeable nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery. Communications was via X- and S-band low gain antennas and the high gain dish antenna (X-band) with a transmitted power of 20 W. The spacecraft was also equipped with a camera, which was to be used for imaging, visible-polarimetry studies, and optical navigation near the asteroid, a laser ranging device (LIDAR), and near-IR and X-ray spectrometers. The insulated and cushioned re-entry capsule, 40 cm in diameter and 25 cm deep with a mass of about 20 kg, was attached to the body of the spacecraft near the sample collection horn. The capsule had a convex nose covered with a 3 cm thick ablative heat shield to protect the samples from the high velocity (~13 km/s) re-entry. Cost of the Hayabusa spacecraft was roughly 12 billion yen ($100 million U.S.)

Surface Sample Collection

The lander was equipped with a universal sample collection device which was to gather roughly one gram of surface samples taken from the landings at 3 different locations. The device consisted of a funnel-shaped collection horn, 40 cm in diameter at the end, which was to be placed over the sampling area. A pyrotechnic device fired a 10 gram metal projectile down the barrel of the horn at 200 - 300 m/sec. The projectile would strike the surface producing a small impact crater in the surface of the asteroid and propelling ejecta fragments back up the horn, where some of it was funneled into a sample collection chamber. Prior to each sampling run, the spacecraft was to drop a small target plate onto the surface from about 30 m altitude to use as a landmark to ensure the relative horizontal velocity between the spacecraft and asteroid surface was zero during the sampling. After sampling the samples was to be stored in the re-entry capsule for return to Earth.

Hayabusa-2 was intended to rendezvous with asteroid 1999 JU3, survey it from orbit, touch down briefly to sample the surface, and return samples to Earth. Launched into a 0.915 AU x 1.089 AU x 6.8 deg solar orbit. Five small, beanbag-like 'target markers' could be ejected onto the surface in advance to help guide the vehicle. Hayabusa-2 also carried three 1 kg class lander/hopper devices, Minerva II-1a, II-1b and II-2, which were to be ejected onto the surface, together with a 10 kg German-built lander called MASCOT. Hayabusa-2 was also to eject a 'Self-Contained Impactor' (SCI) device onto the surface. As the parent spacecraft moved off to the side it would further eject the DCAM-3 camera subsatellite, which would monitor detonation of SCI's high explosive, intended to ram the SCI's body into the asteroid and generate an artificial crater.

NASA NSSDC Master Catalog Description

The primary scientific objective of the Hayabusa (formerly Muses-C) mission is to collect a surface sample of material from the small (550 x 180 meter) asteroid 25143 Itokawa (1998 SF36) and return the sample to Earth for analysis. It is also a technology demonstration mission. Other scientific objectives of the mission include detailed studies of the asteroid's shape, spin state, topography, color, composition, density, photometric and polarimetric properties, interior and history.

Mission Profile

The spacecraft was launched on 9 May 2003 at 04:29:25 UT (1:29 p.m. local time, 12:29 a.m. EDT) on an M-5 solid fuel booster from the Kagoshima launch center. Following launch, the name Muses-C was changed to Hayabusa (the Japanese word for falcon) and the spacecraft was put into a transfer orbit to bring it to asteroid 25143 Itokawa (1998 SF36), a 0.3 x 0.7 km near-Earth object. The ion engines were successfully test-fired starting on 27 May to the middle of June, 2003. A large solar flare in late 2003 degraded the solar panels. The loss of power available to Hayabusa's ion engines forced the originally planned early summer 2005 rendezvous with Itokawa to be moved back to September. Hayabusa flew by Earth on 19 May 2004 at an altitude of 3725 km at 6:23 UT. On 31 July the X-axis reaction wheel failed. Rendezvous with the asteroid occured in September 2005 with the spacecraft coming to rest relative to the asteroid at a distance of 20 km at 1:17 UT on 12 September. The spacecraft did not go into orbit around the asteroid, but remained in a station-keeping heliocentric orbit close by. On 3 October 2005 Hayabusa lost the use of the Y-axis reaction wheel and was using one reaction wheel and two chemical thrusters to maintain attitude control.

