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1994 Chronology

1994 During the Year - .
  • Mars Together - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Mars Together. Spacecraft: Mars Together.

    RKK Energia, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory analysed the project 'Mars Together'. This studied the use of spacecraft using solar arrays or nuclear reactors of up to 30 to 40 kW for insertion into Martian orbit and operation of a side-looking radar to digitally map the surface.


1994 During the Year - .
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module design approved. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Mir, Mir-Shuttle Docking Module.

    The simplified SO design deleted the lateral airlock. Qualification was relatively straightforward since the basic structure of the Soyuz BO orbital module was used, and the APDS androgynous docking port installation had already been proven on Soyuz-TM16. The draft project was completed in December 1993.


1994 January 6 - .
  • Mir News 201: Soyuz-TM18 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    The launch of this ship with the relief crew of 3 will take place from Baykonur on 8.01.94 at 1005 UTC. If all goes according to schedule Soyuz-TM18 will dock to Mir on 10.01.94 at abt. 1148 UTC.

    Soyuz-TM17:

    The present Mir-crew (Tsibliyev and Serebrov) is already involved in activities related to their oncoming relief and their return to earth on 14.01.94. On 5.01.94 they remained on board of this ship for a long time to check systems and to look for areas in which they can stow things, which have to be returned to earth.

    Progress-M17:

    This freighter is still flying autonomously after the separation from Mir on 11.08.93. The Russians left Progress-M17 in space to check the lifetime of the systems due to the future use by the Americans of a Soyuz-TM modification as ACVR (rescue boat) for their space station. During a manoeuvre before Christmas the station came in a lower perigee (235 KM) due to a failure in the attitude control system. TsUP lost control over the freighter and they plan to have her decayed in the end of February this year. Probably this will happen spontaneously: the present orbital elements will lead to a decay at abt 28.03.94 (+ or - 3 days).

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 January 8 - .
  • Death of Kenneth P Timmons - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Timmons. American engineer. Headed the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter and External Tank projects..

1994 January 8 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1994 January 9 - .
  • Mir News 202: Soyuz-TM18 blasted off for flight to Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    Soyuz-TM18 has been launched from Baykonur on 8.01.94 at 1005 UTC. All went well and at 1014 UTC Soyuz-TM18 had reached the right orbit. For the flight the 1st crew had been selected, so: Captain V. Afanasyev, who makes his 2d flight, board engineer (rookie) Yu. Usachev (pronunciation Usachov ) and the physician Dr. V. Polaykov, making his 2d flight. He will try to remain 427 days in space. The call of the crew is Derbent, so resp. Derbent-1, 2 and 3. For radio-amateur traffic resp. U9Mir, R3Mir and U3Mir. Soyuz-TM18 came in range during orbit 3, 1307 UTC. Strong transmissions on the known frequencies (121.750, 165.874 and 922.755 mc). Afanasyev reported that all went well and he added some pressure values. After abt. 30 mins Mir (orb. 45114) could be heard here. TsUP told the Mir-crew that all on board Soyuz-TM18 was normal. In the pass in the 4th orbit (1436 UTC) Afanasyev reported that the Soyuz-TM18 executed 2 orbit corrections without significant problems. During the pass in the 5th orbit (1609- UTC) Afanasyev reported the successful performance of Soyuz-TM18 during the 3d orbit correction. Afanasyev got the order to adjust the Globus position indicator and Dr. Polyakov stated that the condition of the crew was excellent. On 10.01.94 at 1150 UTC Soyuz-TM18 has to dock to the Mir-complex. This will be abt 4 mins. after LOS of the space objects in Mir's orbit nr. 45144.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 January 11 - .
  • Mir News 203: Soyuz-TM18 docked with the Mir-space station. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    On 10.01.94 at 1050 UTC Soyuz-TM18 docked to the Mir-station. Approach and docking took place in the automatic mode by the use of the system Kurs. During Mir's pass in orbit 45144 (1138-1147 UTC) the approach was going on. Afanasyev watched the behaviour of Soyuz-TM18 on his monitor. He had to be alert to take over manually, but this was not necessary. Soyuz-TM18 approached and docked smoothly. During the approach the transmitter of Mir and of the Soyuz-TM18 as well could be heard. During the pass in the next orbit (45145, 1315-1323 UTC) the hatch was opened and the enthusiastic welcome and greetings of both crews could be monitored. The following pass (orb. 45146, 1448-1459 UTC) Serebrov spoke a word of welcome and reported that mood and health of the newcomers were excellent. For Dr. Polyakov reason to gather blood samples from the cosmonauts to be able to confirm this scientifically.

    The 5 men will work together during the next 3 days and the old crew (Mir Main expedition nr. 14) will then hand over the station to the 15th Main expedition.

    On 14.01.1994 Tsibliyev and Serebrov will return to earth in the Soyuz-TM17.

