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Manned Spaceflight
Part of Manned Family
A list of all manned spaceflights .. defined as a suborbital flight over 100 km altitude, or an orbital flight that launched, even if it did not attain orbit. A flight is defined as the same persons going into space and returning together; therefore astronauts who were on a particular launch, but returned to earth on a different spacecraft from other crewmembers on the same launch, are considered a different 'flight' and listed separately.



Subtopics

Vostok 1 First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Strap attaching service module failed to separate from capsule, leading to wild ride before it burned through during re-entry.

Mercury MR-3 First American in space, less than a month after Gagarin, but only on a 15 minute suborbital flight. First manual orientation of a manned spacecraft.

Mercury MR-4 Suborbital flight; second American in space. Hatch blew after splashdown; capsule sank; astronaut barely saved before drowning.

Vostok 2 Second manned orbital flight. After 17.5 orbits, the spacecraft reentered and the cosmonaut landed safely. First astronaut to experience space sickness. Day-long flight was a huge blow to America, which had not even orbited a man in space yet.

Mercury MA-6 First US manned orbital mission, three orbits. False landing bag deploy light led to reentry being started with retropack left in place. It turned out the indicator light was false, but a spectacular reentry ensued.

Mercury MA-7 Second US manned orbital mission. Excessive fuel use and pilot error led to late re-entry, and landing 300 km past the intended point. Capsule ran out of orientation fuel during re-entry.

X-15 Flight 62 First rocketplane to reach space (USAF definition). FAI world altitude record. Maximum Speed - 6166 kph. Maximum Altitude - 95940 m. First astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

Vostok 3 Joint flight with Vostok 4; two Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other. Record flight duration. First simultaneous flight of two manned spacecraft.

Vostok 4 Joint flight with Vostok 3. Problems with life support system, resulted in cabin temperature dropping to 10 deg C. Returned to earth a day early due to communications secret code mix-up. First Ukrainian astronaut.

Mercury MA-8 Most successful American manned space flight to that date, six orbits, returning to earth precisely, with astronaut aboard recovery ship 40 minutes after landing. Speed record (7,850 m/s).

X-15 Flight 77 First civilian flight above 80 km. Maximum Speed - 5917 kph. Maximum Altitude - 82810 m. Second astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

Mercury MA-9 Final Mercury mission, After 22 orbits, virtually all capsule systems failed. Nevertheless the astronaut was able to manually guide the spacecraft to a pinpoint landing.

Vostok 5 Joint flight with Vostok 6. Record flight duration. Spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit and quickly decayed - temperatures in the service module reached very high levels and the flight returned early.

Vostok 6 Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space. Tereshkova did not reply during several communications sessions. To this day it is not known if she was paralyzed with fear, or if there was an equipment failure.

X-15 Flight 87 Maximum Speed - 5511 kph. Maximum Altitude - 86870 m. Third astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 90 First rocketplane to reach space (FAI definition). Maximum Speed - 5969 kph. Maximum Altitude - 106010 m. Astronaut wings flight. 80 cm diameter balloon dragged on 30 m line to measure air density. Fourth astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 91 Unofficial world altitude record. Maximum Speed - 6105 kph. Maximum Altitude - 107960 m. Second X-15 astronaut flight (FAI definition); fifth astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

Voskhod 1 First three-crew spaceflight. Altitude record (336 km). First crew to fly without spacesuits. First non-pilot crew (engineer that designed the spacecraft and a physician).

Voskhod 2 First space walk. Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit stiffness; cabin flooded with oxygen; manual reentry, landed in mountains, crew not recovered until next day. Further Voskhod flights cancelled.

Gemini 3 First spacecraft to maneuver in orbit. First manned flight of Gemini spacecraft. First American to fly twice into space. Manual reentry, splashed down 97 km from carrier.

Gemini 4 First American space walk. First American long-duration spaceflight. Astronaut could barely get back into capsule after spacewalk. Failure of spacecraft computer resulted in high-G ballistic re-entry.

X-15 Flight 138 Maximum Speed - 5522 kph. Maximum Altitude - 85527 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 143 Maximum Speed - 5712 kph. Maximum Altitude - 82601 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

Gemini 5 First American flight to seize duration record from Soviet Union. Mission plan curtailed due to fuel cell problems; mission incredibly boring, spacecraft just drifting to conserve fuel most of the time. Splashed down 145 km from aim point.

X-15 Flight 150 Maximum Speed - 6005 kph. Maximum Altitude - 90099 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 153 Maximum Speed - 5718 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81230 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

Gemini 7 Record flight duration (14 days) to that date. Incredibly boring mission, made more uncomfortable by the extensive biosensors. Monotony was broken just near the end by the rendezvous with Gemini 6.

Gemini 6 First rendezvous of two spacecraft. Originally was to dock with an Agena target, but this blew up on way to orbit. Decision to rendezvous with upcoming Gemini 7 instead. Mission almost lost when booster ignited, then shut down on pad.

Gemini 8 First docking of two spacecraft. After docking with Agena target, a stuck thruster aboard Gemini resulted in the crew nearly blacking out before the resulting spin could be stopped. An emergency landing in the mid-Pacific Ocean followed.

Gemini 9 Third rendezvous mission of Gemini program. Agena target blew up on way to orbit; substitute target's shroud hung up, docking impossible. EVA almost ended in disaster when astronaut's face plate fogged over; barely able to return to spacecraft.

Gemini 10 First free space walk from one spacecraft to another. First rendezvous with two different spacecraft in one flight. Altitude (763 km) record. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena was stored.