Hayabusa initially surveyed the asteroid's surface from a distance of about 20 km in the "home position", a region roughly on a line connecting the Earth with the asteroid on the sunward side. This is global mapping phase 1, the phase angle during this phase was small, no greater than 20 - 25 degrees. Global mapping phase 2, which lasted about a week, began on 4 October when the spacecraft reached a position near the terminator at a distance of 7 km, affording high phase angle views of the asteroid. Following this the spacecraft moved back to the home position and then moved close to the surface in November for a "rehearsal" touchdown. This touchdown was attempted on 4 November but was aborted due to an anomalous signal at 700 meters above the asteroid's surface.

On 12 November a second rehearsal touchdown was attempted. The spacecraft began its descent from 1.4 km altitude at 3 cm/sec to an altitude of 55 meters. The small lander/hopper, Minerva, was deployed at 6:34 UT (3:34 p.m. JST) but unfortunately Hayabusa had already reached the 55 meter level and had begun an automatic ascent so the release was at a higher altitude than planned. Contact was lost and it is believed Minerva moved off into space without landing.

At 12:00 UT on 19 November 2005 (9:00 p.m. JST, 7:00 a.m. EST) Hayabusa began its descent towards the asteroid from an altitude of 1 km. At 19:33 UT (4:33 a.m. JST 20 November) the final approach was commanded and the descent began from an altitude of about 450 meters at 12 cm/sec. The target marker was released at 20:30 UT 19 November (5:30 a.m. JST 20 November) about 40 meters above the asteroid and Hayabusa's descent was slowed to 3 cm/sec to allow the marker to fall ahead of it. The spacecraft reduced its speed to zero and then began free-fall at an altitude of 17 meters at which point contact was lost. Later telemetry indicated that Hayabusa hit the surface at 20:40 UT 19 November (5:40 a.m. JST 20 November) at roughly 10 cm/sec and bounced. It bounced again at 21:10 and then landed at 21:30 within about 30 meters of the target marker. At 21:58 (6:58 a.m. JST 20 November) it was commanded to make an emergency ascent. The craft remained on the surface for about half an hour but did not fire the projectile to collect a sample. This was the first ever controlled landing on an asteroid and first ascent from any other solar sytem body except the Moon.

A second touchdown and sampling run was made on 25 November, early telemetry indicated the spacecraft touched down at 10 cm/sec and that two sampling bullets were fired 0.2 seconds apart at 22:07 UT 24 November (7:07 a.m. JST 25 November) but later examination indicated the bullets did not fire. On 9 December contact was lost with the spacecraft, presumably because of torques caused by a thruster leak which altered the pointing of the antenna. Communications with the spacecraft were regained in early March 2006. It appears that the chemical fuel has been lost due to the leak, two of three reaction wheels were also inoperable and 4 of the 11 lithium-ion battery cells were not functioning. Ground controllers used the solar batteries to run the ion engine, which were used in place of the chemical thrusters to maintain attitude control. The ion engine ran until November 2007, at which time it was turned off and the spacecraft went into hibernation mode and continued on a ballistic trajectory. There is still a large margin of xenon left to run the thrusters for propulsion and attitude control.

The re-entry capsule detached from the main spacecraft at a distance of about 300,000 to 400,000 km from the Earth, and the capsule coasted on a ballistic trajectory, re-entering the Earth's atmosphere on 13 June 2010. The capsule experienced peak decellerations of about 25 G and heating rates approximately 30 times those experienced by the Apollo spacecraft. It landed via parachute near Woomera, Australia. Subsequent examination of the sample return capsule showed that there were roughly 1500 dust particles from asteroid Itokawa which were presumably kicked up into the collection area during the touchdowns due to the extremely low surface gravity.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

The Hayabusa spacecraft has a box-shaped main body 1.5 m along each side and 1.05 m high. The launch mass is 530 kg, including 50 kg of chemical propellant and 65 kg of xenon gas. Two solar panel wings with a total array area of 12 square meters protrude from the side and a 1.5 m diameter high-gain parabolic antenna is mounted on top on a two-axis gimbal. A cylindrical sampler horn, deployed shortly after launch, protrudes from the bottom of the spacecraft. The Minerva lander was also mounted on th spacecraft near the bottom panel. Hayabusa is propelled during cruise phases by two microwave ion thruster engines, which use a microwave discharge to ionize xenon gas. The ionized plasma is accelerated by high-voltage electrodes through four thruster heads which protrude from one side of the spacecraft body to provide a peak thrust of 20 mN using 1 kW power. A nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine propulsion system with a peak thrust of 22 N will be used for maneuvering. The spacecraft is powered by gallium-arsenide solar cells and a 15 A-hr rechargeable nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery. Communications are via X- and S-band low gain antennas and the high gain dish antenna (X-band) with a transmitted power of 20 W. The mission is also be equipped with a camera, used for imaging, visible-polarimetry studies, and optical navigation near the asteroid, a laser ranging device (LIDAR), and near-IR and X-ray spectrometers. The insulated and cushioned re-entry capsule, 40 cm in diameter and 25 cm deep with a mass of about 20 kg, is attached to the body of the spacecraft near the sample collection horn. The capsule has a convex nose covered with a 3 cm thick ablative heat shield to protect the samples from the high velocity (~13 km/s) re-entry. Cost of the Hayabusa spacecraft is roughly 12 billion yen ($100 million U.S.)

