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MR-12
MR-12
MR-12
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian sounding rocket. The MR-12 sounding rocket was developed by the Soviet Union as a modern replacement for the MR-1 Meteo. It was a single stage solid rocket with a 170 kg payload. Payload section 1.55 m long, 0.445 m in diameter.

Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1962-05-01. Last Launch: 1997-02-05. Number: 748 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Height: 8.77 m (28.77 ft). Diameter: 0.45 m (1.46 ft). Span: 1.40 m (4.50 ft). Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).



Subtopics

MR-25 Russian sounding rocket. Version of the MR-20.

MR-20 Russian sounding rocket. Upper atmosphere Soviet sounding rocket, improved version of MR-12, but capable of lofting 135 kg to 250 km altitude.

MR-30 Russian sounding rocket.

Country: Russia. Propellants: Solid. Launch Sites: Wallops Island, Kapustin Yar, Kheysa, Sary Shagan, Emba, Kapustin Yar V-2. Agency: AN, MO. Bibliography: 2, 212, 378, 8431.
Photo Gallery

MR-12 rocketMR-12 rocket
MR-12 sounding rocket and R-12 IRBM at Kaluga
Credit: © Mark Wade


Rockets at KalugaRockets at Kaluga
Rockets on display at Kaluga. From left to right, V2A payload section, V5A payload section, MR-12 sounding rocket, R-12 IRBM, R-7 Vostok launch vehicle
Credit: © Mark Wade



1962 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nuc test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1964 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1964 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1964 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1964 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 September 3 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1965 September 9 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1965 September 17 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1965 October 26 - . 12:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1966 January 24 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1966 September 24 - . 19:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1966 September 30 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1966 October 1 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Thermosphere comparison Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1966 October 10 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Solar Ultraviolet/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1966 October 20 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1966 October 26 - . 14:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1966 November 4 - . 15:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1966 November 23 - . 21:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Thermosphere comparison Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1966 December 1 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1966 December 6 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1966 December 12 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1966 December 14 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1966 December 15 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1966 December 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1966 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1966 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1967 January 31 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Thermosphere comparison Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1967 February 3 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Airglow Solar / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1967 May 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1967 June 21 - . Launch Site: Emba. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 June 22 - . Launch Site: Emba. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 October 9 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: AN, CNES. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: AN, CNES. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1967 November 1 - . 19:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ion composition Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1967 December 19 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • VV / RFMS / release Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1968 February 27 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1968 February 28 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN, CNES. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1968 February 29 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1968 March 16 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 March 18 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 March 18 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1968 March 19 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1968 March 19 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1968 March 20 - . 20:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 March 20 - . 21:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1968 March 20 - . 21:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1968 March 22 - . 00:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1968 March 23 - . 19:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ion composition Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1968 March 25 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ion composition Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1968 March 25 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1968 March 25 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1968 March 25 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1968 March 27 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1968 March 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1968 March 30 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1968 May 9 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 21.7 N x 33.3 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1968 May 11 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 May 11 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 May 12 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1968 May 16 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1968 May 17 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1968 May 18 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 May 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 May 21 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 May 22 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 10.0 N x 20.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1968 May 30 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1968 May 30 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1968 June 6 - . 13:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 June 6 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1968 June 14 - . 14:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1968 June 26 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1968 June 26 - . 09:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1968 June 28 - . 04:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 July 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1968 July 16 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1968 July 19 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1968 July 25 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1968 July 26 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 147 km (91 mi).

1968 July 27 - . 17:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1968 July 31 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Electron fluxes Chemical release / plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1968 July 31 - . 18:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Electron fluxes Chemical release / plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1968 August 1 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Electron fluxes Aeronomy / plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1968 August 1 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Electron fluxes Plasma / fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1968 September 13 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 September 20 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 September 25 - . 22:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1968 October 2 - . 02:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1968 October 8 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1968 October 9 - . 03:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1968 October 16 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1968 October 22 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ion composition Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1968 October 22 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1968 October 25 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1968 October 27 - . 10:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1968 October 30 - . 08:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1969 January 14 - . 20:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1969 January 21 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 January 23 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1969 March 1 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1969 March 8 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1969 March 8 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1969 March 9 - . 16:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1969 March 10 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1969 March 10 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1969 March 13 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1969 March 13 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 March 13 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 March 14 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1969 March 17 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 March 19 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 97 km (60 mi).

