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Stepanov Design Bureau
Russian designer and manufacturer of low-thrust birpropellant rocket engines, solid fuel ramjets, and liquid-hydrogen scramjets.

AKA: OKB-300 Turayevo Branch; Turaevo Machine-building Design Bureau 'Soyuz; TMKB Soyuz JSC; Stepanov, Vladimir Georgiyevich.

Vladimir Georgiyevich Stepanov's design bureau was spun off from the Tumanskiy jet engine bureau on 1 August 1964. Officially the Turaevo Machine-building Design Bureau 'Soyuz', it was first known under the cover name of 'Mailbox 1864'. It was located in a former aircraft engine factory in Turaevo, near Moscow. The Stepanov bureau used a proving ground at Faustovo, allowing them to take the design process from concept to final acceptance test without resorting to external parties

Stepanov's objective was to develop low thrust bipropellant liquid rocket engines for Chelomei's maneuvering satellites and cruise missiles. Stepanov's first liquid rocket engines had a thrust of 0.6 kgf and 10 kgf. Initial production products were the P201-300 engine for the Kh-22 cruise missile and the P209-300 for a Raduga target-missile.

Stepanov developed the quick-reaction engines for the IS anti-satellite vehicle, which used spherical propellant tanks with metal expulsion bladders to ensure responsive engines while minimizing center-of-gravity shift in the spacecraft.

Later products from 1967 included the 11D79 engine used in the SOZ of the Block D lunar crasher stage for orientation and ullage purposes; and the DU100, DU101, DU98, and DU113 thrusters used in the LOK and LK manned lunar spacecraft.

Stepanov engines of 100 kgf were used in orientation and stabilization of the Ye-8 unmanned lunar landers beginning in September 1970. Luna-16 mission was to lend on the Moon and return a sample of lunar soil to Earth. Stepanov engines provided the orientation and stabilization of the BOR unmanned orbital spaceplanes.

Stepanov engines of 40 kgf, 20 kgf, 25 kgf thrust were the part of stabilization, orientation and correction systems for the Almaz military manned station. Engine work in the 1970's led to the 11D444, capable of a continuous burn time of 100 hours. This engine was part of the DU-11D78, used for geostationary satellite orbit circularization.

In the 1970s Stepanov branched out into solid-fuel ramjet development and production. The rocket booster engine to get the ramjet up to ignition speed was contained within the ramjet chamber. After the rocket engine burned out, its casing was ejected from combustion chamber by ram air and the ramjet would begin to work. The resulting 3D81 engine was used on the P-270 Moskit ship-to-ship cruise missile. It was later developed into the 3D83 engine with variable dual-expander nozzle. In the 1980s the bureau completed development of the 31DP engine for the KH-31 anti-ship/anti-radar cruise missile.

In 1979 Stepanov began working with the P.I. Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) linear dual-mode hydrogen-fueled ramjets under the Kholod program. This led to the Gela ramjet used in the Mach 4.5 hypersonic testbed successfully tested in October 1988. This work provided the basis for the propulsion for the Orel-2-1 research program for manned spaceflight vehicles in 1991.

After the fall of the Soviet Union and the collapse of funding for new missile and space programs, the bureau was privatized in 1992 as the TMDB SOYUZ JSC. In 2002 TMDB SOYUZ JSC became a member of Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC.

Country: Russia. Engines: Stepanov IS/US 1 kgf, Stepanov IS/US 16 kgf, Stepanov LK/LOK 10 kgf, Stepanov LK/LOK 40 kgf, 11D79.

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