Surface Sample Collection

The lander will be equipped with a universal sample collection device which will gather roughly one gram of surface samples taken from the landings at 3 different locations. The device consists of a funnel-shaped collection horn, 40 cm in diameter at the end, which is to be placed over the sampling area. A pyrotechnic device fires a 10 gram metal projectile down the barrel of the horn at 200 - 300 m/sec. The projectile strikes the surface producing a small impact crater in the surface of the asteroid and propelling ejecta fragments back up the horn, where some of it is funnelled into a sample collection chamber. Prior to each sampling run, the spacecraft will drop a small target plate onto the surface from about 30 m altitude to use as a landmark to ensure the relative horizontal velocity between the spacecraft and asteroid surface is zero during the sampling. After sampling the samples will be stored in the re-entry capsule for return to Earth.

Minerva

The Minerva lander is a small (591 gram) cylinder about the size of a coffee can, designed to be released from the spacecraft on the first rehearsal touchdown run. It has the ability to "hop" on the surface of the asteroid and has full autonomy. It is equipped with an imaging system comprising three miniature cameras and temperature measuring devices. Data will be relayed to Hayabusa and then to Earth.

SSV Rover

The rover, or Small Science Vehicle (SSV), was to have been a NASA contribution to the mission but was cancelled due to budget contraints. The SSV would have been dropped onto the surface of the asteroid by the Hayabusa spacecraft. The rover goals were to make texture, composition and morphology measurements of the surface layer at scales smaller than 1 cm, investigations of lateral heterogeneity at small scales, investigation of vertical regolith structure by taking advantage of disturbances of the surface layer by microrover operations, and to measure constraints on the mechanical and thermal properties of the surface layer. The rover would weigh about 1 kg and would be capable of rolling, climbing, or hopping around on the surface of the asteroid. It would have run on solar power and carry a multi-band imaging camera, a near-infrared point spectrometer, and an alpha/X-ray spectrometer (AXS).

NASA NSSDC Master Catalog Description

Hayabusa 2 is a Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) mission designed to rendezvous with asteroid Ryugu (1999 JU3) and return a sample. The mission is similar in design to the first Hayabusa mission, but this will carry an impactor which will be used to create a crater and expose fresh material to be collected and returned to Earth for analysis. The mission launched on 03 December 2014 and the sample will be returned to Earth in late 2020.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

The Hayabusa 2 spacecraft is a modified version of the Hayabusa design. It has a box-shaped main body 1.0 x 1.6 x 1.4 m in size, with a total fueled mass of approximately 600 kg. Cruise propulsion is provided by four low-thrust (10 mN) xenon-ion-engines. Attitude control is achieved by 4 reaction wheels and twelve 20-N bipropellant hydrazine reaction control thrusters. Positional knowledge is provided by two star tracker cameras, four coarse Sun aspect sensors, two inertial reference units, and four accelerometers. For asteroid proximity operations, the spacecraft has three optical navigation cameras, LIDAR, and a laser rangefinder. Two solar panel wings with a total array area of 12 square meters protrude from the side, supplying 2.6 kW at 1 AU and 1.4 kW at 1.4 AU. Power is stored in a 13.2 AHr lithium-ion battery. Communications take place through two 1.5 meter high-gain antennae (one X-band (8 GHz, 32 Kbps) and one Ka-band (32 GHz, 32 Kbps)), a steerable two-axis gimballed X-band medium gain antenna, and three X-band low-gain antennae.