Gemini 11 First docking with another spacecraft on first orbit after launch. First test of tethered spacecraft. Speed (8,003 m/s) and altitude (1,372 km) records.

X-15 Flight 174 Maximum Speed - 6034 kph. Maximum Altitude - 93540 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

Gemini 12 First completely successful space walk. Final Gemini flight. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Apollo scenarios including manual rendezvous and docking. Successful EVA without overloading suit by use of suitable restraints.

Soyuz 1 Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 was to dock with Soyuz 2 and transfer crew. Instead Soyuz 1 solar panel didn't deploy; manual reentry; tangled parachute lines; astronaut killed on impact with earth.

X-15 Flight 190 Maximum Speed - 6204 kph. Maximum Altitude - 85500 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 191 Fatal accident, aircraft destroyed. After reaching peak altitude, entered spin at Mach 5. Entered dive at 30,000 m, began high frequency pitch oscillations, disintegrated when these reached 15 Gs. Maximum Speed - 5744 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81080 m.

X-15 Flight 197 Maximum Speed - 5540 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81530 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

Apollo 7 First manned test of the Apollo spacecraft. Although the systems worked well, the crew became grumpy with head colds and talked back to the ground. As a result, NASA management determined that none of them would fly again.

Soyuz 3 Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock, blamed on manual control by cosmonaut who repeatedly overrode automatic systems, and used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock.

Apollo 8 First manned flight to lunar orbit. Speed (10,807 m/s) and altitude (378,504 km) records. Mission resulted from audacious decision to send crew around moon to beat Soviets on only second manned Apollo CSM mission and third Saturn V launch.

Soyuz 4 First Russian docking. Mission successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4.

Soyuz 4/5 First crew transfer in space. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4. Suit hung up on attempt to exit and flow of oxygen shut off; diverted crew, resulting in no film of the world's first space crew transfer.

Soyuz 5 Two crew transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4. Remaining astronaut barely survived nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module.

Apollo 9 First manned test of the Lunar Module. First test of the Apollo space suits. First manned flight of a spacecraft incapable of returning to earth. If rendezvous of the Lunar Module with the Apollo CSM had failed, crew would have been stranded in orbit.

Apollo 10 Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon. LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of moon but did not land. Speed record (11,107 m/s).

Apollo 11 First manned lunar landing. The end of the moon race and public support for large space programs. The many changes made after the Apollo 204 fire paid off; all went according to plan, virtually no problems.

Soyuz 6 First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. First vacuum welding in space. Rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft, scrubbing three-way spacecraft rendezvous mission.

Soyuz 7 First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft.

Soyuz 8 First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft.

Apollo 12 Second manned lunar landing. Precision landing near Surveyor 3 that landed in 1967. Lightning struck the booster twice during ascent. Decision was made to press on to moon, despite possibility landing pyrotechnics damaged.

Apollo 13 Fuel cell tank exploded en route to the moon, resulting in loss of all power and oxygen. Only through use of the still-attached LM as a lifeboat could the crew survive to return to earth. Altitude (401,056 km) record.

Soyuz 9 Record flight duration. Head-over-heels rotation of Soyuz to conserve fuel and lack of exercise resulted in terrible condition of astronauts on return. The Soviets almost reconsidered their space station plans as a result.

Apollo 14 Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached.

Soyuz 10 Intended first space station mission. Hard dock with station could not be achieved. Then stuck and could separate from the station only after repeated attempts. Toxic fumes in air supply during landing overcame one astronaut.

Soyuz 11 First space station mission. Record flight duration. Main telescope inoperative. Fire in space station put out. Fail-safe valve opening during re-entry, resulted in decompression and death of entire crew.

Apollo 15 First use of lunar rover on moon. Beautiful images of crew prospecting at edge of Hadley Rill. One of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but survivable splashdown.

Apollo 16 Second Apollo mission with lunar rover. CSM main engine failure detected in lunar orbit. Landing almost aborted.

Apollo 17 Final Apollo lunar landing mission. First geologist to walk on the moon.

Skylab 2 Record flight duration. Crew had to conduct major repairs to get damaged station in operation. Astronaut flung into space during release of solar wing. High temperatures in station brought down by deployment of sunshade.

Skylab 3 Installed twin pole solar shield on EVA; performed major inflight maintenance; doubled record for length of time in space. Leaks in Apollo CSM thrusters led to preparation of a rescue mission. Decided to make landing with faulty thrusters instead.

Soyuz 12 Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability.

Skylab 4 Record flight duration. Final Skylab mission; included observation and photography of Comet Kohoutek among numerous experiments. Rebellion by crew against NASA Ground Control overtasking led to none of the crew ever flying again.

Soyuz 13 First Byelorussian astronaut. First space mission devoted to a single scientific instrument. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera.

Soyuz 14 First military space station mission. Manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research.

Soyuz 15 Second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, aborted when the Igla rendezvous system electronics failed and no docking was made.

Soyuz 16 ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz systems modified for Apollo-Soyuz docking in space.

Soyuz 17 First successful Russian civilian space station mission. Docked with Salyut 4.

Soyuz 18-1 First manned spaceflight abort. During launch third stage separation failed to occur. Crew aborted to 20 G landing in mountains near Chinese border, sliding down a slope towards a cliff until their parachute snagged on a tree.

Soyuz 18 Docked with Salyut 4.

Soyuz 19 (ASTP) First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system.

Apollo (ASTP) First international joint manned space mission; first docking between two spacecraft launched from different countries. Crew nearly killed by toxic propellant vapors dumped into the cabin air supply during re-entry.