1969 March 19 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 March 21 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1969 March 22 - . 02:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1969 March 24 - . 10:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 March 26 - . 14:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 March 27 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 March 27 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 March 29 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1969 April 9 - . 09:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 April 18 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1969 April 18 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1969 April 19 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1969 April 20 - . 13:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1969 April 20 - . 15:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1969 April 21 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1969 April 21 - . 15:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1969 April 23 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 April 23 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1969 June 11 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1969 June 20 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1969 June 24 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 July 1 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1969 July 3 - . 03:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1969 July 8 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1969 July 9 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 July 10 - . 08:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1969 July 11 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1969 July 24 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 July 25 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1969 July 27 - . 21:47 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1969 July 27 - . 22:37 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1969 July 27 - . 23:27 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 July 28 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1969 July 30 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1969 August 3 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1969 August 3 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1969 August 3 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1969 August 3 - . 05:51 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 August 3 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1969 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 October 11 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1969 October 14 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1969 October 17 - . 22:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1969 October 18 - . 11:07 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1969 October 18 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 October 21 - . 12:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1969 October 22 - . 08:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1969 October 24 - . 04:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Particles - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 November 5 - . 08:11 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 November 5 - . 11:12 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1969 November 9 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1969 December 10 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1969 December 10 - . 20:59 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 December 10 - . 22:13 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 45.0 N x 46.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 December 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1969 December 18 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1969 December 18 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1969 December 19 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1969 December 19 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1969 December 24 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 February 12 - . 03:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 February 12 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 February 26 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 February 26 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1970 February 28 - . 13:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1970 February 28 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1970 March 1 - . Launch Site: Emba. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-25.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1970 March 1 - . Launch Site: Emba. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-25.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 00:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 March 5 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 March 6 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 07:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 21 - . 06:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 24 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 26 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 June 26 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1970 July 1 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 3 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1970 July 6 - . 16:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 6 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 July 6 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 7 - . 01:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1970 July 8 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 July 9 - . 17:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 July 14 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1970 July 24 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1970 July 25 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 26 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 July 26 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 July 26 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1970 July 30 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 July 30 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1970 August 4 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 August 4 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 August 5 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 August 5 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 06:12 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 October 20 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 October 21 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1970 October 21 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 October 21 - . 15:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1970 November 27 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 December 16 - . 09:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 December 18 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 December 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 December 22 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1970 December 22 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 December 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 December 29 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 January 23 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 13 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 13 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 14 - . 16:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 15 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 17 - . 16:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 18 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 26 - . 15:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 28 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 29 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 29 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 April 2 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 April 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 April 22 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 September 1 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magnetic - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1971 September 1 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magnetic - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1971 September 14 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 14 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 15 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 15 - . 19:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 25 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 25 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 27 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 1 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 1 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 1 - . 12:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 1 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1971 October 2 - . 03:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magnetic mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 03:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magneticmission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 9 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 9 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magnetic mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 15 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Sun-Atm 71 TMA rel - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 November 3 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 November 7 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1971 November 24 - . 12:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 1 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 11 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1971 December 14 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1971 December 16 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1971 December 26 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1971 December 26 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 26 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1971 December 26 - . 17:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 21:57 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1972 January 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1972 January 1 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1972 January 1 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1972 January 5 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1972 February 11 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1972 February 11 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1972 February 18 - . 02:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1972 February 21 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1972 February 21 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1972 March 2 - . 01:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1972 March 4 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1972 March 4 - . 11:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1972 March 4 - . 16:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1972 March 4 - . 18:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1972 March 4 - . 23:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Composition - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1972 March 8 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1972 March 17 - . 16:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1972 March 17 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1972 March 17 - . 19:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1972 March 17 - . 20:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1972 March 20 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1972 April 5 - . 06:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Chemical release mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1972 April 15 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Composition - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1972 October 25 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1972 October 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1972 October 27 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1972 October 31 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1972 October 31 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1972 November 1 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1972 November 23 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1972 December 1 - . 05:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1972 December 1 - . 09:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1972 December 1 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1972 December 22 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1973 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 May 29 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1973 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 12 - . 01:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1973 June 12 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50 N to 3 S, 30 to 25W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 12 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1973 June 12 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1973 June 12 - . 21:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 14 - . 03:12 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50 N to 3 S, 30 to 25W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 14 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50 N to 3 S, 30 to 25W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 14 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ozone - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 29 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • FEYERVERK Active Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: IZMIRAN. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1973 June 30 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Eclipse mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 June 30 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50 N to 3 S, 30 to 25W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Eclipse control - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 July 1 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1973 July 12 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1973 July 19 - . 21:21 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1973 July 20 - . 06:48 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Eclipse control - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 September 15 - . 08:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 September 27 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1973 October 17 - . 18:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1973 October 23 - . 12:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1973 October 30 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 November 28 - . 22:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • D-75MG - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 December 7 - . 11:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1973 December 7 - . 11:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 December 25 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1974 February 13 - . 15:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • IPOCAMP? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN, CNES. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1974 February 15 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1974 February 24 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1974 March 5 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1974 March 13 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1974 March 14 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1974 March 14 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1974 March 14 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1974 March 15 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1974 March 18 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1974 March 19 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1974 March 21 - . 16:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 March 29 - . 04:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1974 April 3 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1974 April 4 - . 13:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1974 June 20 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1974 June 20 - . 20:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1974 June 21 - . 12:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1974 September 19 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 19 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 19 - . 17:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 19 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 07:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 19:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 21 - . 03:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 21 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 October 15 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 October 15 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 October 16 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 November 14 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 November 16 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 November 16 - . 09:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 November 20 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 December 21 - . 09:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 December 24 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 September 4 - . 16:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1975 September 11 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1975 October 1 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1975 October 2 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1975 October 2 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1975 October 2 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1975 October 16 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1975 October 29 - . 14:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1975 October 31 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1975 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 January 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 January 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 January 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 January 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 February 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 February 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 February 28 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1976 February 28 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1976 February 28 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1976 February 29 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1976 March 3 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1976 March 4 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1976 March 6 - . 18:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1976 March 6 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1976 March 7 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1976 March 8 - . 22:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 March 17 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 March 18 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Chemical release/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 March 18 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 August 18 - . 16:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 18 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 19 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 19 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 19 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 19 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 19 - . 16:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 19 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 00:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 20 - . 13:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 August 21 - . 00:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 60.0 N x 35.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Indian Ocean, 15.0 S x 63.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1976 December 7 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1976 December 8 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1977 January 27 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral/Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1977 February 9 - . 17:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral/Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1977 February 10 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1977 February 13 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1977 February 21 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1977 February 24 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 6 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 7 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 13 - . 21:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1977 March 17 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 18 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1977 March 18 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 24 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1977 March 28 - . 19:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1977 March 28 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1977 March 29 - . 00:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 29 - . 02:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1977 March 29 - . 03:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1977 April 6 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1977 April 6 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1977 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 September 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • IKO - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1977 October 4 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 October 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 January 11 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • STERETOP Active Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeron/Ionos - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 April 7 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1978 April 19 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1978 April 19 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 May 4 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1978 May 4 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1978 May 4 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma/Solar Ultraviolet/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1978 May 5 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1978 May 30 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 June 6 - . 17:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978 June 6 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1978 June 6 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1978 June 11 - . 01:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 June 19 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1978 June 24 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1978 June 26 - . 02:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: USA. Agency: AN. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1978 June 26 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1978 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeron/Ionos - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeron/Ionos - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeron/Ionos - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 October 6 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma/Fields/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1978 December 1 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1979 January 21 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1979 February 8 - . 04:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1979 February 23 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1979 March 6 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1979 March 10 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1979 March 13 - . 21:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1979 March 17 - . 17:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1979 March 26 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1979 March 31 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1979 April 5 - . 00:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1979 April 7 - . 01:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1979 April 11 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1979 April 14 - . 18:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1979 June 15 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1979 August 7 - . 17:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1979 August 10 - . 17:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1979 August 22 - . 16:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1979 October 17 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1979 October 18 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1979 October 22 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1979 October 25 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1979 December 19 - . 01:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1979 December 20 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1979 December 26 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1979 December 27 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1980 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 April 28 - . 02:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ariel-4 Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1980 April 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aelita-2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1980 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1980 November 21 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1980 November 25 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1980 December 5 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1980 December 12 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1980 December 12 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1980 December 12 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1980 December 17 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1980 December 18 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1981 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 76.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 February 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 February 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1982 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1983 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 68.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 February 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 February 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 February 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 March 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 March 18 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 18.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Plazma Plasma/Active mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1985 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 April 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 48.0 N x 15.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1985 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 55.0 N x 40.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1986 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1986 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1986 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1986 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 66.0 N x 0.0 E. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 June 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1987 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 135.0 E. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1990 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1990 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1990 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1990 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1990 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 November 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 72.0 N x 5.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 February 6 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • E field - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1991 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 August 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1992 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1997 January 31 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Flaksus-1 (Fluxus) Plasma/Active mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN, APL. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1997 February 5 - . 02:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Flaksus-2 Plasma/Active mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN, APL. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

2011 December 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-30.
  • MR-30 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). First launch of the Russian weather service's new MR-30 weather rocket..

2012 May 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-30.
  • R&D - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RGMS. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2014 March 26 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-30.
  • MR-30 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

    Meteorology / Ionosphere Mission. Failed and landed near a village in an unplanned area of western Kazakhstan; launches within Kazakhstan have been suspended pending the accident investigation. The MN-300/MR-30 sounding rocket system had a nominal apogee of 300 km, and given the range achieved probably attained a comparable height this time despite the failure.



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