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Sun synchronous orbit
Category of spacecraft.



Subtopics

AFP-43 American military technology satellite.

Nimbus American earth weather satellite. Meteorology, experimental satellite built by RCA Astrospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1964 - 1966. Used Nimbus Bus.

DMSP Block 4A American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro for USAF, NRO, USA. Launched 1966 - 1967.

TOS American earth weather satellite. TOS spacecraft marked the first operational system of US polar-orbiting meteorological satellites.

ITOS American earth weather satellite. ITOS was the follow-on to the TIROS series of polar-orbiting US weather satellites, and marked the beginning of the use of the NOAA designator. Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro for NOAA, USA. Launched 1970 - 1971. Used TIROS-M Bus.

SERT American ion engine technology satellite. Electric ion engine tests. Technology satellite built by NASA's Lewis Research Center, Fairchild (payload), Lockheed (Agena stage) for NASA's Lewis Research Center, USA. Launched 1970.

DMSP Block 5A American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro, USA. Launched 1970 - 1971.

TOPO American earth geodetic satellite. US Army topographic / geodesic satellite built by Cubic Corporation for U.S. Army Topographic Command, USA. Launched 1970.

DMSP Block 5B American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro, USA. Launched 1971 - 1974.

TD-1A European technology satellite. Sixth satellite of ESRO. Astronomy, X-Ray satellite built by Engins Matra (prime), ERNO (structure), Saab (communications) for ESRO, Europe. Launched 1972.

Landsat 1-2-3 American earth land resources satellite. The first 3 Landsat missions were also known as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) series. Earth Observing satellite built by RCA Astro Space for NASA, USA. Launched 1972 - 1978. Used Nimbus Bus.

Radsat American military technology satellite. Technology, Science, Astronomy (IR) satellite operated by USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1972.

Miranda British technology satellite. Satellite technology. Anticipated life: longer than 50 years. Technology satellite built by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics, Ltd., UK. Launched 1974.

DMSP Block 5C American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro, USA. Launched 1974 - 1976.

Intasat Spanish communications technology satellite. Science, ionosphere satellite for INTA, Spain. Launched 1974.

P 76 American communications technology satellite. Communications propagation experiments.

DMSP Block 5D American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. USA satellite built by RCA Astro for Meteorology, USA. Launched 1976 - 1980.

PIX American technology satellite. Plasma Interaction Experiment. Research satellite for NASA Lewis Research Center, USA. Launched 1978-1983.

AEM American earth atmosphere satellite. HCMM. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; produced thermal maps of atmosphere. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere.

CAMEO American earth magnetosphere satellite. Released barium cloud. Research satellite for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. Launched 1978.

Tiros N American earth weather satellite. Tiros N was part of the ongoing US series of polar-orbiting weather satellites. These were preceded by the TIROS series and the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series.

Resurs-OE Russian earth land resources satellite. Modified Meteor; prototype for Resurs-O1. Earth Observation satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1983. Used SP-1 bus.

Resurs-O2 Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. Study 1980. Earth Observation satellite built by NPP VNIIEM, USSR / Russia. Used SP-2 bus.

SME American solar satellite. The Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite was developed to investigate the processes that create and destroy ozone in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Research satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NASA, USA. Launched 1981.

SSTL-70 British microsatellite bus. 1 Basic Surrey Microsat bus.

Landsat 4-5 American earth land resources satellite. Earth Observing satellite built by Fairchild for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1982 - 1984. Used the MMS bus.

DMSP Block 5D-2 American earth weather satellite. DMSP 5D-2 was the military's sixth generation of weather satellites. Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro → GE Astro → Martin Marietta → Lockheed Martin Astro, USA. Launched 1982 - 1997. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus.

IRAS Dutch-American-UK infrared astronomy satellite. All-sky survey of astronomical IR bodies. Astronomy, Infra-Red satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1983.

Advanced Tiros N American earth weather satellite. merican earth weather satellite.

Energia Ozone Replenishment Satellite Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The eroding ozone layer of the earth would be replenished using a constellation of space-based lasers that would bombard the stratosphere at 30 km altitude for 30 years.

