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Mars Semi-Direct 1991
Part of American Mars Expeditions Family
Mars Direct
Mars Direct
Credit: NASA
American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Mars Semi-Direct was a NASA concept bridge between Zubrin's Mars Direct and NASA's Design Reference Mission 1.0. It was essentially a low-cost version of Boeing's STCAEM.

Status: Study 1991.

Mars Semi-Direct Mission Summary:

  • Summary: Concept bridge between Mars Direct and Design Reference Mission 1.0; low cost STCAEM
  • Propulsion: Nuclear thermal
  • Braking at Mars: aerodynamic
  • Mission Type: conjunction
  • Split or All-Up: split
  • ISRU: ISRU
  • Launch Year: 1997
  • Crew: 4
  • Mars Surface payload-metric tons: 40
  • Outbound time-days: 180
  • Mars Stay Time-days: 550
  • Return Time-days: 170
  • Total Mission Time-days: 900
  • Total Payload Required in Low Earth Orbit-metric tons: 220
  • Total Propellant Required-metric tons: 170
  • Propellant Fraction: 0.77
  • Mass per crew-metric tons: 55
  • Launch Vehicle Payload to LEO-metric tons: 105
  • Number of Launches Required to Assemble Payload in Low Earth Orbit: 2
  • Launch Vehicle: Ares Mars Direct



Family: Mars Expeditions. Country: USA. Agency: NASA. Bibliography: 1989.

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