The spacecraft is powered by gallium-arsenide solar cells and a 15 A-hr rechargeable nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery. Communications are via X- and S-band. A one meter long cylindrical sampler horn, deployed shortly after launch, protrudes from the bottom of the spacecraft. There will also be a sampler comprising a sticky material which will be pushed against the surface to collect dust. The insulated and cushioned re-entry capsule, 40 cm in diameter and 25 cm deep with a mass of about 20 kg, is attached to the body of the spacecraft near the sample collection horn. The capsule has a convex nose covered with a 3 cm thick ablative heat shield to protect the samples from the high velocity (~13 km/s) re-entry.

Also mounted on the spacecraft are the MASCOT lander, the Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI), the Deployable Camera (DCAM3), the re-entry capsule, three small (1.5 kg) MINERVA-II rovers, and five targets. The science payload consists of a Thermal Infrared Imager (TIR) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3). Total cost of the mission is estimated at 16.4 billion yen (roughly $150 million U.S.)

Mission Profile

Hayabusa 2 launched on 3 December 2014 at 04:22:04 UT (13:22:04 local Japanese Time) from the Tanegashima Space Center on an H2A rocket. It will use an Electric Delta-V Earth Gravity Assist technique to reach the asteroid, flying by Earth on 3 December 2015 with a closest approach at 10:07 UT, and arriving at asteroid Ryugu (1999 JU3) in June 2018. It will stay at the asteroid and conduct science operations for about a year and a half. The impact operation and sampling is scheduled for early 2019 with departure from the asteroid in December 2019 and return to Earth in December 2020.

While at the asteroid Hayabusa 2 will make three sampling runs, the first two from the unaltered surface and the third from inside the crater formed by the SCI. A typical sampling run will start with the spacecraft commanded to move towards the selected area. At an altitude of 100 meters the craft will enter autonomous mode and shortly thereafter release a target marker to land in the desired area. At 30 meters the craft will align itself over the target and then slowly approach the surface and touch down. The 1 meter long sampling horn will cover the target area, and a tantalum projectile will be fired into the surface, ejecting material back up the horn through a 14 cm wide opening into one of three storage containers, which will then be sealed. The bottom of the horn also has protrusions and a raised inner rim to trap samples of material during touchdown. The spacecraft will then move away from the surface and continue its scientific operations.

MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout)

The MASCOT lander is a 30 x 30 x 20 cm box with a mass of 10 kg. It carries an IR Radiometer, magnetometer, camera, and MicroOmega spectrometer. It has no landing mechanism but will be dropped on to the surface from low altitude. It has a rotatable mass which will allow it to reorient itself after landing and also to "hop" to a new location on the asteroid's surface. MASCOT is powered by batteries which have a planned lifetime of about 12 hours.

SCI and DCAM3

The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) is a small cylindrically shaped penetrator which will be deployed from the Hayabusa 2 spacecraft and launched by means of an explosive charge towards the asteroid. Before the SCI is launched, Hayabusa 2 will move to the opposite side of the asteroid so as not to be affected by the explosion, shrapnel, or resulting ejecta. The Deployable Camera (DCAM3) will also be dropped off before detonation in order to return images of the impact. The impactor has a diameter of 30 cm, is 30 cm high, and has a total mass of 15 kg, including the electronics, housing, and detonator. The projectile itself is a 2.5 kg copper liner backed by a 4.5 kg conical shape charge of plasticized HMX explosive. The SCI will be maneuvered into position and aimed at the target point on the asteroid before release. (SCI has no attitude and position control.) The explosive will be detonated, deforming the copper liner into an impactor shape and driving it into the asteroid at 2 km/s.

Asteroid 1999 JU3

Asteroid Ryugu (originally 1999 JU3) is a Near Earth Asteroid with a semi-major axis of 1.19 AU and an orbital eccentricity of 0.19, which puts its perihelion near Earth's orbit and its aphelion near Mars'. The asteroid is roughly spherical (axis ratio approximately 1.3 : 1.1 : 1.0) with an effective diameter of 875 meters and a rotation period of 7.6 hours. It is a C-Type (carbonaceous) asteroid, expected to be relatively rich in organic compounds.


More at: Hayabusa.

Family: Asteroids. Country: Japan. Launch Vehicles: M-V, H-IIA 202. Launch Sites: Kagoshima, Tanegashima Y, Kagoshima M-V. Agency: ISAS. Bibliography: 2, 3958, 3959, 6549, 12527.
Photo Gallery

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Credit: Manufacturer Image


HayabusaHayabusa
Credit: Manufacturer Image


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