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MAKS-D
Part of MAKS Family
Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines. An unmanned prototype of the MAKS would be fitted out with RD-120 LOx/Kerosene engines. Launched from atop the An-225, the MAKS-D would reach an altitude of 80 to 90 km and a speed of Mach 14 to 15.

Status: Study 1981. Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Gross mass: 185,000 kg (407,000 lb). Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

The ES experimental spacecraft would have a launch mass of 56 metric tons, including 45 metric tons of propellant. It would fly at hypersonic speed out to a range of 1500 km, and then return to an automatic landing at its launching base. Three variants were proposed:

  • Basic variant. Purpose of the flight tests would be to prove MAKS-M / I-HOTOL flight algorithms, materials, and engine reusability. 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan

  • Basic variant modified for scramjet flight tests

  • Orbital vehicle with 2 metric tons payload. For the orbital vehicle the MAKS-D served as the first stage of the booster. It would release the RS rocket stage, equipped with a European HM-7B Lox/LH2 engine. The rocket stage engine would ignite five seconds after release of the aircraft from the An-225 transport and work in tandem with the RD-120 installed on MAKS-D. Following exhaustion of main stage propellants the MAKS would release the rocket stage, which would continue on to orbit. This scheme was analogous to NASA's early X-34 concepts.

LEO Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.00 degrees.



Family: aircraft-launched, orbital launch vehicle, Winged. Country: Russia. Agency: Molniya bureau.

1993 - . LV Family: MAKS. Launch Vehicle: MAKS-D.
  • RADEM project - . Nation: Russia. NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines..


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