Energia Polar City Illuminator Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The Energia launch vehicle could be used to launch 100 orbital reflectors to provide light to cities located in the polar regions.

Energia Control Sat Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1984. This satellite would consist of a 33 metric ton equipment bus and a 17 metric ton rocket stage. It would be placed in a 600 km / 97 degree orbit for arms control and environment monitoring.

Resurs-O1 Russian earth land resources satellite. A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. Earth Observation satellite built by VNIIEM > NPP VNIIEM for NPO Planeta, Russia. Launched 1985 - 1988. Used SP-1 bus.

SPOT-1-2-3 French earth land resources satellite. SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program, with support from Belgium and Sweden. Earth Observing satellite for Spot Image, France. Launched 1986 - 1993. Used the SPOT Mk.1 bus.

Marine Observation Satellite Japanese earth sea satellite. The MOS 1A and 1B satellites, also known as Momo 1A and 1B, were Japan's first Earth resources satellites.

IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. Remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications. Earth Observing satellite for ISRO, India. Launched 1988-1991. Used IRS-1 Bus.

FY-1 Chinese earth weather satellite. The Feng Yun 1 meteorological satellites were launched into sun-synchronous 900 km, 99 deg inclination orbits by CZ-4 boosters from Taiyuan. Meteorology satellite built by SAST for National Satellite Meteorological Centre, China. Launched 1988 - 2002.

COBE American infrared astronomy satellite. Cosmology satellite built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Ball Aerospace for NASA, USA. Launched 1989.

ERS 1-2 European earth resources radar satellite. The primary mission of Europe's ERS-1 and -2 was to perform remote sensing of the Earth's oceans, ice caps, and coastal regions.

SARA French radio astronomy satellite to study emissions from Jupiter. Astronomy, radio satellite for ESIEESPACE, France. Launched 1991.

Tubsat Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites.

JERS Japanese earth land resources satellite. JERS-1 (Japanese Research Satellite-1; FUYO-1) was Japan's second Earth observation satellite. Earth Observation, radar & optical satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (MELCO) for NASDA, Japan. Launched 1992.

Improved Crystal American military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1992.11.28. Improved CRYSTAL was an optical reconnaissance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Prime contractor was thought to be Lockheed.

Energia Ecosat Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1992.

Kitsat South Korean technology satellite. South Korean indigenous 50-kg-class small satellite series, developed originally with technology transfer from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.

STELLA French earth geodetic satellite. Laser reflectors.

Landsat 6 American earth land resources satellite. Landsat 6 was designed to continue the Landsat program and carried an improved suite of instruments.

Clark satellite American earth atmosphere satellite. Cancelled in 1998 when overruns had reached 20% of original price and no end to development was in sight.

Gurwin Israeli technology satellite. Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel.

Helios 1A-1B French military surveillance satellite. Helios 1A an 1B were advanced French military surveillance satellites which were widely believed to have 1 meter resolution capability. Reconnaissance, electro-optical satellite built by ATrospatiale, Matra Marconi for DGA, France. Launched 1995 - 1999. Used the SPOT Mk.2 bus.

LBSAT Spanish communications technology satellite. UPM/LBSAT 1. Universidad Politecnia de Madrid Satellite; experimental communications, microgravity experiments. Technology satellite for Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Satellite, Spain. Launched 1995.

MicroSat-100 British microsatellite bus. Enlarged version of the basic Surrey Microsat-70 bus.

Radarsat Canadian earth resources radar satellite. T Canada's Radarsat was a radar satellite featuring variable resolution, and different view angles at a number of preset positions. Earth Observing (Radar) satellite built by Spar Aerospace (Prime), Ball Aerospace (Bus) for CSA, Canada. Launched 1995. Used the BCP-4000 bus.

SURFSAT-1 American technology satellite. SURFSAT. SURFSAT-1 was a small satellite built by undergraduate college students and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to support experiments by NASA's Deep Space Network. Technology satellite, USA. Launched 1995.

Skipper Russian technology satellite. Aerobraking investigation; satellite provided by Russia, instruments by Utah State University; solar array shorted immediately following deployment and ended mission. Built by USU/SDL (instrument module), MAI, NPO Lavochkin (bus) for BMDO (ex SDIO), USA. Launched 1995.