Soyuz 21 Military space station mission. Hand-docked with the Salyut 5 station after failure of automated Igla system. Crew member became psychotic and mission was returned to earth from space station early. Toxic gases in station were suspected.

Soyuz 22 Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth.

Soyuz 23 Docking with Salyut 5 military station aborted due to electronics failure. Crew nearly froze to death after an emergency landing in a lake in a blizzard at -20 deg C. It took hours before the capsule could be dragged to shore.

Soyuz 24 The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterized as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50 day mission. First complete change of cabin atmosphere for a space station.

Soyuz 25 Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6 due to damage to spacecraft's docking mechanism.

Soyuz 26 Record flight duration. First mission to receive visiting crews launched aboard another spacecraft, and to be resupplied by a logistics spacecraft. First Soviet EVA since Voskhod 2. First Main Expedition aboard Salyut 6.

Soyuz 27 First docking to a space station of two manned spacecraft at one time. First station 'lifeboat' swap. First crew to visit another already aboard a space station.

Soyuz 28 First Czech astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz 29 Record flight duration. Docked with Salyut 6. First transfer of a Soyuz from the aft port to the front port of a space station.

Soyuz 30 First Polish astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz 31 First German astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz 32 Record flight duration. Docked with Salyut 6. Repaired the propulsion system, which had sprung leaks.

Soyuz 33 First Bulgarian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz 35 Record flight duration. Docked with Salyut 6.

Soyuz 36 First Hungarian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz T-2 Test flight of new Soyuz T spacecraft; docked with Salyut 6.

Soyuz 37 First Vietnamese astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz 38 First Cuban astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz T-3 Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved Soyuz T; carried out repair and preventive maintenance work and some scientific and technical investigation and experiments.

Soyuz T-4 Docked with Salyut 6. Carried out repair and preventive maintenance work and some scientific and technical investigation and experiments.

Soyuz 39 First Mongolian astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-1 First rocketplane flight to orbit. First flight of space shuttle. The only time a new spacecraft was launched manned on its first flight. Many thought it would be a disaster.

Soyuz 40 First Rumanian astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-2 First reuse of a manned space vehicle. First use of a remote manipulator in space. First use of a Spacelab pallet. Second shuttle test flight. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right SRM aft field joint, the worst until the loss of the space shuttle Challenger.

STS-3 First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there.

Soyuz T-5 Record flight duration. Ejected a 28-kg amateur radio satellite from a Salyut 7 trash airlock; called this the first launch of a communications satellite from a manned space vehicle.

Soyuz T-6 First French astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-4 First Getaway Specials flown. Fourth space shuttle test flight.

Soyuz T-7 Second woman in space, launched for propaganda purposes ahead of first flight of NASA female astronauts aboard the shuttle. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-5 First operational STS mission, first commercial communications satellites deployed, first four-person spacecraft crew. EVA cancelled because one astronaut was vomiting so severely due to space sickness.

STS-6 First flight of space shuttle Challenger. First space walk of Shuttle program. Deployed Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.

Soyuz T-8 Unsuccessful mission. Igla approach system antenna was damaged during ascent; failed to rendezvous with Salyut 7. Further attempts to man Salyut 7 could not take place for two months because of launch and abort lighting constraints.

STS-7 First US woman in space. Record five crew aboard a single spacecraft to date. Thagard flew as physician to study space sickness, which had severely impacted STS-5 operations. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform.

Soyuz T-9 Docked with Salyut 7. Unloaded cargo from Cosmos 1443; loaded 350 kg of payload into it for return to earth.

STS-8 First African-American in space. First shuttle night launch and night landing. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B.

Soyuz T-10-1 First manned pad abort. Launch vehicle blew up on pad, crew rescued by launch escape tower, which pulled their capsule away at 20 G's.

STS-9 Spacelab 1. First West German to fly in space. First Spacelab mission. Record six crew size in a single spacecraft. Suspect exhaust nozzle on right solid rocket booster. Landing delayed when two computers failed. Landed on fire when hydraulic pump leaked.

STS-41-B First untethered space walk. First shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). O-ring erosion in both the right hand nozzle joint and the left SRB forward field joint.

Soyuz T-10 Record flight duration. Crew entered the failed darkened station carrying flashlights. Reactivated station, attempted propellant system repairs. After their departure the unoccupied space station abruptly ceased communicating.

Soyuz T-11 First Indian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-41-C First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, snared by astronaut using MMU. Deployed LDEF. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right-hand nozzle joint.

Soyuz T-12 First woman to walk in space, accomplished for propaganda purposes ahead of plans for NASA female astronaut EVA. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-41-D First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. First launch attempt aborted at T-3 seconds after SSMEs ignited. Toilet failed during mission. First occurrence of blow-by in SRB field joints.

STS-41-G First spaceflight to include two women. First American woman to walk in space. First Canadian astronaut. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. Deployed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite; performed high resolution Earth imagery.

STS-51-A First retrieval of two satellites (Palapa B-2 and Westar Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2.

STS-51-C First shuttle military mission. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Experienced blow-by in both nozzle joints and erosion and blow-by in two case joints.

STS-51-D First politician in space. Deployed Telesat-I (successful) and Syncom IV-3 (motor failed). Inboard right-side brake locked on landing, resulting in severe damage. Senator aboard resented, and had one of the worst cases of space sickness ever recorded.

STS-51-B Spacelab 3. Deployed Nusat. Conducted materials processing, environmental, life science, astrophysics, and technology experiments. Suffered the worst O-ring erosion experienced prior to the loss of Challenger

Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a First manned operations in a second space station module. The three-man EO-4 TKS-3 crew conducted military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module. Mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vasyutin.

Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b First docking with and repair of dead-in-space station. Crew carried out emergency repairs.

STS-51-G First Saudi astronaut. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D. Experienced blow-by and erosion in both nozzle joints.

STS-51-F Spacelab 2. At 5 minutes, 45 seconds into ascent the number one engine shut down prematurely due to a sensor problem and an abort to orbit was declared. Despite the anomaly the mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2.

STS-51-I First retrieval, repair, and relaunch of a satellite in orbit (Leasat 3). Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4. Suffered primary O-ring erosion in two locations on the left-hand SRM nozzle joint.

Soyuz T-14 EO-4-c First manned operations in a second space station module. The three-man EO-4 TKS-3 crew conducted military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module. Mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vasyutin.

Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 EP-5 Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station and conduct an inspection of the repairs conducted the Soyuz T-13 crew.

STS-51-J First flight of shuttle Atlantis. Military mission, Deployed USA-11, USA-12.

STS-61-A Spacelab D-1. Record set of eight crew launched aboard a single spacecraft. First Dutch astronaut. Launched GLOMR. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts. Experienced O-ring erosion.

STS-61-B Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Experienced primary O-ring erosion in both nozzle joints

STS-61-C Launched Satcom K1. Second politician in space; he bumped Jarvis to later launch on which he was killed. Launch scrub saved crew from death due to undetected jammed SSME valve. Experienced nozzle joint O-ring erosion.

STS-51-L First shuttle launch from pad LC-39B. An O-ring failure in a solid rocket booster led to leaking of hot gases against the external tank; exploded 73 seconds after launch, all seven crew, with no means of escape, were killed when crew cabin hit the ocean.

Soyuz T-15 First spacecraft to fly between two space stations. Epic repair mission. Crew first docked with new Mir station. After six weeks commissioning, flew to dead Salyut 7, returned it to life, recovered experiments. Returned to Mir before returning to earth.

Soyuz TM-2 Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health.

Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1 Record flight duration. Romanenko began his record mission aboard Mir as part of EO-2 crew with Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health, leaving Romanenko aboard with EO-3.

Soyuz TM-3 Aleksandrov replaced the ailing EO-2 crew member Laveykin and remained aboard Mir with Romanenko.

Soyuz TM-3 Mir EP-1 First Syrian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz TM-4 Record flight duration. Revised software installed as a result of the Soyuz TM-5 abort overloaded the TM-6 computer; first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully.

Soyuz TM-4 LII-1 Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Levchenko was a prospective Buran pilot sent on the short mission to familiarize himself with spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-5 First successful space station flight of Bulgarian cosmonaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz TM-6 First Afghani astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2 Physician; remained aboard Mir to monitor the EO-3 crew to the end of their record year-long mission and the EO-4 crew for the first months of their mission.

STS-26 First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3.

Soyuz TM-7 Mir Expedition EO-4. Mission curtailed when delays in launching the Kvant-2 and Kristall modules to Mir led to the decision to leave the station uninhabited until the add-on modules were ready.

Soyuz TM-7 Aragatz French mission to Mir; record duration for a non-Soviet aboard one of their space stations; first French spacewalk. TM-6 computer first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully.

STS-27 Manned military mission. Robot arm used to deploy a classified satellite. At T+85 seconds a large piece of SRB nose cone struck the shuttle. The orbiter took 707 hits; one tile was knocked off. The crew was unsure if they would survive reentry.

STS-29 Deployed TDRS 4.

STS-30 Deployed Magellan Venus probe. One of five General Purpose Computers failed and had to be replaced with a sixth onboard hardware spare. First time a GPC was switched on orbit.

STS-28 Deployed two classified satellites.

Soyuz TM-8 Mir Expedition EO-5. Attached the new Kvant-2 module to the station; conducted five spacewalks; tested the Soviet UMK manned maneuvering unit.

STS-34 Deployed Galileo Jupiter probe.

STS-33 Deployed a classified payload.

STS-32 Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Second bipod ramp foam loss.

Soyuz TM-9 Mir Expedition EO-6. Attached the Kristall module to the station and conducted repairs to their Soyuz TM-9 return spacecraft and Kvant-2 airlock.

STS-36 Classified mission in 62 degree orbit, the highest inclination orbit ever flown by an American mission. Launch delayed due to illness of crew members.

STS-31 Deployed the Hubble Space Telescope.

Soyuz TM-10 Mir Expedition EO-7. Carried out a relatively modest program of geophysical and astrophysical research, biological and biotechnological experiments, and work on space-materials science.

STS-41 Deployed Ulysses spacecraft.

STS-38 Deployed a classified payload. Launch delayed from July 1990 for series of technical problems. First post-Challenger landing at KSC after mission extended one day due to unacceptable crosswinds at original planned landing site, Edwards.

STS-35 Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Launch scrubbed several times due to hydrogen leaks.

Soyuz TM-11 Mir Expedition EO-8. crew of V M Afanasyev, M Kh Manarov was transported to the Mir orbital station by Soyuz TM-11, together with T Akiyama (Japan) for the purpose of carrying out joint work with the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov. The launch was funded jointly with the private Japanese company TBS. The Japanese television network ended up paying $ 28 million for the first commercial flight to Mir to put Akiyama, the first journalist in space aboard Soyuz TM-11. Akiyama returned to earth on Soyuz TM-10 with the Mir EO-7 crew after a week in space.

Soyuz TM-11 Kosmoreporter First Japanese astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-37 Delivered the Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) to orbit. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the GRO's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command.

STS-39 Deployed USA-70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved Infrared Background Signature Survey .

