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Surveyor
Surveyor on beach
Surveyor on beach
Surveyor on the beach in California
Credit: NASA
American lunar lander. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Surveyor series soft-landed on the moon, provided images of the lunar surface, and tested the characteristics of the lunar soil. Lunar lander built by Hughes (for Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)) for NASA, USA. Launched 1966 - 1968.

Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-11-27. Last Launch: 1968-01-07. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 269 kg (593 lb).


More at: Surveyor.

Subtopics

Surveyor Block II American lunar lander. Study 1964. The Surveyor Block II spacecraft was imagined as an unmanned scout that could reconnoiter a specific lunar landing site for Apollo and assist the manned Lunar Module in making a precise touch down.

Surveyor-Model Instrumented mass model satellite, USA. Launched 1964 - 1966.

Surveyor-SD Instrumented dynamic simualtion payload satellite, USA. Launched 1965.

Surveyor Lunar Rover American lunar rover. Cancelled 1965. Follow-on Surveyor unmanned lunar landers were to deploy small nuclear-powered rovers (a carry-over from the cancelled Prospector spacecraft).

Surveyor Orbiter American lunar orbiter. Study 1965. NASA originally planned to have a version of the Surveyor spacecraft conduct detailed orbital photographic reconnaissance of the moon in preparation for the Apollo manned landings.

Family: Lunar Landers, Moon. Country: USA. Engines: Star 37. Launch Vehicles: Atlas, Atlas Centaur, Saturn I, Atlas Centaur D, Atlas SLV-3C Centaur. Launch Sites: Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral LC36A, Cape Canaveral LC36B. Agency: JPL, NASA. Bibliography: 126, 16, 17, 2, 278, 279, 4096, 4097, 4098, 4099, 4100, 4101, 4102, 4103, 4104, 4105, 4106, 4107, 4108, 4109, 4110, 4111, 4112, 4113, 4114, 4115, 4116, 4117, 4118, 4119, 4120, 4121, 4122, 4123, 4124, 4125, 4126, 4127, 4128, 4129, 4130, 6, 66, 6959, 13238, 13239, 13240, 13241.
Photo Gallery

Surveyor 3Surveyor 3
Surveyor 3 as photographed by the crew of Apollo 12
Credit: NASA


Apollo 12Apollo 12
Surveyor 3 / Apollo 12 Artists Concept
Credit: NASA


Apollo 12Apollo 12
A lonely Surveyor 3 on Lunar Surface; Apollo 12 LM in the distance.
Credit: NASA


Surveyor 1Surveyor 1
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Surveyor ModelSurveyor Model
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Surveyor-SDSurveyor-SD
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Apollo 12Apollo 12
Surveyor 3 with astronaut; Apollo 12 Lunar Module in the background
Credit: NASA



1959 May 1 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Unmanned Lunar Soft Landing Vehicle - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Surveyor. The Army Ordnance Missile Command submitted to NASA a report entitled "Preliminary Study of an Unmanned Lunar Soft Landing Vehicle," recommending the use of the Saturn booster..

1960 July 9 - .
  • NASA selects companies for competitive design studies of Surveyor - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Surveyor.

    After reviewing proposals by 37 companies, NASA awarded contracts to the Hughes Aircraft Company, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, North American Aviation, Inc., and Space Technology Laboratories, Inc., for preliminary competitive design studies of an instrumented soft-landing lunar spacecraft, the Surveyor. The companies were scheduled to submit their reports in December.


1960 July 11 - .
  • Surveyor project starts. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Surveyor. NASA selected Hughes, North American, Space Technology Laboratory, and McDonnell to study designs for the first lunar soft-landing spacecraft..

1961 January 19 - .
  • Hughes to build Surveyor spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Surveyor.

    After evaluating preliminary design studies, NASA selected the Hughes Aircraft Company to build seven Surveyor spacecraft. This 750-pound, three-legged, unmanned spacecraft would carry 200 pounds of instruments, including zoom television cameras, a drill to sample the lunar soil, chemical analysis equipment, and a seismometer. The first Surveyor was scheduled to be launched in 1963.


1962 July 17 - .
  • Apollo landing zone defined - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Surveyor.

    Joseph F. Shea, NASA Deputy Director of Manned Space Flight (Systems) , told an American Rocket Society meeting in Cleveland, Ohio, that the first American astronauts to land on the moon would come down in an area within ten degrees on either side of the lunar equator and between longitudes 270 and 260 degrees. Shea said that the actual site would be chosen for its apparent scientific potential and that the Ranger and Surveyor programs would provide badly needed information on the lunar surface. Maps on the scale of two fifths of a mile to the inch would be required, based on photographs which would show lunar features down to five or six feet in size. The smallest objects on the lunar surface yet identified by telescope were about the size of a football field.


