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SAR-Lupe
SAR-Lupe 1
SAR-Lupe 1
Credit: Manufacturer Image
German military surveillance radar satellite. Germany's first satellite-based radar reconnaissance system. It consisted of five identical small satellites and a ground segment. Reconnaissance, Radar satellite built by OHB-System GmbH for Bundeswehr, Germany. Launched 2006 - 2008.

Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-12-19. Last Launch: 2008-07-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Height: 4.00 m (13.10 ft). Diameter: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).

OHB-System AG developed the overall system as prime contractor for the German Federal Ministry of Defense. SAR-Lupe operated independently of weather conditions on a 7/24 basis. It delivered up-to-date and highly detailed images from virtually all regions of the world. The ground segments of SAR-Lupe and the French optical reconnaissance system Helios II were used jointly as the core element of European-wide strategic reconnaissance operations.

The five SAR-Lupe satellites were to be placed in circular orbits in three orbital planes to provide worldwide coverage. The individual satellites consisted of the three-axis stabilized bus and fixed-parabolic reflector antenna of the Synthetic Aperture Radar and had the following characteristics:

  • Size: approx. 4 m x 3 m x 2 m
  • Weight: ca. 770 kg
  • Average power consumption: ca. 250 W
  • Life time: 10 years
  • Reliability: better than 97 % per year
  • Telemetry: encrypted X-Band for data transmission, encrypted S-Band for command and telemetry via ground station and intersatellite-link, encrypted
  • Attitude control: by reaction wheels and magnetic torquers
  • Orbit control: Liquid gas thrusters
  • Intersatellite link: S-Band for orders, Encrypted

Electric System: 0.25 average kW.


More at: SAR-Lupe.

Family: Military surveillance radarsat, Polar orbit, Surveillance. Country: Germany. Launch Vehicles: R-14, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 11K65M. Launch Sites: Plesetsk, Plesetsk LC132/1. Agency: Bremen, BWB. Bibliography: 2, 6856, 13061.

2006 December 19 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • SAR-Lupe 1 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: BWB. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 29658 . COSPAR: 2006-060A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 467 km (290 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. First of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 143 deg..

2007 July 2 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • SAR-Lupe 2 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: BWB. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 31797 . COSPAR: 2007-030A. Apogee: 508 km (315 mi). Perigee: 470 km (290 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Second of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 208 deg..

2007 November 1 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • SAR-Lupe 3 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 32283 . COSPAR: 2007-053A. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Third SAR-Lupe radar satellite. The final stage also carried a small Automatic Identification System package by OHB/Bremen, designed to test a system for monitoring shipping traffic. Orbital plane ascending node 272 deg..

2008 March 27 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • SAR-Lupe 4 - . Mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 32750 . COSPAR: 2008-014A. Apogee: 502 km (311 mi). Perigee: 471 km (292 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Fourth of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 143 deg, same plane as SAR-Lupe 1..

2008 July 22 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • SAR-Lupe 5 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 33244 . COSPAR: 2008-036A. Apogee: 501 km (311 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Fifth German SAR-Lupe radar surveillance satellite..


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