Soyuz TM-12 Docked with Mir; Expedition EO-09.

Soyuz TM-12 Juno First British astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats.

Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3 Krikalyov arrived aboard Mir on Soyuz TM-12 as part of the EO-9 crew. However when economic and political priorities resulted in the engineer being bumped from Soyuz TM-13, he stayed aboard for an extended stay as part of the EO-10 crew.

STS-40 Spacelab SLS-1. Carried life sciences experiments.

STS-43 Deployed TDRS 5 satellite.

STS-48 Deployed UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite; conducted materials and biological research.

Soyuz TM-13 Mir Expedition EO-10. Only Russian EO crewmember left after a paying British passenger was found and political necessity of flying a Kazakh cosmonaut. EO-9 crew Krikalyov stayed aboard as the other EO-10 crewmember.

Soyuz TM-13 Austromir First Austrian astronaut. First Kazakh astronaut. Swap of Soyuz lifeboats.

STS-44 Deployed Defense Support Program satellite.

STS-42 Spacelab International Microgravity Laboratory-1.

Soyuz TM-14 Mir Expedition EO-11.

Soyuz TM-14 Mir 92 German 'Mir 92' flight to the Russian space station. Swapped Soyuz lifeboats at station.

STS-45 First Belgian astronaut. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package.

STS-49 First flight of shuttle Endeavour. First three-person spacewalk. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-6). Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet.

STS-50 Spacelab USML-1 (United States Microgravity Laboratory). First extended-duration shuttle mission.

Soyuz TM-15 Mir Expedition EO-12. In-orbit record for a Soyuz spacecraft.

Soyuz TM-15 Antares French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station.

STS-46 First Italian astronaut. First Swiss astronaut. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1.

STS-47 Spacelab-J. First on-time Shuttle launch since November 1985. First Japanese astronaut aboard shuttle. First African-American woman to fly in space. First married couple to fly on the same space mission. Conducted microgravity and biology experiments.

STS-52 Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. External tank lost a 10 x 20 cm corner of the left bipod ramp; orbiter took a higher-than-average 290 hits on upper and lower tiles.

STS-53 Deployed classified military satellite USA-89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction.

STS-54 Deployed TDRSS 6.

Soyuz TM-16 Mir Expedition EO-13. Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system.

STS-56 First radio contact between Shuttle and Mir space station. Carried ATLAS-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201.

STS-55 Spacelab-D2. German materials experiments.

STS-57 First flight of Spacehab module. Retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft.

Soyuz TM-17 Mir Expedition EO-14.

Soyuz TM-17 Altair French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station.

STS-51 First shuttle night landing in Florida. Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance.

STS-58 Spacelab SLS-2. Biological, microgravity experiments.

STS-61 Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs on a Space Shuttle flight to that date.

Soyuz TM-18 Mir Expedition EO-15.

Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4 Polyakov set a manned spaceflight record by spending over a year aboard Mir, during which he was part of three Mir crews (EO-15, EO-16, and EO-17).

STS-60 First flight of a Russian cosmonaut aboard an American spacecraft. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility.

STS-62 Carried United States Microgravity Payload USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG experiments. The external tank lost a 2.4 x 7 cm piece of foam in the rear face of the left bipod ramp.

STS-59 Spacelab SRL-1 / SIR-C SAR radar. The Space Radar Laboratory obtained radar high-resolution images of approximately 25 percent of the planet's land surfaces.

Soyuz TM-19 Mir Expedition EO-16. Soyuz TM-19 docked at the rear port of the Kvant module (vacated by Progress M-23 on July 2) at 13:55:01 GMT on July 3. Soyuz TM-19 undocked from Mir at 07:29 GMT on November 4. The Soyuz instrument module (PAO, priborno-agregatniy otsek) fired its deorbit engine, and was jettisoned together with the orbital module (BO, bitovoy otsek) at 10:51 GMT, with entry interface for the descent module (SA, spuskaemiy apparat) at 10:54. It landed 170 km north-east of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan on 1994 November 4 at 11:18 GMT.

STS-65 First Japanese woman to fly in space. Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments.

STS-64 Flew Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II experiments.

STS-68 Carried SIR-C SAR. Continued high-resolution radar mapping of the earth begun on STS-59.

Soyuz TM-20 Mir Expedition EO-17. During mission crew boarded Soyuz and then redocked with Mir in a test of the station's Kurs system.

Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94 German astronaut. Primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats.

STS-66 Carried Atlas-3 laboratory; deployed and retrieved CRISTA-SPAS.

STS-63 First African-American to walk in space. First female shuttle pilot. First rendezvous of a shuttle with the Mir space station. Deployed ODERACS 2A-2E; deployed and retrieved Spartan 204.

STS-67 First shuttle mission connected to the Internet. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes.

Soyuz TM-21 First American to fly aboard a Russian spacecraft.

STS-71 Spacelab-Mir. First docking of a US spacecraft with the Mir space station.

STS-71 Mir EO-19 First Russian crew delivered to Mir space station aboard the space shuttle.

STS-70 Deployed TDRS 7.

Soyuz TM-22 First ESA astronaut on long-duration Mir crew.

STS-69 Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, Wake Shield Facility 2.

STS-73 Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments.

STS-74 Docked with Mir space station. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir.

STS-72 Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks.