    The 15th Main Expedition will last until 6.07.1994, so 177 days. Then Afanasyev and Usachev will be relieved by Malenchenko, Musabayev and Strekalov. Strekalov will return with the relieved crew. Dr. Polyakov will remain on board until spring 1995 (427 days) to conduct medical experiments aimed at the long-lasting flights to Mars.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 January 13 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1994 January 14 - .
1994 January 15 - .
  • Mir News 204: Soyuz-TM17 returned to earth - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    On 14.01.1994 at 0819 UTC (08 hrs 18 mins 20 secs) the return capsule of the Soyuz-TM18 landed at 215 KM West of Karaganda in Kazakhstan. The cosmonauts (Tsibliyev and Serebrov) felt well after their flight of 197 days. They will be flown to Starcity near Moscow this afternoon. Again a routine-message about a routine-operation, but yet 'it has been a near thing' and nearly I had to draft a real shocking message!

    Return operation:

    At 0145 UTC the hatch of Soyuz-TM17 was closed behind Tsibliyev and Serebrov. At 0430 UTC the Soyuz-TM17 undocked from Mir. Tsibliyev had got orders to make a short inspection flight around the Mir-complex. They had to make images of the outer surface and they had to give special attention to the APAS89 docking system on Kristall (Module-T). In a distance of 30 Meters S- TM17 deviated from the desired course and collided with the Mir-station. Immediately radio contact with Soyuz-TM17 was lost. After 10 minutes TsUP managed to re-established radio contact with Soyuz-TM17 and the crew reported that their ship did not suffer damages and that the air-seal was still in good order. They also did not see any damages on the Mir-complex. Soyuz-TM17 made its last 2 orbits around the earth and the descent started at abt. 0715 UTC. At 0804 UTC the parachute opened and the 2-tonne heavy capsule made a safe landing at 08.18.20 UTC.

    Mir:

    The new crew (15th Main Expedition) immediately started observations through the portholes to try to determine eventual damages. During the passes in orbits 45206 (1100 UTC) and 45207 (1234 UTC) they transmitted to earth video-images which they made during the departure and fly-around of Soyuz-TM17. Shortly Afanasyev and Usachov will have to make a non-scheduled spacewalk to inspect the place, where Soyuz-TM17 hit the Mir- station. (probably near the APAS89 docking device on Kristall -Module-T).

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 January 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 January 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 January 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 January 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 January 20 - . 09:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Gals - . Payload: Gals s/n 11L. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 22963 . COSPAR: 1994-002A. Apogee: 36,121 km (22,444 mi). Perigee: 36,121 km (22,444 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,453.00 min.

    Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. Also tested SPT-100 plasma engine. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 71 deg E in 1994-1996; 36 deg E in 1996-1999; 42 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 37.30 deg E drifting at 0.121 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 67.44E drifting at 0.298E degrees per day.


1994 January 23 - .
  • Death of Lee Alvin DuBridge - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: DuBridge. American physicist. President of Caltech 1946-1969; Science Adviser to Presidents Truman and Nixon..

1994 January 24 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. FAILURE: Stage 3 turbopump overheated.. Failed Stage: U.
1994 January 25 - . 00:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 3-06 - . Payload: Meteor-3 s/n 7. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22969 . COSPAR: 1994-003A. Apogee: 1,228 km (763 mi). Perigee: 1,191 km (740 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 109.40 min.

    Obtained meterological and solar-terrestrial data. Meteor 3-6 was inserted into an orbital plane 60 degrees to the west of Meteor 3-5's plane and ejected the small German satellite Tubsat B on the second orbit. Meteor 3-6 also carried an integrated French radiometer called SCARAB (Scanner for Radiation Budget) and a German PRARE (Precision Range and Range Rate Experiment) geodetic instrument. The French radiometer was designed to study the Earth's radiation budget over an extended period of time and to measure the effect of clouds on the greenhouse phenomenon. A second SCARAB instrument was manifested on a Meteor spacecraft that was to be launched in 1996, but this did not come to pass. The German PRARE was similar to the instrument carried on ESA's ERS· 1 satellite.

  • Tubsat-B - . Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: TUB. Program: Tubsat. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tubsat. Spacecraft: Tubsat. USAF Sat Cat: 22970 . COSPAR: 1994-003B. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Perigee: 1,184 km (735 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 109.40 min.

    Following the success of the magnetic torque attitude control system that flew on Tubsat-A, researchers and students at Germany's Technical University of Berlin constructed Tubsat-B to test and demonstrate attitude control with a star sensor and three reaction wheels. An on-board 1m telescope was used for astronomy and for Earth observation at 10m resolution. Dimensions of the satellite were 38x38x50 cm, mass 40 kg. Unfortunately communications with the satellite were lost after 39 Days


1994 January 25 - . 16:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV.
  • Clementine 1 - . Payload: Clementine 1 / DSPSE-ISA [Star-37FM]. Mass: 424 kg (934 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Clementine. Spacecraft: Clementine. USAF Sat Cat: 22973 . COSPAR: 1994-004A. Apogee: 409,890 km (254,690 mi). Perigee: 804 km (499 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 16,158.80 min.

