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Jericho
RSA-1 , -2, -3, -4
RSA-1 , -2, -3, -4
First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Dassault in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions used all-solid propellant configurations.

Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Height: 13.40 m (43.90 ft). Diameter: 0.80 m (2.62 ft). Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

Dassault had opened a missile division in St Cloud on 15 September 1957. In 1962, the French government asked Dassault to develop a ballistic missile on behalf of Israel. The result was the MD 620 Jericho ballistic missile, designed to carry a warhead of a still-classified mass over a range of 500 km. The first test of a single-stage version of the missile took place on 1 February 1 1965 from Ile du Levant. Tests of the two-stage version began on 16 March 1966. The MD 620 was France's first ballistic missile with an airborne digital computer. This program was cancelled in January 1969 following France's weapon embargo on Israel. Dassault achieved valuable experience on the project, becoming familiar with aerodynamic and thermodynamic phenomena at speeds of up to Mach 6, and ballistic missile steering and inertial guidance technology.

The first stage (presumably a solid propellant booster) had a length of 4.05 m and a weight of 1,950 kg, and the second stage (presumably liquid fuelled) had a length of 5.0 m and a weight of 4,100 kg. The payload assembly had a length of 4.35 m and a weight of 650 kg.'



Subtopics

Daniel French test vehicle. Three stage test vehicle for Israel's Jericho consisting of 1 x SPRAN-50 + 1 x MD-620 + 1 x Melanie

MD-620 First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Assault in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions were said to have differed.

Jericho II Israeli intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. Probably corresponds to first two stages of Shavit launch vehicle.

Shaviyt Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3.

RSA South African orbital launch vehicle. Israel and South Africa collaborated closely in rocket technology in the 1970's and 1980's. South Africa provided Israel with the uranium and test facilities it needed for its strategic weapons programs. In exchange Israel provided aerospace technology. This included the capability of building the ten-metric ton solid propellant rocket motors designed for the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. These motors were the basis of two space launchers for an indigenous 'R5b' space program. It seems that South Africa also planned to use these motors in a series of missiles to provide a nuclear deterrent.

RSA-3 The RSA-3 satellite launcher began development as an IRBM in the 1980's because of the perceived Soviet threat and isolation of South Africa. It was developed with the assistance of Israel and was believed to be essentially identical to the Israeli Jericho missile/Shavit launch vehicle. The objective of the satellite launcher was to place a small surveillance satellite of 330 kg mass into a 41 degree, 212 x 460 km orbit around the earth. Development continued even after South African renunciation of its nuclear weapons. However the launcher was found not to be viable commercially and so was cancelled in mid-1994.

Jericho-1 Israeli short range ballistic missile. Follow-on version differed from original French-derived Jericho. Probably used a single 4500 kg solid-propellant motor.

RSA-1 It is conjectured that this designation was assigned to an intermediate range single-stage ballistic missile consisting of the first stage of the RSA-3. Purported mission was to strike Cuban military concentrations from mobile launchers on South African territory. The rocket motor closely followed the design of the Israeli Jericho-2 first stage.

RSA-2 South African intermediate range ballistic missile. It is conjectured that this designation was assigned to an intermediate range ballistic missile consisting of the first and second stages of the RSA-3. Probably very similar to, or a licensed copy of the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. A third stage apogee kick motor was added to produce the RSA-3 space launcher.

RSA-4 South African all-solid orbital launch vehicle. The RSA-4 ICBM / satellite launcher was a planned follow-on to the RSA-3. A large new first stage optimized the vehicle and more than doubled the payload in comparison to the RSA-3. It is not known if the project reached the point of testing of the large motor, which was equivalent to the US Peacekeeper first stage.

Shaviyt 1 Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Shavit 1 is an improved version of the original Shavit with a stretched first stage motor.

LeoLink LK-1 Satellite launcher derived from planned Israeli Shavit-2 launch vehicle, but with rocket motors and major components built in USA to qualify for US contracts.

LeoLink LK-2 Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. As Leolink LK-1, but with a Castor-120 motor as the first stage.

Jericho III Modernized version of Jericho IRBM.

Country: Israel, South Africa. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2, Ofeq 3, Ofeq 5, Tecsar. Launch Sites: Ile du Levant, Palmachim, Negev.

1959 January 27 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Daniel.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1961 October 5 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Daniel.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1961 October 9 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Daniel.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1965 February 1 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Tir 1 test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First launch of prototype single-stage MD.620..