Soyuz TM-23 Mir Expedition EO-21. Soyuz TM-23 docked with Mir at 14:20:35 on February 23. The spacecraft undocked on September 2 at 04:20 GMT, and made a small separation burn at 04:24:40 GMT. Deorbit was at 06:47:20 GMT . The three modules separated at 07:14:36 and the parachute deployed at 07:26 GMT. The landing was at 07:41:40 GMT, 100 km SW of Akmola in Kazakhstan with Yuri Onufrienko, Yuri Usachyov and Claudie Andre-Deshays. This concluded the French 'Cassiopee' mission.

STS-75 Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer.

STS-76 Shuttle-Mir Mission 3. First American EVA on Mir space station.

STS-76 Mir NASA-1 First American aboard Mir for extended stay.

STS-77 Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module.

STS-78 Life and Microgravity Spacelab; human biological and microgravity experiments.

Soyuz TM-24 Mir Expedition EO-22. Valeriy Korzun and Aleksandr Kaleri of the Russian Space Agency (RKA) Claudie Andre-Deshays of the French space agency CNES. This launch was the first of the Soyuz-U booster with a crew aboard following two launch failures of on unmanned flights.

Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee French astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats.

STS-79 Carried Spacehab Double Module, containing supplies for the Mir.

STS-79 Mir NASA-2 Blaha relieved Lucid as NASA resident on the Mir station.

STS-80 Carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, Wake Shield Facility. The shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled the planned spacewalks of the mission.

STS-81 Transferred 2,715 kg of equipment to and from Mir.

STS-81 Mir NASA-3 Linenger relieved Blaha as NASA resident on the Mir station.

Soyuz TM-25 Mir Expedition EO-23. Mission was an endless series of collisions, breakdowns, fires, and other emergencies. The Soyuz landing rockets failed to fire on touchdown, giving one of the roughest landings experienced by a returning Mir crew.

Soyuz TM-25 Mir 97 ESA German astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats.

STS-82 Hubble repair mission; five spacewalks.

STS-83 First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission. Orbiter recalled to earth after three days of flight when one of three fuel cells failed. Mission reflown as STS-94.

STS-84 Delivered to Mir and returned to earth 2500 kg of payload.

STS-84 Mir NASA-4 Foale relieved Linenger as NASA resident on the Mir station.

STS-94 First shuttle mission reflight (same vehicle, crew, and payload as curtailed STS-83 mission). MSL-1 Microgravity Science Laboratory.

Soyuz TM-26 Soyuz docked manually. Over the next six months the crew undertook seven internal and external spacewalks to repair the crippled space station.

STS-85 Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere.

STS-86 Docked with Mir. Flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull.

STS-86 Mir NASA-5 Wolf relieved Foale as NASA resident on the Mir station.

STS-87 Microgravity science mission. Spartan 201 was released, but had to be recaptured by hand during EVA. Loss of external tank intertank foam results in over 100 hits on orbiter heat shield.

STS-89 First Uzbek astronaut. First flight of Block IIA SSME engines. Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir.

STS-89 Mir NASA-6 Thomas relieved Wolf as NASA resident on the Mir station.

Soyuz TM-27 Soyuz TM-27 carried the Mir EO-25 crew and French astronaut Leopold Eyharts. NASA and the Russian Space Agency had hoped Soyuz TM-27 could dock with Mir while Endeavour was still there, resulting in an on-board crew of 13, a record which would have stood for years or decades. But the French vetoed this, saying the commotion and time wasted would ruin Eyharts Pegase experimental program.

Soyuz TM-27 Mir Pegase French astronaut; primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Record 13 persons in space at same time.

STS-90 Neurolab.

STS-91 First shuttle flight with super light-weight external tank. Final shuttle-Mir mission. Recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from Mir and took Russian space chief Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour.

Soyuz TM-28 As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Padalka returned to earth without Avdeyev, who had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions.

Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27 As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Avdeyev had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions.

Soyuz TM-28 Mir EP-4 Member of Russian President's office. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-95 First Spanish astronaut. Oldest man in space, longest gap between two flights for an astronaut. The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years. Spartan 201 satellite released and retrieved.

STS-88 First ISS assembly mission. Delivered Unity space station node to orbit.

Soyuz TM-29 Afanasyev was the only Russian cosmonaut aboard, since two crew seats had been sold to Slovakia and France. This meant that Russian engineer Avdeyev already aboard Mir would have to accept a double-length assignment.

Soyuz TM-29 Mir Stefanik First Slovak astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-96 First docking with the ISS. Transferred equipment from the Spacehab Logistics Double Module to the interior of the station.

STS-93 Delivered Chandra spacecraft. Hydrogen fuel leaked out during ascent, resulting in shuttle running out of propellant and ending up in an orbit 11 km lower than planned.

STS-103 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission SM-3A.

STS-99 Deployed the 61 meter long STRM mast, a side-looking radar that digitally mapped the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S.

Soyuz TM-30 The crew reactivated Mir and, using Progress M1-1 and M1-2, resupplied the station and raised the orbit to 360 x 378 km.

STS-101 First flight with new 'glass cockpit'. ISS Logistics flight. Repair, resupply and construction tasks aboard the international space station.

STS-106 Docked with ISS. Outfitted the new Zvezda module for the arrival of the first permanent EO-1 crew.

STS-92 100th shuttle mission + 100th US spacewalk. ISS Logistics flight; brought the Z-1 Truss , Control Moment Gyros, and Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 to the ISS.

Soyuz TM-31 First ISS resident crew.

STS-97 Installed a 72 m x 11.4 m, 65 kW double-wing solar panel on the Unity module of the ISS.

STS-98 ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Destiny module and PMA-2 modules. After this mission the ISS was heavier than Mir.

STS-102 Primary mission was to deliver a multi-rack Italian Leonardo MultiPurpose Logistics Module, LMPLM to the Destiny Module.