    SDIO sensor technology demonstration; mapped lunar surface; planned asteroid flyby cancelled due to spacecraft failure. After two Earth flybys, lunar insertion was achieved on February 21. Lunar mapping took place over approximately two months, in two parts. The first part consisted of a 5 hour elliptical polar orbit with a perilune of about 400 km at 28 degrees S latitude. After one month of mapping the orbit was rotated to a perilune of 29 degrees N latitude, where it remained for one more month. This allowed global imaging as well as altimetry coverage from 60 degrees S to 60 degrees N. After leaving lunar orbit, a malfunction in one of the on-board computers on May 7 at 14:39 UTC (9:39 AM EST) caused a thruster to fire until it had used up all of its fuel, leaving the spacecraft spinning at about 80 RPM with no spin control. This made the planned continuation of the mission, a flyby of the near-Earth asteroid Geographos, impossible. The spacecraft remained in geocentric orbit and continued testing the spacecraft components until the end of mission. Additional Details: here....

  • ISA - . Payload: ISA. Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Class: Technology. Type: Military technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: ISA Interstage Adapter. Decay Date: 1994-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22987 . COSPAR: 1994-004C. Apogee: 126,958 km (78,887 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 3,075.57 min. ISA (Interstage Adapter) satellite launched with Clementine placed in a highly eccentric Earth orbit. It carried a set of space environment experiments..

1994 January 26 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 January 28 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-21 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 221. Mass: 7,130 kg (15,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 54.13 days. Completed Operations Date: 1994-03-21 05:24:50 . Decay Date: 1994-03-21 05:24:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 22975 . COSPAR: 1994-005A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 30 Jan 1994 03:56:13 GMT. Undocked on 23 Mar 1994 01:20:29 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Mar 1994 05:13:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 51.89 days..

1994 January 29 - .
  • Mir News 206: Progress-M21 launched - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    The freighter Progress-M21 was launched from Baykonur on 28.01.94 at 0213 UTC. Already at 0514 UTC the transmissions of Progress-M21 on 166, 165 and 922.755 mc could be heard. During the rest of Progress-M21's passes within our range the transmitters worked continuously. Progress-M21 will deliver supplies, food, water, fuel, equipment, spare parts and post to the Mir-complex. Progress-M21 does not carry a VBK (ballistic return capsule). This crew (the 15th Main Expedition) will receive another 2 Progress-M-s. The first one, the Progress-M22, will start on 16 (or: 18) March 1994. Progress-M22 will not carry a VBK. Progress-M23 is on schedule for launch on 18 (or: 20) May 1994 and will have a VBK on board.

    Expected docking time of Progress-M21 to Mir:

    On 30.01.94 at abt. 0354 UTC Progress-M21 will dock to Mir's aft (Kvant-1) docking port. The approach and docking will be automatically with the system Kurs. Afanasyev will be standby with the TORU (tele-orientation and command regime) which might enable him to take over manually in case of a Kurs system failure.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 January 30 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1994 January 31 - .
  • Mir News 207: Progress-M21 docked to the Mir-space station - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    On 30.01.94 at 0356 UTC (03 hrs 56 mins 14 secs) the freighter Progress-M21 docked to the aft (Kvant) docking port of the Mir-complex. Afanasyev did not have to use the TORU for the Progress-M21 approached and docked automatically with the system Kurs. During the pass in orb. 45452 (0520 UTC) checks of the airseal proved that all was in good order and Afanasyev opened the hatch to the freighter at 0524 UTC. During the next passes the crew reported their satisfaction about the state of the Progress-M21: all was clean and fresh and the people on earth had taken good care for the cargo.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 February 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT154GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1994 February 3 - .
  • Death of Anatoliy Petrovich Aleksandrov - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Anatoliy. Russian scientist. President, Academy of Sciences, 1980-1986..

1994 February 3 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-60 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Davis, Krikalyov, Reightler, Sega. Backup Crew: Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Discovery F18 / GBA-6. Mass: 13,006 kg (28,673 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Davis, Krikalyov, Reightler, Sega, Titov, Vladimir. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-60. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.30 days. Decay Date: 1994-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 56.4000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

    Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 1 and SPACEHAB 02. Getaway special bridge assembly experiments: Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL), Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS), University of Bremen Satellite (BREMSAT), G-514, G-071, and G-536. Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  • GBA-6 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: GBA. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • Wake Shield Facility - . Payload: WSF. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: WSF. Spacecraft: WSF. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • Spacehab SH-02 - . Payload: Spacehab 2. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1994-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.
  • ODERACS A - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: ODERACS. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 22990 . COSPAR: 1994-006B. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 327 km (203 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • ODERACS B - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: ODERACS. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 22991 . COSPAR: 1994-006C. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • ODERACS C - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: ODERACS. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 22992 . COSPAR: 1994-006D. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 91.35 min. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. .
  • ODERACS D - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: ODERACS. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1994-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 22993 . COSPAR: 1994-006E. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 91.35 min. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. .
  • ODERACS E - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: ODERACS. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1995-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 22994 . COSPAR: 1994-006F. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • ODERACS F - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: ODERACS. Spacecraft: ODERACS. Decay Date: 1995-02-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 22995 . COSPAR: 1994-006G. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 338 km (210 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Sphere; deployed from STS-60. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • BremSat 1 - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 63 kg (138 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Bremen, DARA. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry test vehicle. Spacecraft Bus: BremSat. Spacecraft: BremSat. Decay Date: 1995-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 22998 . COSPAR: 1994-006H. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments. .