1965 December 23 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 March 16 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Bietage test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First launch of two-stage version of MD.620..

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968 September 30 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: MD-620.
  • Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Final test launch of Jericho/MD.620 from France. Full French military embargo of Israel took effect in January 1969 after an Israeli raid on Beirut in December 1968..

1987 May 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho II.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 January 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho II.
  • Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 September 19 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt.
  • Ofeq-1 - . Mass: 155 kg (341 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Ofeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1989-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19519 . COSPAR: 1988-087A. Apogee: 1,149 km (713 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 142.9000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.

    First Israeli launch; possibly experimental surveillance mission. Experimental satellite 'Offeq-1'. Launch time 0934 GMT. Location: site on the coast south of Tel-Aviv. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field.


1989 July 6 - . Launch Site: Overberg. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: RSA-3.
1989 September 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho II.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1990 April 3 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt.
  • Ofeq-2 - . Mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Ofeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1990-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 20540 . COSPAR: 1990-027A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 143.2000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Communication experiments. .

1990 November 19 - . Launch Site: Overberg. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: RSA-3.
1990 December 21 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 October 30 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1994 June - . LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: RSA.
  • RSA-3 / RSA-4 South African satellite launchers cancelled - . Nation: South Africa.

    The RSA-3 satellite launcher began development as an IRBM in the 1980's. It was developed with the assistance of Israel. The satellite launcher was found not to be viable commercially and so was cancelled in mid-1994. The Overberg Test Range near Bredasdorp, 200 km east of Cape Town, was used for test flights.


1994 September 15 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho II. FAILURE: Failure.
  • 'Ofeq? - . Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 April 5 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-3 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Ofeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. Decay Date: 2000-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 23549 . COSPAR: 1995-018A. Apogee: 694 km (431 mi). Perigee: 366 km (227 mi). Inclination: 143.4000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

1998 January 22 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed during second stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ofeq-4 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Ofeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. Fell in Mediterranean Sea..

2000 April 6 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2001 June 27 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho II.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2002 May 28 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-5 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Ofeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 27434 . COSPAR: 2002-025A. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 143.5000 deg. Period: 95.90 min.

    Military Observation satellite. Return to flight of the Shavit booster following a lauanch failure. Launch delayed from third quarter 2001. The three-stage Shavit rocket took off from Palmachim Air Force Base on the Israeli coast and flew westward to put the satellite in a retrograde orbit. The AUS-51 third stage solid motor entered a 262 x 774 km x 143.5 deg orbit and separated from the Ofeq satellite. Both coasted up to apogee at around 1620 UTC when Ofeq made a burn to increase its velocity by 33 m/s, raising the orbit to 369 x 771 km x 143.5 deg.


2004 September 6 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1. FAILURE: Third stage orientation failure at 270 seconds into the flight. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Ofeq-6 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Ofeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. Military observation satellite failed to reach orbit. Finanical loss estimated by Israeli press as $ 100 million..

2007 June 10 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-7 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Ofeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 31601 . COSPAR: 2007-025A. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 141.8000 deg. Period: 93.80 min. Israeli optical reconnaisance satellite, evidently using an improved version of the Shavit booster and probably heavier and more capable than its predecessors..

2008 January 17 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho III.
  • Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2010 June 22 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq 9 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Ofeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 36608 . COSPAR: 2010-031A. Apogee: 586 km (364 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 141.8000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Israeli optical surveillance satellite..

2011 November 2 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho III.
  • Jericho III test - . Nation: Israel. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Test mission. Believed to be second test of an improved Jericho missile..

2013 July 12 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho III.
  • Jericho RV - . Nation: Israel. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Developmental test.

2014 April 9 - . 19:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Pad: xxx. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-10 - . Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: Israel. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Tecsar. USAF Sat Cat: 39650 . COSPAR: 2014-019A. Apogee: 598 km (371 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 140.9400 deg. Period: 94.48 min. Reportedly carried a radar imaging (SAR) payload..

2016 September 13 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shavit.
  • 'Ofeq-11 - . Nation: Israel. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Tecsar. USAF Sat Cat: 41759 . COSPAR: 2016-056A. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 141.0000 deg. Ofeq-11 spy satellite, thought to be ususal retrograde orbit. It was reported that Israeli mission controllers were working to correct unspecified technical problems with the payload..


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