MSX American military strategic defense satellite. SDI / BMD Experiments satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) for BMDO (formerly SDIO), USA. Launched 1996. Used 3-Axis stabilized bus, 2 solar panels.

TOMS-EP American earth atmosphere satellite. Earth Observing satellite built by TRW for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), USA. Launched 1996. Used the T100 bus.

ADEOS Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. The polar orbiting ADEOS spacecraft was to perform Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic remote sensing. Earth Observation satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (MELCO) for NASDA, Japan. Launched 1996.

Fuji Japanese amateur radio communications satellite. JAS-2. Japanese amateur radio satellite.

Zeya Russian earth geodetic satellite. The Zeya satellite was used for navigation and geodesy tests from a sun-synchronous orbit.

Orbview-2 American civilian surveillance satellite. The SeaStar satellite carries the SeaWiFS instrument which was designed to monitor the color of the world's oceans. Earth observing satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for OrbImage (for NASA) => GeoEye, USA. Launched 1997. Used the PegaStar bus.

Lewis satellite American earth land resources satellite. Lewis was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Clark, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies. Earth observing satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1997. Used the T200B bus.

Early Bird American civilian surveillance satellite. Civilian earth resources / intelligence photo-imaging program. Earth observing satellite built by CTA => Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Earthwatch Inc., USA. Launched 1997.

SNOE American technology satellite. Atmospheric science satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1998.

Teledesic The Teledesic Corporation system was announced in 1994, and was to have provided global communication links via a constellation of 288 LEO spacecraft. However by the time the first satellite was launched in 1998, the medium-earth orbit satellite bubble had burst and the project was abandoned.

SPOT-4 French earth land resources satellite. SPOT 4. SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program. A single SPOT satellite provides complete coverage of the Earth every 26 days. Earth Observing satellite for Spot Image, France. Launched 1998. Used the SPOT Mk.2 bus.

TRACE American solar satellite. TRACE, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope for studies of the sun. Lockheed was the lead contractor while the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory made the telescope mirrors. Solar observatory satellite built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA, USA. Launched 1998.

Safir satellite German civilian store-dump communications satellite. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen.

ARGOS American ion engine technology satellite. ARGOS was the USAF Space Test Program P91-1 technology satellite by Boeing/Seal Beach. Experimental satellite built by Rockwell for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1999.

WIRE American infrared astronomy satellite. WIRE was designed to survey the celestial sky in the infrared bands and build on the results of the IRAS mission. Astronomy, Infra-red satellite built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Bus); Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (Instrument) for NASA, USA. Launched 1999.

Landsat 7 American earth land resources satellite. Earth Observing satellite built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, USA. Launched 1993 - 1999. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus.

Ikonos American civilian surveillance satellite. The first high resolution commercial imaging satellite. Earth observing satellite built by Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems for Space Imaging => GeoEye, USA. Launched 1999. Used the LM-900 bus.

TERRIERS American earth ionosphere satellite. Atmospheric Research satellite built by AeroAstro for NASA, USA. Launched 1999. Used HETE-Bus, spin stabilized.

QuikScat American earth sea satellite. One launch, 1999.06.20. Built under a NASA rapid delivery contract. Carried the SeaWinds scatterometer for remote sensing of ocean winds. Earth observing satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NASA, USA. Launched 1999. Used the BCP-2000 bus.

Okean-O Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye for NKAU, RKA, Russia. Launched 1999.

SACI Brazilian technology satellite. INPE experimental scientific satellites; carried a magnetometer, particle detectors and an atmospheric experiment. Scientific, cosmic rays, magnetic field and plasma satellite for INPE, Brazil. Launched 1999.

ZY Chinese earth land resources satellite. 6 launches, 1999.10.14 (ZY-1) to 2007.09.19 (ZY-2C). From 1985 China and Brazil jointly developed a sun synchronous imaging satellite bus, the Zi Yuan-1 (Resouce-1) based on the Shi Jian 3 design.

DMSP Block 5D-3 American earth weather satellite.merican earth weather satellite. Military spacecraft similar in design to the civilian NOAA weather satellites. Meteorology satellite built by Lockheed Martin for US Air Force, USA. Launched 1999 - 2014. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus.