1994 February 3 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-II.
  • OREX - . Payload: Ryusei. Mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry test vehicle. Spacecraft Bus: OREX. Spacecraft: OREX. Decay Date: 1994-02-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 22978 . COSPAR: 1994-007A. Apogee: 451 km (280 mi). Perigee: 450 km (270 mi). Inclination: 30.5000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Orbital Reentry Experiment. Orbital Re-entry Experiment Vehicle (OREX) Ryusei. Acquisition of data related to atmospheric reentry. Launch vehicle H-II rocket test flight H-II 1F. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 2220:00 UT. .
  • VEP - . Payload: Myojo / LAPS. Mass: 2,391 kg (5,271 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: VEP. Spacecraft: VEP. USAF Sat Cat: 22979 . COSPAR: 1994-007B. Apogee: 36,261 km (22,531 mi). Perigee: 449 km (278 mi). Inclination: 28.6000 deg. Period: 645.00 min.

    Vehicle Evaluation Payload; monitored H-2 performance. Vehicle Evaluation Payload (VEP) MYOJO. Provides a ranging function as well as functions to measure the acceleration and deformation, in order to confirm the accuracy of the H-II rocket orbit injection and understand the environment of the payload equipme nt. Launch vehicle H-II rocket test flight H-II 1F. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 2220:00 UT.


1994 February 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Initial demonstration flight of the Astrid - . Nation: USA. Initial demonstration flight of the Astrid (Advanced Single Stage Rapid Insertion) interceptor vehicle..

1994 February 4 - .
  • STS-60 - Wakeup Song: Early Morning Riser - . Flight: STS-60. "Early Morning Riser" by Pure Prairie League.

1994 February 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. Launch Pad: LF08/Rail. LV Family: Astrid test vehicle. Launch Vehicle: Astrid Test Vehicle.
  • Pumped Propulsion test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Livermore. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi).

1994 February 5 - .
  • STS-60 - Wakeup Song: Rawhide - . Flight: STS-60. "Rawhide" sung by the.

1994 February 5 - . 08:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 1-3 - . Payload: Raduga-1. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 22981 . COSPAR: 1994-008A. Apogee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Perigee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,473.00 min.

    Joined Raduga 1-2 at 48 deg E; third launch of alternate Raduga design. Extension of the telephone and telegraph radio communications system on the territory of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 49.75 deg E drifting at 0.057 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 100.54E drifting at 0.021W degrees per day.


1994 February 6 - .
  • STS-60 - Wakeup Song: The Bug - . Flight: STS-60. "The Bug" by Mary Chapin Carpenter.

1994 February 7 - .
  • Air Force Space Command launches the first Milstar satellite, a new generation military satellite communications system. - . Nation: USA.

1994 February 7 - .
  • STS-60 - Wakeup Song: Let There Be Peace on Earth - . Flight: STS-60. "Let There Be Peace on Earth" sung by the fourth graders of the Armand Bayou Elementary School in Clear Lake. One of the singers was Emily Reightler, the daughter of shuttle pilot Ken Reightler. She was celebrating her tenth birthday..

1994 February 7 - . 21:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 401A/Centaur.
  • USA 99 - . Payload: Milstar 1-01 / DFS 1. Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Milstar. Spacecraft: Milstar. USAF Sat Cat: 22988 . COSPAR: 1994-009A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,733 km (22,203 mi). Inclination: 12.0000 deg. Period: 1,434.00 min. Military communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg W in 1994; 120 deg W in 1995-1999..

1994 February 8 - .
  • STS-60 - Wakeup Song: Sweet Home Alabama - . Flight: STS-60. "Sweet Home Alabama" by Lynyrd Skynyrd in honor of astronaut Jan Davis of Huntsville..

1994 February 8 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3A.
  • SJ-4 - . Payload: Shi Jian 4. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SJ. Spacecraft: SJ. USAF Sat Cat: 22996 . COSPAR: 1994-010A. Apogee: 26,837 km (16,675 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 28.7000 deg. Period: 465.40 min. Particles and fields research. .
  • KF-1 - . Payload: Kua Fu 1 / DFH-3 mockup. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Program: Chinastar. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DFH-3. Spacecraft: DFH-3. Decay Date: 2002-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 23009 . COSPAR: 1994-010B. Apogee: 36,046 km (22,397 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 635.69 min. Mass model of DFH-3 satellite..

1994 February 9 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • PULSAUR-2 (F-92) Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, NTNF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 February 10 - .
  • STS-60 - Wakeup Song: I Get Around - . Flight: STS-60. "I Get Around" by The Beach Boys..