1963 September 12 - .
  • Unmanned lunar landing spacecraft to be sterilized - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Surveyor.

    NASA announced that, in the future, unmanned lunar landing spacecraft e.g., Rangers and Surveyors) will be assembled in "clean rooms" and treated with germ-killing substances to reduce the number of microbes on exposed surfaces. These sterilization procedures, less stringent than earlier methods, were intended to prevent contamination of the lunar surface and, at the same time, avoid damage to sensitive electronic components. Heat sterilization was suspected as one of the reasons for the failure of Ranger spacecraft.


1963 November 27 - . 19:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur.
  • Atlas Centaur 2 - . Payload: Centaur 2B. Mass: 4,620 kg (10,180 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Cleveland. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. USAF Sat Cat: 694 . COSPAR: 1963-047A. Apogee: 1,478 km (918 mi). Perigee: 469 km (291 mi). Inclination: 30.4000 deg. Period: 104.60 min.

    Launched from Cape Canaveral, Atlas/Centaur (AC-2) was the first successful use of the high-energy liquid hydrogen/ liquid oxygen Centaur upper stage vehicle developed for NASA by General Dynamics. The spent Centaur stage entered orbit. Launch vehicle test. Launch vehicle put dummy payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. First successful Centaur (liquid hydrogen-fueled) flight.


1963 November - .
  • Procedure for determining Apollo landing sites - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Surveyor.

    Verne C. Fryklund of NASA's Manned Space Sciences Division advised Bellcomm of the procedure for determining Apollo landing sites on the moon. The Manned Space Sciences chief outlined an elimination for the site selection process. For the first step, extant selenographic material would be used to pick targets of interest for Lunar Orbiter spacecraft photography. After study of the Lunar Orbiter photography, a narrower choice of targets then became the object of Surveyor spacecraft lunar missions, with final choice of potential landing sites to be made after the Surveyor program.

    The selection criteria at all stages were determined by lunar surface requirements prepared by OMSF. Fryklund emphasized that a landing at the least hazardous spot, rather than in the area with the most scientific interest, was the chief aim of the site selection process.


1964 October 23 - .
  • Surveyor Block II study related to the Apollo landing aid problem - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Surveyor. Spacecraft: Surveyor Block II.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory proposed a meeting on October 29 between representatives of NASA Headquarters, Bellcomm, MSC, MIT, and JPL to present the requirements and status of projects underway as they related to the landing aid problem. The Surveyor Block II study effort was concentrating on determining needs of obtaining data on the lunar surface and environment for Apollo. Additional Details: here....


1964 December 11 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur.
  • Surveyor SD-1 - . Payload: Surveyor SD-1. Mass: 2,944 kg (6,490 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1964-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 951 . COSPAR: 1964-082A. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 30.7000 deg. Period: 87.80 min. Launch vehicle test. Centaur AC-4 put dummy Surveyor payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit.

1965 March 2 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Surveyor SD-1 - . Payload: Surveyor SD-1. Mass: 951 kg (2,096 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1965-03-02 . Launch vehicle test. Launch vehicle was to have put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit.

1965 March 18-25 - .
  • Isotope generator for the Surveyor Apollo lunar roving vehicle - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Surveyor. Spacecraft: Surveyor Lunar Rover.

    The Atomic Energy Commission evaluated proposals by Radio Corporation of America and General Electric (GE) for an isotope generator for the Surveyor lunar roving vehicle, and assigned follow-on work to the latter firm. GE's concept, it was felt, was compatible with the possible requirement that the fuel source might have to be carried separately aboard the LEM. MSC's Propulsion and Power Division reported that the generator's "prospects . . . look(ed) very promising."


1965 June 22 - .
  • Ad Hoc Surveyor Orbiter Utilization Committee - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Surveyor. Spacecraft: Surveyor Orbiter.

    NASA Headquarters established an Ad Hoc Surveyor Orbiter Utilization Committee and MSC was requested to submit names of two proposed members. It was suggested that the nominees be familiar with the mission planning and constraints of the Apollo program. The first meeting was planned for late July.

    On July 29, MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth submitted the names of William A. Lee and William E. Stoney, Jr. He noted that the same two individuals were being nominated to serve as MSC members on the Apollo Site Selection Board. Gilruth expressed a desire that the meetings of the two groups could be coordinated to the extent that travel would be minimized.