Terra American earth land resources satellite. NASA's Terra satellite (originally known as Earth Observing System EOS AM-1) was the first spacecraft in the EOS program.

ACRIMSAT American solar satellite. The NASA ACRIMSAT satellite was managed by JPL, and measured the integrated solar energy output from 0.2 to 2 microns. ACRIMSAT was built by Orbital Sciences. Solar observing satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for NASA, USA. Launched 1999. Used the MiniStar bus.

KOMPSAT South Korean technology satellite. KOMPSAT was the first joint spacecraft development project for the South Korean aerospace agency KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute). Earth Observing satellite built by KARI, TRW (Bus) for KARI, Korea South. Launched 1999. Used the T200B bus.

MTI American military surveillance satellite. The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) was a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U. Experimental satellite built by Ball Aerospace for DoE, USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 2000. Used the BCP-600 bus.

SSTL-10 Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) SNAP-1 Surrey Nanosatellite Applications Platform could accommodate 6-10 kg satellites complete with imagers and propulsion.

Aqua American earth sea satellite. Aqua was also designated the EOS-PM Earth Observing System satellite, joining EOS-AM/Terra. The CERES and MODIS instruments aboard Aqua were also carried on the Terra satellite.

SPOT-5A-5B French earth land resources satellite. Trench earth land resources satellite. SPOT was the French government sponsored civil Earth observation program. A single SPOT satellite provided complete coverage of the Earth every 26 days. Earth Observing satellite built by Astrium for Spot Image, France. Launched 2002. Used the SPOT Mk.3 bus.

Aura American earth atmosphere satellite. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura was a NASA mission to study the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate.

SJ-6 Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation. Each launch was said to consist of a primary satellite using the CAST968 bus and a subsatellite built by SAST Shanghai. Five pairs were launched from ?Taiyuan by the CZ-4B launch vehicle into 590 km, 97.7 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits from 2009. Reported to carry systems for optically tracking satellites in orbit. In 2013 SJ-15 was launched from Jiuquan, and SJ-16 from Taiyuan, in very similar but slightly different orbits. These may have been the successor system.

Helios 2 French military surveillance satellite. French military surveillance satellite series which began service in 2004. Reconnaissance, electro-optical satellite built by Astrium for DGA, France. Launched 2004 - 2009. Used the SPOT Mk.3 bus.

Myriade Micro-satellite product line developed jointly by EADS Astrium and the French Space Agency CNES beginning in 1998.

MS-1 Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment.

Calipso American earth weather satellite. Earth Observation, Lidar satellite built by Alcatel Space for NASA, CNES, France. Launched 2006. Used the Proteus Bus bus.

Cloudsat American earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.04.28. Earth Observation satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NASA, USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 2006. Used the BCP-2000 bus.

KOMPSAT-2 South Korean civilian surveillance satellite. Kompsat 2. Earth Observing satellite built by KARI, Astrium for KARI, Korea South. Launched 2006.

Metop European earth weather satellite. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. Meteorology satellite built by Astrium for ESA, EUMETSAT, Europe. Launched 2006 - 2012. Used the PPF/SPOT Mk.3 bus.

Mesbah Iranian technology satellite. Study 2006. Technology satellite with imaging and communications payloads. Planned as the operational payload of the Iranian Shahab-3 orbital launch vehicle. The satellite would be cube-shaped, 50 cm on a side.

Cosmo-SkyMed Italian military surveillance radar satellite. Constellation of four satellites launched 2007.06.08 - 2010.11.06. Earth Observing (Radar) satellite built by Alenia Spazio for ASI, Italy. Launched 2007 - 2010. Used the Prima Bus bus.

WorldView American civilian surveillance satellite. DigitalGlobe's WorldView satellite provided highly detailed imagery for precise map creation, change detection and in-depth image analysis. Earth observing satellite built by Ball Aerospace for DigitalGlobe, USA. Launched 2007. Used the BCP-5000 bus.

Ibuki Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite, renamed Ibuki after launch.

Arirang South Korean civilian surveillance satellite. Study 2015. South Korean indigenously-designed, multipurpose 1500 kg sun-synchronous orbit satellite, to be lofted by KSLV-III by 2015.



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