STS-102 ISS EO-2 ISS Expedition EO-2. Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions.

STS-100 ISS Assembly flight. Continued the outfitting of the Station. Installed the 18 meter, 1,700 kg Canadarm-2 robotic arm and 4,500 kg of supplies aboard the Italian cargo container Raffaello.

Soyuz TM-32 ISS EP-1 First space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to ISS.

STS-104 ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Quest Airlock.

STS-105 ISS Assembly flight. Delivered five metric tons of supplies, hardware, and a bedroom suite to accommodate a third astronaut in the Destiny module. Installed two science experiment racks delivered in the Leonardo module.

STS-105 ISS EO-3 Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions.

Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2 French cosmonaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-108 ISS Logistics flight. Brought supplies to the Station aboard the Raffaello module,

STS-108 ISS EO-4 Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions.

STS-109 Hubble Servicing Mission 3B.

STS-110 ISS Assembly flight. Carried the S0 truss segment to the ISS, the first segment of the main backbone of the station to which the solar arrays would be attached.

Soyuz TM-34 ISS EP-3 First South African astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-111 ISS Logistics flight. Delivered the MBS Mobile Base System and some interior experiment racks.

STS-111 ISS EO-5 Three-person crew to operate the ISS and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions Progress M1-8, Progress M-46, Progress M1-9, Soyuz TMA-1, Soyuz TM-34 and Space Shuttle in Flights 9A and 11A.

STS-112 ISS Assembly flight. Extended the truss of the exterior rail line with a 14-m, 13-ton girder. At liftoff primary hold-down bolt initiators failed; backups functioned. At T+33s, a piece of the bipod ramp separated, hitting booster-tank attachment.

Soyuz TMA-1 ISS EP-4 First flight of the Soyuz TMA spacecraft. Belgian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-113 ISS assembly mission. Delivered 13.7-m, 12.5 ton truss to ISS. Four attempts to land on consecutive days, called because of bad weather.

STS-113 ISS EO-6 First ISS crew to have to return in a lifeboat spacecraft. ISS assembly missions cancelled after Columbia disaster. Crew relieved by two-man crew to keep ISS functioning while shuttle grounded. On return Soyuz guidance failed; 8G ballistic reentry.

STS-107 First Israeli astronaut. Conducted experiments in Double Spacehab module. Crew perished when shuttle broke up during re-entry. Cause was damage to a leading-edge RCC from foam breaking off of external tank bipod strut.

Soyuz TMA-2 ISS Expedition EO-7. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded. Replaced three-man crew aboard ISS since before STS-107 disaster.

Shenzhou 5 First Chinese man in space. Highly conservative mission. Single astronaut stayed in the re-entry capsule for the entire 21-hour mission, and did not enter the orbital module.

Soyuz TMA-3 ISS Expedition EO-8. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-7 crew.

Soyuz TMA-3 Cervantes Spanish / ESA astronaut. Primary mission was to swap Soyuz lifeboats.

Soyuz TMA-4 ISS Expedition EO-9. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-8 crew.

Soyuz TMA-4 Delta European Space Agency / Netherlands space mission to the ISS. Primary mission was to swap Soyuz lifeboats.

SpaceShipOne Flight 15P First private manned spaceflight. Fourth powered flight of SpaceShipOne and first flight above 100 km altitude. Spacecraft rolled 90 degrees right and left at motor ignition; attitude control lost at engine shut down; engine fairing collapsed.

SpaceShipOne Flight 16P Fifth powered flight of Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne and first of two flights over 100 km that needed to be accomplished in a week to win the $10 million X-Prize. Spacecraft did a series of 60 rolls during last stage of engine burn.

SpaceShipOne Flight 17P Suborbital altitude record for a manned spaceplane Sixth powered flight of Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne and winner of the $10 million X-Prize by becoming the second flight over 100 km within a week.

Soyuz TMA-5 ISS Expedition EO-10. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-9 crew.

Soyuz TMA-5 ISS EP-7 Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Russian cosmonaut sent for a ten day mission aboard the ISS while the EO-9/EO-10 long duration crews handed duties over to each other.

Soyuz TMA-6 ISS Expedition EO-11. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-10 crew.

Soyuz TMA-6 Eneide Italian ESA astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-114 Shuttle return to flight. Primary objective was to verify fixes made to external tank to prevent foam and ice shedding that killed STS-107 crew. Also resupplied ISS, which had to rely on smaller Progress logistics flights while the shuttle was grounded.

Soyuz TMA-7 ISS Expedition EO-12. Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-7 ISS EP-9 American space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

Shenzhou 6 China's second manned mission took two astronauts into space for nearly five days, and featured use by a crew of the Shenzhou orbital module for the first time.

Soyuz TMA-8 ISS Expedition EO-13. Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-8 ISS EP-10 First Brazilian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-121 ISS logistics flight. Delivered equipment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module.

STS-121 Astrolab Europe's first long-duration mission to the ISS. Thomas Reiter lived and worked on board the ISS for five months.

STS-115 ISS logistics flight. Delivered equipment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module.

Soyuz TMA-9 ISS Expedition EO-14. Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-9 ISS EP-11 First female space tourist. First Iranian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-116 First Swedish astronaut. Most demanding ISS assembly mission to date. Completed installation of the P5 truss, retracted the recalcitrant port P6 solar array wing, and activated the truss electrical and cooling system.

STS-116 ISS EO-14 Williams replaced Reiter as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Record duration female mission.