1965 July 21 - .
  • Surveyor small rover cancelled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft Bus: Surveyor. Spacecraft: Surveyor Lunar Rover.

    Several lunar surface vehicles received national attention:

    • NASA announced that it had dropped plans for developing a small rover to be carried to the moon aboard soft-landing Surveyor spacecraft. This action, the space agency said, stemmed from a desire to concentrate on the development of the spacecraft per se and on its scientific instrumentation.

    1965 August 11 - . 14:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D.
    • Surveyor; Atlas Centaur 6 - . Payload: Surveyor-SD-2. Mass: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. USAF Sat Cat: 1503 . COSPAR: 1965-064A. Centaur AC-6 launched dummy Surveyor payload into a barycentric / translunar orbit..

    1966 April 8 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D. FAILURE: Centaur propellant leak.. Failed Stage: U.
    • Surveyor Model - . Payload: Surveyor SD-3. Mass: 784 kg (1,728 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1966-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 2139 . COSPAR: 1966-030A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 30.7000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Launch vehicle test. Payload was dummy Surveyor spacecraft..

    1966 May 30 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D.
    • Surveyor 1 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-1. Mass: 269 kg (593 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1966-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 2185 . COSPAR: 1966-045A.

      The first operational Atlas/Centaur (AC-10) carried the NASA Surveyor I spacecraft to the moon in a direct ascent lunar transfer trajectory. This was the first in a series of seven Surveyors designed to develop soft-landing technology and to provide basic scientific and engineering data in support of Project Apollo. On 2 June, Surveyor I became the first U.S. spacecraft to soft-land on the moon and transmit television pictures Surveyor 1 soft landed on the moon in the Ocean of Storms and began transmitting the first of more than 11,150 clear, detailed television pictures to Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Facility, Goldstone, Calif. The landing sequence began 3,200 kilometers above the moon with the spacecraft traveling at a speed of 9,700 kilometers per hour. The spacecraft was successfully slowed to 5.6 kilometers per hour by the time it reached 4-meter altitude and then free-fell to the surface at 13 kilometers per hour. The landing was so precise that the three footpads touched the surface within 19 milliseconds of each other, and it confirmed that the lunar surface could support the LM. It was the first U.S. attempt to soft land on the moon.


    1966 August 22 - .
    • Surveyor vernier engine to be fired after landing - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Pickering. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: LM Descent Propulsion, LM RCS, Surveyor.

      MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth requested of Jet Propulsion Laboratory Director William H. Pickering that JPL fire the Surveyor spacecraft's vernier engine after the Surveyor landed on moon, to give insight into how much erosion could be expected from an LM landing. The LM descent engine was to operate until it was about one nozzle diameter from landing on the lunar surface; after the Surveyor landed, its engine would be about the same distance from the surface. Gilruth told Pickering that LaRC was testing a reaction control engine to establish surface shear pressure forces, surface pressures, and back pressure sources, and offered JPL that data when obtained.


    1966 September 20 - . 12:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D.
    • Surveyor 2 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-2. Mass: 292 kg (643 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1966-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2425 . COSPAR: 1966-084A.

      Soft lunar landing attempt failed. Surveyor II was launched from Cape Kennedy at 8:32 a.m. EDT. The Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle placed the spacecraft on a nearly perfect lunar intercept trajectory that would have missed the aim point by about 130 kilometers. Following injection, the spacecraft successfully accomplished all required sequences up to the midcourse thrust phase. This phase was not successful because of the failure of one of the three vernier engines to ignite, causing eventual loss of the mission. Contact with the spacecraft was lost at 5:35 a.m. EDT, September 22, and impact on the lunar surface was predicted at 11:18 p.m. on that day.


    1966 October 26 - . 11:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D.
    • Surveyor SD-4 - . Payload: Surveyor SD-4. Mass: 951 kg (2,096 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1966-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2512 . COSPAR: 1966-095A. Apogee: 406,200 km (252,400 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 29.6000 deg. Period: 15,912.00 min. Launch vehicle test. Centaur D AC-9 put Surveyor spacecraft payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit.