1994 February 10 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • Gemini Plasma / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CSA, NASA. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

1994 February 11 - .
  • Mir News 208: Mir again can be montiored - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    For a period of almost a fortnight Mir passed over here during the night hours and this meant radio silence on 143.625 mc. Now we again can monitor traffic during the evening hours. 145.550 mc remained active all the time, mainly with Packet radio. During the first passes this week the Mir crew spoke with their colleagues Manarov (U2Mir), Volkov (U4Mir) and Artsebarskiy (U7Mir) in Russia and Tognini in France. These contacts were in the Russian language and they used their operational call sign 'Derbenty'. The 145.550 mc was also in use on board of the space shuttle Discovery (STS-60) during the flight of the Russian 'astronaut' Krikolyov, who got permission for the temporary use of his own call sign U5Mir. The contacts between Discovery and Mir took place out of our range. On 8.02.94 they communicated via TDRS-es and the first direct contact on VHF took place on 10.02.94. During the night and early morning of 10.02.94 both objects regularly passed within our range during overlaps of their footprints.

    Schedule for operations with Progress-M freighters:

    Progress-M22: Launch on 16.03.94, docking with Mir on 18.03.- 94. This freighter does not carry a VBK (ballistic return capsule). Progress-M21: Separation from Mir on 17.03.94 if Progress-M22 is in the right orbit and functioning normally. Progress-M21 has no VBK on board. Progress-M23: Launch on 18.03.94, docking to Mir at 20.04.94. This freighter carries a VBK. Progress-M22: Separation from Mir on 19.05.94 if all is going well with Progress-M23. A schedule for the freighters after Progress-23 has been published, but data might be subject to changes. The transport ship Soyuz-TM19, had to be launched on 24.06.94, but this launch has been put forward to 20.06.94, docking to Mir on 22.06.94. The first crew consisted of Malenchenko, Musabayev and Strekalov. Strekalov had to return with the relieved Afanasyev and Usachov after 12 days. Possibly Strekalov will fly with Soyuz-TM21 together with Dezhurov and an American cosmonaut on 01.03.95.

    American 'cosmonauts': 2 American astronauts had to arrive in Starcity near Moscow on one of these days to begin with their training for a flight as 'cosmonaut'. Due to technical reasons their departure has been postponed for 1 or 2 weeks.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 February 11 - .
  • STS-60 - Wakeup Song: Homeward Bound - . Flight: STS-60. "Homeward Bound" by Simon and Garfunkel. .

1994 February 11 - .
1994 February 12 - . 08:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2268 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 93. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22999 . COSPAR: 1994-011A. Apogee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Perigee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket. The space objects served the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation..
  • Cosmos 2269 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 94. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23000 . COSPAR: 1994-011B. Apogee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Perigee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.
  • Cosmos 2270 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 95. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23001 . COSPAR: 1994-011C. Apogee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Perigee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.
  • Cosmos 2271 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 96. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23002 . COSPAR: 1994-011D. Apogee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Perigee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.
  • Cosmos 2272 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 97. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23003 . COSPAR: 1994-011E. Apogee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Perigee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.
  • Cosmos 2273 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 98. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23004 . COSPAR: 1994-011F. Apogee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Perigee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.

1994 February 12 - . 13:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aria-II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 February 12 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aria-II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 February 12 - . 13:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Aria-II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi).

1994 February 15 - .
  • Death of Richard M Bissell at Charlotte, Mecklenburg, NC. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bissell. American CIA official who headed development of the U-2 and A-12 spy planes, and the first generation of spy satellites. Deputy Director for Plans at the time of the Bay of Pigs debacle, which resulted in his resignation..

1994 February 15 - . 16:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. LV Family: Storm. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-7 ERINT GTF-3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1994 February 15 - . 23:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: S-310. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • NNP / AIR / NID / NEL Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1994 February 16 - . 02:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 February 18 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 31 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 40L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1995-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23010 . COSPAR: 1994-012A. Apogee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Perigee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min.

    Stationed at 44 deg E; replaced Raduga 24. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1994-1995 As of 29 August 2001 located at 65.21 deg E drifting at 0.236 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 81.01E drifting at 0.234E degrees per day.


1994 February 19 - . 12:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: ASLV. Launch Vehicle: Agni TD.
  • Agni RV Mk 1 - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 February 19 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-8.
  • Galaxy 1R - . Payload: Galaxy 1RR. Mass: 1,391 kg (3,066 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 376. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23016 . COSPAR: 1994-013A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 133 deg W; replaced Galaxy 1. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 133 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 132.97 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 88.88W drifting at 3.795W degrees per day.


1994 February 20 - .
1994 February 24 - .
  • Death of Eduard Pavlovich Kugno at Kiev, Ukraine - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Kugno. Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964..

1994 February 27 - .
  • Death of Laurence C Craigie at Riverside, CA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Craigie. American test pilot. First American to fly a jet aircraft, the XP-59. After WW2 he directed Air Force research and development programs. USAF deputy chief of staff for development, 1951-1954. Retired 1955 after a heart attack..

1994 March 1 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse CE. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • NOIR Imaging mission - . Nation: France. Agency: Toulouse. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 March 2 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 26 - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KI-IK. Mass: 2,160 kg (4,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 2001-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 23019 . COSPAR: 1994-014A. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi). Perigee: 501 km (311 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 94.70 min.

    Solar and space physics. Conduct of comprehensive investigations of the sun under the Koronas-I international project developed by Russian and Ukranian experimts in cooperation with specialists from Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom.