Soyuz TMA-10 ISS Expedition EO-15. Six-month, long-term, all-Russian resident crew of the International Space Station. Soyuz reentered with the forward hatch taking the re-entry heating, until the connecting strut burned through. 8.6 G ballistic re-entry, landing 340 km short.

Soyuz TMA-10 ISS EP-12 Space tourist mission of Hungarian-American billionaire. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-117 Final major step in assembly of the ISS truss and power-generating solar array segments. The S3/S4 Truss and its solar arrays were delivered and installed.

STS-117 ISS EO-15 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Anderson replaced Williams as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

STS-118 ISS logistic mission. Delivered consumables, and completed necessary supplementary assembly, repair, and external equipment moves necessary for the next major stage of ISS assembly.

Soyuz TMA-11 First female space station commander. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-11 ISS EP-13 First Malaysian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-120 ISS assembly mission. Delivered the Harmony module to the station, and external work moved the P6 truss to its final location and put the ISS into its full-power configuration for the first time.

STS-120 ISS EO-16 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Tani replaced Anderson as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

STS-122 ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Columbus European Laboratory Module and the Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure - Non-Deployable (MPESS-ND).

STS-122 ISS EO-16 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Eyharts replaced Tani as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

STS-123 ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) and the Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 1 (SLP-D1) with the Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre).

STS-123 ISS EO-16 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Reisman replaced Eyharts as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

Soyuz TMA-12 ISS Expedition EO-17. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-12 ISS EP-14 First Korean astronaut mission. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-124 ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM) and the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM RMS).

STS-124 ISS EO-17 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Chamitoff replaced Reisman as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

Shenzhou 7 First Chinese EVA. First Chinese three-crew spaceflight. Third Chinese manned space mission. The Shenzhou was flown with the full complement of three crew and astronaut Zhai conducted China's first spacewalk.

Soyuz TMA-13 ISS Expedition EO-18. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-13 ISS EP-15 Space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-126 ISS logistics flight. Station resupply with Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM).

STS-126 ISS EO-18 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Magnus replaced Chamitoff as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

STS-119 ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the fourth starboard truss segment (ITS S6) and fourth set of solar arrays and batteries.

STS-119 ISS EO-18 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Wakata replaced Magnus as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

Soyuz TMA-14 ISS Expedition EO-19. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-14 ISS EP-16 First space tourist to fly to space twice; and the last tourist to the ISS. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

STS-125 Fourth and final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. Only shuttle mission authorized prior to shuttle retirement not to go to the ISS - therefore with no means of space rescue should the heat shield be damaged during ascent to orbit.

Soyuz TMA-15 ISS Expedition EO-20. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

STS-127 Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF); Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Exposed Section (ELM-ES); and Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 2 (SLP-D2).

STS-127 ISS EO-20 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. NASA long-term third ISS astronaut, arriving aboard STS-127, and replacing NASDA astronaut Wakata aboard the station. Returned aboard STS-128.

STS-128 Delivered to the ISS and installed the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM); Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three-crew quarters, galley, and second treadmill (TVIS2); and the Crew Health Care System 2 (CHeCS 2).

STS-128 ISS EO-20 NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Final NASA long-term third ISS astronaut, arriving aboard STS-128, replacing astronaut Kopra aboard the station. Returned on STS-129.

Soyuz TMA-16 ISS Expedition EO-21. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

STS-129 Resupply mission to deliver to the ISS the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 2 (ELC2).

Soyuz TMA-17 ISS Expedition EO-22. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

STS-130 Deliver to the ISS and install the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC)

Soyuz TMA-18 ISS Expedition EO-23. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

STS-131 Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC3) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4).

STS-132 Deliver to the ISS and install Node 3 with Cupola. With this mission ISS assembly is to have been completed.

Soyuz TMA-19 ISS Expedition EO-24. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-01M ISS Expedition EO-25. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

STS-133 Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC5) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1). Astronaut Skopra was replaced by Bowen one month before launch when he was injured in a bicycle accident.

Soyuz TMA-20 Flight up of [Soyuz TMA-01M] manned spaceflight.

STS-134 Last ISS assembly mission and last flight of shuttle Endeavour.

Soyuz TMA-21 ISS Expedition EO-27. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-02M ISS Expedition EO-28. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

STS-135 Last flight of shuttle Atlantis and last space shuttle flight. Delivered supplies to keep ISS running at six-crew level until commercial resupply was to come on line in 2012. Extra contingency mission at end of shuttle program. The crew trained as STS-335, a rescue mission to return the STS-134 crew to earth if they became marooned in space. After the safe return of STS-134, the mission proceeded as STS-135, with a reduced crew that could be returned over an 18 month period aboard Soyuz capsules in case the crew could not return in Atlantis.

Soyuz TMA-22 ISS Expedition EO-29. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-03M ISS Expedition EO-30. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-04M ISS Expedition EO-31. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Shenzhou 9 First Chinese EVA. Fourth Chinese manned space mission. First Chinese space station mission. First Chinese woman in space. The Shenzhou was flown with the full complement of three crew and docked with the Tiangong space station.

Soyuz TMA-05M ISS Expedition EO-32. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-06M ISS Expedition EO-33. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-07M ISS Expedition EO-34. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-08M ISS Expedition EO-35. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-09M ISS Expedition EO-36. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Shenzhou 10 Docked with Tiangong-1 spacelab on 13 June at 05:11 GMT. Undocked and performed a manual redocking on 23 June. Undocked on 25 June at 21:07 GMT and landed in Inner Mongolia on 26 June at 00:07 GMT.

Soyuz TMA-10M ISS Expedition EO-37. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.

Soyuz TMA-11M ISS Expedition EO-38. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station.



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