    1967 March 29-30 - .
    • Apollo Site Selection Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Surveyor.

      The Apollo Site Selection Board meeting at NASA Hq. March 29 heard MSC presentations on lunar landing site selection constraints, results of the Orbiter II screening, and reviews of the tasks for site analysis. MSC made recommendations for specific sites on which to concentrate during the next four months and recommended that the landing sites for the first lunar landing mission be selected by August 1. The Board accepted the recommendations. A Surveyor and Orbiter meeting the following day considered the targeting of the Surveyor C mission and the Lunar Orbiter V mission. MSC representatives at the two meetings were John Eggleston and Owen E. Maynard.


    1967 April 17 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D.
    • Surveyor 3 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-3. Mass: 283 kg (623 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1967-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2756 . COSPAR: 1967-035A. Soft landed on Moon; perrformed soil sample tests and imaged lunar surface..

    1967 June 15 - .
    • Surveyor 4 vernier engine to be fired after touchdown - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Surveyor.

      MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth told George E. Mueller, NASA OMSF, that MSC desired that the vernier engine be fired after the touchdown of Surveyor IV on the lunar surface. He reminded Mueller that this experiment was supposed to have been performed on Surveyor III and was of prime importance to Apollo. The fact that Surveyor III landed with the vernier engine firing and did not experience any significant erosion had also been of importance to the Apollo program. He requested that Surveyor IV be targeted for the Apollo landing site in the Sinus Medii area. As a lower priority experiment, Gilruth said MSC would like to get a limited amount of photography on the first lunar day, which would allow a limited assessment of viewing conditions in earthshine.


    1967 July 14 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D.
    • Surveyor 4 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-4. Mass: 283 kg (623 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1967-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2875 . COSPAR: 1967-068A. Soft lunar landing attempt failed..

    1967 September 8 - . 07:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
    • Surveyor 5 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-5. Mass: 279 kg (615 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1967-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2937 . COSPAR: 1967-084A. Soft lunar landing; returned 19,000 photos, soil data..

    1967 November 7 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
    • Surveyor 6 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-6. Mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1967-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 3031 . COSPAR: 1967-112A.

      Atlas 94D was the 91st, and last, D series missile to be launched from Vandenberg AFB since 12D was launched on 9 September 1959. Soft landed on lunar Moon; photographed lunar surface; sampled lunar soil; used propulsion system to briefly lift off of lunar surface.


    1968 January 7 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
    • Surveyor 7 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-7. Mass: 1,036 kg (2,283 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1968-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 3091 . COSPAR: 1968-001A. Soft landed on lunar Moon; photographed lunar surface; sampled lunar soil..

    1969 June 3 - .
    • Proposed landing sites for Apollo 12 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 11, Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Surveyor. In a report to the ASPO Manager, the Chief of MSC's Systems Engineering Division described Apollo Site Selection Board (ASSB) action on proposed landing sites for the Apollo 12 mission. . Additional Details: here....

    1969 July 29 - .
    • Tentative planning schedule for the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, Apollo 18, Apollo 19, Apollo 20. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing, Surveyor.

      NASA issued a tentative planning schedule for the Apollo program:

      FlightLaunch PlansTentative Landing Area
      Apollo 12November 1969Oceanus Procellarum lunar lowlands
      Apollo 13March 1970Fra Mauro highlands
      Apollo 14July 1970Crater Censorinus highlands
      Apollo 15November 1970Littrow volcanic area
      Apollo 16April 1971Crater Tycho (Surveyor VII impact area)
      Apollo 17September 1971Marius Hills volcanic domes
      Apollo 18February 1972Schroter's Valley, riverlike channel-ways
      Apollo 19July 1972Hyginus Rille region-Linear Rille, crater area
      Apollo 20December 1972Crater Copernicus, large crater impact area


    1969 October 12 - .
    • Decision that Apollo 12 mission would examine Surveyor III and recover its TV camera - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Surveyor. A portion of the Apollo 12 mission would be devoted to an examination of Surveyor III and recovery of its TV camera and thermal-switch glass mirror fragments, MSC announced.. Additional Details: here....

    1969 November 10 - .
    • Apollo 12 targetting point for Surveyor 3 changed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: LM Guidance, Surveyor.

      At the request of the Apollo 12 crew, the internal primary guidance and navigational control system targeting for descent was being changed so that the automatic guidance would land LM-6 at Surveyor III rather than at a point offset 305 meters east and 153 meters north as originally planned.


    1969 November 20 - . 03:54 GMT - .
    • EVA Apollo 12-2 - . Crew: Bean, Conrad. EVA Duration: 0.16 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bean, Conrad. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Moonwalk to Surveyor 3, which had landed two years before. Recovered parts of Surveyor 3 which seemed to show that Earth bacteria could survive for that period in space and be revived..


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