1994 March 4 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-62 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen, Andy, Casper, Gemar, Ivins, Thuot. Payload: Columbia F16 / USMP-2 / OAST-2. Mass: 8,870 kg (19,550 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Andy, Casper, Gemar, Ivins, Thuot. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-62. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 13.97 days. Decay Date: 1994-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Carried USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG. Payloads: United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) 2, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) 2, Dexterous End Effector (DEE), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), Limited-Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Auroral Photography Experiment Phase B (APE-B), Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Bioreactor Demonstration System A.

  • USMP-2 Fwd - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: USMP. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.
  • USMP-2 Aft - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: USMP. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.
  • OAST-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: OAST. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EDO. Decay Date: 1994-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23025 . COSPAR: 1994-015xx. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

1994 March 5 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: I Got You (I Feel Good) - . Flight: STS-62. "I Got You (I Feel Good)" by James Brown.

1994 March 6 - .
  • Death of Melvin N Gough - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gough. American test pilot. At Langley from 1926. From 1943 director of flight research. Director of NASA activities at Cape Canaveral 1958-1960..

1994 March 6 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Picky, Picky Head - . Flight: STS-62. "Picky, Picky Head" by Wailing Souls from movie,"Cool Runnings". A favorite movie of John Casper's children..

1994 March 6 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant XII.
  • Auroral Turbulence 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 455 km (282 mi).

1994 March 7 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Medley of Armed Forces anthems - . Flight: STS-62.

    "Medley of Armed Forces anthems" sung by the U.S. Military Glee Club. The five person crew included Air Force -- Casper, Marine -- Allen, Army -- Gemar, Navy -- Thuot, and civilian Ivins. This is the first time all of the major Armed Forces were represented on once space mission, hence the medley.


1994 March 7 - . 09:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 March 8 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Space Shuttle Boogie - . Flight: STS-62. "Space Shuttle Boogie" written by Cindy and Michael Rosenbaum.

1994 March 8 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 March 9 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Wake the World - . Flight: STS-62. "Wake the World" by The Beach Boys.

1994 March 9 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 March 10 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Halls of Montezuma - . Flight: STS-62. "Halls of Montezuma" Marine Corps Hymn.

1994 March 10 - . 03:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 100 - . Payload: GPS 2A-24 / GPS SVN 36. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 23027 . COSPAR: 1994-016A. Apogee: 20,366 km (12,654 mi). Perigee: 20,000 km (12,000 mi). Inclination: 53.9000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Final element of initial GPS constellation. Placed in Plane C Slot 1..
  • SEDS 2 - . Payload: SEDS 2 End Mass. Mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: MDSSC. Program: Navstar. Spacecraft Bus: SEDS. Spacecraft: SEDS. COSPAR: 1994-016xx.
  • SEDS 2 Deployer - . Payload: SEDS 2 Deployer. Mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Program: Navstar. Spacecraft Bus: SEDS. Spacecraft: SEDS. Decay Date: 1994-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 23028 . COSPAR: 1994-016B. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 32.3000 deg. Period: 91.34 min.

1994 March 11 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Takin' Care of Business - . Flight: STS-62. "Takin' Care of Business" by Bachman-Turner Overdrive..

1994 March 11 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • HIRAAS 3 Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi).

1994 March 12 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Be Our Guest - . Flight: STS-62. "Be Our Guest" from movie"Beauty and the Beast" soundtrack..

1994 March 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • First launch of the Taurus space booster. - . Nation: USA.

1994 March 13 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Surfin' USA - . Flight: STS-62. "Surfin' USA" by The Beach Boys sent down to MCC. MCC responded with"I Get Around" by The Beach Boys. Crew with day off beat MCC to wakeup call..

1994 March 13 - . 22:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: ARPA Taurus.
  • USA 101 - . Payload: STEP-0 / STEP M0. Mass: 502 kg (1,106 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: STEP. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TAOS. Spacecraft: TAOS. USAF Sat Cat: 23030 . COSPAR: 1994-017A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 555 km (344 mi). Inclination: 105.0000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Space Test Experiment Program; 10 satellite subsystem experiments. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • USA 102 - . Payload: DarpaSat. Mass: 203 kg (447 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DARPASAT. Spacecraft: DARPASAT. USAF Sat Cat: 23031 . COSPAR: 1994-017B. Apogee: 556 km (345 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 105.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1994 March 14 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Starship Trooper - . Flight: STS-62. "Starship Trooper" by Yes..

1994 March 15 - .
  • Mir News 209: Launch Progress-M22 postponed - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    This freighter was on schedule to be launched on 16 or 18.03. Due to very bad weather conditions (blizzards) the launch has been put back for a while. Possibly the exact date of launch will be published on 17.03.94.

    Fire on Baykonur: On 7.03.94 a heavy fire broke out in a MIK (Assembly and test complex) and spread to a Maintenance Unit Headquarters. There the fire damaged a Telemetry installation. The fire caused a damage of appr. 1.7 a 1.8 million dollars. The Russians declared that space-programs will not suffer from this event.

