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INPE
Brazilian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espacias, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil.

Location: Sao Jose dos Campos.



Country: Brazil. Spacecraft: SCD, SACI, ZY, SATEC. Launch Vehicles: Sonda, Sonda 3 M1, Sonda 4, VLS, VLS-R1, VS-30, VLS-1, VLM, VS-30/Orion, VSB-30, VS-40.

1966 March 2 - . 15:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • 07 CNAE 6604 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1966 March 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • 08 CNAE 6605 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1966 May 2 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • 13 CNAE 6610 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1966 May 18 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • 14 CNAE 6611 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1966 June 1 - . 16:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • 15 CNAE 6612 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1966 June 29 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1966 July 15 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1966 August 7 - . 07:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1966 August 17 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1966 September 14 - . 15:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1966 November 16 - . 15:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1990 February 21 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Alcantara Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1990 November 26 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Manival Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1991 December 9 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Aguas Belas Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1992 October 31 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Ponta de Areia Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 32 km (19 mi).

1993 February 9 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.3 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus.
  • SCD-1 - . Payload: SCD 1 / Orbcomm CDS. Mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SCD. USAF Sat Cat: 22490 . COSPAR: 1993-009B. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 729 km (452 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg. Period: 100.10 min. Environmental data relay. The SCD-1 (Data Collection Satellite 1) was a Brazilian satellite designed for the collection of meteorological data relayed by data collection platforms spread throughout the Brazilian territory. Air dropped in Mayport DZ..

1993 March 22 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Maruda Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1993 April 2 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-40.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 950 km (590 mi).

1994 June 22 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Oituia Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1996 August 28 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1997 April 28 - . 16:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-30.
  • DLR AL-VS30-223 test - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, INPE. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1997 October 12 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-30.
  • DLR AL-VS30-226 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, INPE. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1997 November 2 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. Launch Complex: Alcantara VLS. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VLS-1. FAILURE: Destroyed during launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • SCD-2A - . Mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: AEB. Manufacturer: INPE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SCD. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi). The SCD-2A (Data Collection Satellite 2A) was a Brazilian satellite designed for the collection of meteorological data relayed by data collection platforms spread throughout the Brazilian territory..

1998 January 31 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-30.
  • DLR AL-VS30-229 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, INPE. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1998 March 21 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-40.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1998 October 23 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.3 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus H.
  • SCD-2 - . Mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: McLean. Manufacturer: INPE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SCD. USAF Sat Cat: 25504 . COSPAR: 1998-060A. Apogee: 760 km (470 mi). Perigee: 736 km (457 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg. Period: 99.80 min.

    Brazil's SCD-2 satellite was aboard Orbital Science's L-1011 Stargazer aircraft when it took off from the Cape Canaveral Air Station's Skid Strip (Runway 02/20, 28.2N 80.6W) at 23:05 GMT on Oct 22 and flew to the drop zone near Cape Canaveral (in the Mayport, Florida, Warning Area) at 29.0N 78.3W. The Pegasus ignited 5 seconds after drop. The first stage carried a NASA experiment attached to its right wing, to study hypersonic boundary layer separation. The 115 kg Satelite de Coleta de Dados (Data Collection Satellite) relays data from environmental monitoring stations. Air dropped in Mayport DZ.


1999 October 14 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 4B.
  • SACI 1 - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: SISE. Manufacturer: INPE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SACI. USAF Sat Cat: 25941 . COSPAR: 1999-057B. Apogee: 731 km (454 mi). Perigee: 719 km (446 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. INPE experimental scientific satellite with a magnetometer, particle detectors and an atmospheric experiment. INPE reportedly lost contact with the satellite in mid-October..

1999 December 11 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. Launch Complex: Alcantara VLS. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VLS-1. FAILURE: Second stage failed to ignite; destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • SACI-2 - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: AEB. Manufacturer: INPE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SACI. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi). Second attempted launch of Brazil's indigenous launcher..

2003 August 22 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. Launch Complex: Alcantara VLS. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VLS-1. FAILURE: Failure - Exploded on pad during final prelaunch processing. 21 people were killed, with none injured.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • SATEC - . Payload: SATEC. Mass: 57 kg (125 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SATEC. COSPAR: F20030822A.

    Launch was due on August 25. Was to have been on third qualification flight after two previous failures. The launch had already been delayed from October 2002, then May 7 and June 20 2003. It appeared that one of the strapon boosters ignited by accident. The two satellite payloads were also destroyed in the blast, as was the launch pad.



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