    Progress-M17: This freighter has been flying autonomously from 11.08.93 for a duration test of its systems. The Russians planned to leave the Progress-M17 in orbit for a year and a half on request by the Americans who want to use modified versions of the Soyuz-TM-ships for ACRV (assured crew return vehicle) for the space station Alpha. A test flight with a Progress-M was useful for a lot of systems of this freighter are the same as those of the Soyuz-TM. During an orbit manoeuvre in December 1993 something went wrong and the Progress-M17 came in a very low perigee from where it decayed naturally by burning up in the Earth's atmosphere on 3.03.94 at 0406 UTC

    Tracking ships: The tracking ship Cosmonaut Pavel Belyayev is floating somewhere in the Atlantic for the support of spaceflight operations which have nothing to do with the Mir-station. Nevertheless the ship now and then assists TsUP for communications with the Mir-station. This took place on 13.03- .94 at 2004 UTC and on 14.03.94 at 2045 UTC, so out of our range. We can expect that within due time we can hear Mir- radio traffic relayed by the KPB or one of the other ships.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 March 15 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: View From Above - . Flight: STS-62. "View From Above" written and performed by Allison Brown, who was inspired to write the song by Mission Specialist Marsha Ivins..

1994 March 16 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Travelin' Prayer - . Flight: STS-62. "Travelin' Prayer" by Billy Joel..

1994 March 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 March 17 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: Living in Paradise - . Flight: STS-62. "Living in Paradise" by Brothers Cazimero.

1994 March 17 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. Launch Pad: LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2274 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 65.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 23033 . COSPAR: 1994-018A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 67.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

    This space object is intended for assignments on behalf of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission.


1994 March 18 - .
  • STS-62 - Wakeup Song: The Mermaid - . Flight: STS-62. "The Mermaid" by The Clancy Brothers..

1994 March 18 - .
1994 March 21 - .
  • Teledesic cellular satellite system anounced by Gates/McCaw. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Teledesic. Spacecraft: Teledesic. Cost was estimated at $ 9 billion for 840 Ka band low earth orbit satellites..

1994 March 22 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-22 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 222. Mass: 7,103 kg (15,659 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 61.99 days. Completed Operations Date: 1994-05-23 04:48:12 . Decay Date: 1994-05-23 04:48:12 . USAF Sat Cat: 23035 . COSPAR: 1994-019A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Launched into an initial 192 x 238 x 51.6 km orbit. Docked with Mir on 24 Mar 1994 06:39:37 GMT. Fired its engine around 15 May to raise the orbit of the Mir station from 381 x 400 km to 398 x 399 km. Undocked on 23 May 1994 00:58:38 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 May 1994 04:40:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 59.76 days.


1994 March 23 - .
  • Mir News 210: Progress-M22 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    This freighter will be launched from Baykonur on 22.03.94 at 0454 UTC for a flight to the Mir-space station. This launch, originally planned for 16 or 18.03.94, has been postponed due to problems on Baykonur. Russians sources stated that meteorological conditions (blizzards) had forced them to put back the launch. On 7.03.94 a heavy fire broke out in the MIK (assembly- and test complex) for Progress-M-s and Soyuz-TM- s. The fire also effected a command centre. It was almost impossible to extinguish this fire due to the lack of water caused by one of those inclement blizzards.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 March 24 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 March 25 - .
  • Mir News 211: Progress-M22 launched - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    The freighter Progress-M22 has been launched from Baykonur on 22.03- .94 at 0454 UTC. If all goes well the Progress-M22 will dock to Mir's aft (Kvant-1) docking port on 24.03.94 at abt. 0638 UTC. During some of the passes within our range the transmitters of Progress-M22 could be heard. During the pass from 0929-0931 UTC only in the 166 and 165 mc bands, from 1059-1105 UTC also the beacon on 922.755 mc transmitted. So the transmitters did not -as usual- transmit during all passes. TsUP stated that all systems worked without problems. TsUP emphasised that the delay of the launch (originally on schedule for 16 or 18.03.94) was caused by the blizzards and that the fire in MIK and a command centre on 7.03.94 had nothing to do with the delay. The blizzards buried the cosmodrome under snow dunes up to 6 meters high.

    Tracking ships: Now and then TsUP and Mir meet problems with the communications via the geostationary satellite Altair. Probably this is caused by malfunctions of the meanwhile worn out transceiver (Antares) on board Mir The tracking ship Cosmonaut Pavel Belyayev (KPB), somewhere in the Atlantic, regularly is involved in Mir-communications. On 23.03.94 from 1705-1714 UTC Mir and TsUP have a communication sched via KPB.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 March 26 - .
  • Mir News 212: Progress-M21 separated from the Mir-space station - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    As of 30.01.94 this freighter occupied the aft (Kvant-1) docking port of the complex. To enable the new freighter, Progress-M22, to dock to that port Progress-M21 had to disappear. On 23.03.94 at 0118 UTC Progress-M21 undocked and flew its last flight as an independent satellite until 0432 UTC. At 0432 UTC Progress-M21's engine gave an impulse to bring her back in the atmosphere. Consequently she burnt up and decayed over the Pacific a few minutes later. Progress-M21 had no ballistic return capsule on board.

    Progress-M22 docked to the Mir-space station:

    Progress-M22 docked to the aft (Kvant-1) docking port of the complex on 24.03.94 at 0639 UTC. The docking took place just after LOS of Mir and Progress-M22 for my position. During the pass before the docking Mir's radio traffic on 143.625mc and Progress-M22's beacon on 922.755mc could be heard. Afanasyev reported data about the approach: the final approach, distance 59 M, approach speed 0.3M/sec, etc. Already during the next pass (orb. 46281, 0803 UTC) the hatch to Progress-M22 had been opened. Inside Progress-M22 all was clean and the crew -as always- enjoyed the nice smell of apples. Progress-M22 delivered to the complex food, water, fuel, post, spare parts and equipment for the maintenance of Mir's systems and additional equipment to be used by Dr. Polyakov for his medical experiments. If the Russians stick to the original schedule Progress-M22 will have to leave the aft docking port on 19.05.94 to enable her successor Progress-M23 to dock on 20.05.94. Progress-M22 does not have a VBK on board; Progress-M23 will carry a VBK.

    Baykonur: As of 22.03.94 Russian and Kazakhstan politicians and experts are gathered in Moscow for negotiations on a draft agreement about the right of Russia to use the cosmodrome Baykonur. Thus far it was impossible to reach consonance about the amount of money for the rent and the compensation for ecological damages caused by soviet space-activities over some decades. Russians are considering the possibility to reconstruct the base for ICBM's near Svobodnyy (East Siberiya, 51degr24min N, 128degr07min E.) into a cosmodrome to replace Baykonur. Yuriy Semyonov, Head of NPO 'Energiya', is against this idea: in his opinion Russia will loose its place as a leading space-power if Russia abandons Baykonur. Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 March 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 729. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 March 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 729. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 March 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 729. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 March 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 729. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 March 30 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 April - .
1994 April 1 - .
  • Energia Engineer Cosmonaut Training Group 12 selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kuzhelnaya, Tyurin.

1994 April 2 - .
  • Chinese satellite accident. - . Nation: China. Spacecraft Bus: FY-2. Spacecraft: FY-2. The first Fen Yung 2 geostationary weather satellite was undergoing final checkout before being mated to its launch vehicle when a fire and explosion erupted, destroying the vehicle, killing one worker and injuring 20 others..

1994 April 5 - . 18:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1994 April 9 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-59 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Apt, Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Gutierrez, Jones. Payload: Endeavour F06 / MAPS. Mass: 12,490 kg (27,530 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Gutierrez, Jones. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-59. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.24 days. Decay Date: 1994-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    Carried SIR-C SAR radar. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 1; Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP) IV; three getaway special (GAS) payloads; Space Tissue Loss (STL) A, B; Visual Function Tester (VFT) 4; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II.

  • SRL-1 - . Payload: SRL PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1994-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020xx. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.
  • MAPS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: MAPS. Decay Date: 1994-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23042 . COSPAR: 1994-020xx. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Air pollution experiment carried in shuttle bay..

1994 April 11 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2275 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 58L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23043 . COSPAR: 1994-021A. Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2277 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 61L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23045 . COSPAR: 1994-021C. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,103 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite..
  • Cosmos 2276 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 60L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23044 . COSPAR: 1994-021B. Apogee: 19,216 km (11,940 mi). Perigee: 19,044 km (11,833 mi). Inclination: 64.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite..

1994 April 13 - . 06:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I.
  • GOES 8 - . Payload: GOES I. Mass: 2,105 kg (4,640 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: GOES. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: GOES-Next. Spacecraft: GOES-Next. USAF Sat Cat: 23051 . COSPAR: 1994-022A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Geostationary Environmental Satellite. Stationed at 75 deg W. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg W in 1994-1995; 75 deg W in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 74.78 deg W drifting at 0.019 deg E per day. NASA announced that GOES-8 was "de-orbited" (presumably moved to a sub-synchronous orbit) on May 5, 2004 after 10 years of service. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 87.46E drifting at 4.935W degrees per day.


1994 April 16 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: INTA-300. Launch Vehicle: INTA-300B.
  • O2-INTA300 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1994 April 18 - .
  • STS-59 - Wakeup Song: Freedom - . Flight: STS-59. "Freedom" performed by the White Elementary School 5th grade choir. Mission Specialist Rich Clifford's son, Brandon, was a student at White..

1994 April 18 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FOT 11R Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 April 20 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 April 20 - .
1994 April 23 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2278 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 17. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-2. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23087 . COSPAR: 1994-023A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1994 April 25 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 April 26 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2279 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 23092 . COSPAR: 1994-024A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 956 km (594 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 6 of constellation..

1994 April 27 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 April 28 - . 17:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2280 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 316.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 23095 . COSPAR: 1994-025A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Photo/digital surveillance..

1994 May 3 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • Mini-Texus 2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 139 km (86 mi).

1994 May 3 - . 15:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 401A/Centaur.
  • USA 103 - . Payload: Raven 1. Mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Raven satellite. Spacecraft: Raven satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 23097 . COSPAR: 1994-026A. Apogee: 537 km (333 mi). Perigee: 518 km (321 mi). Inclination: 55.1000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1994 May 4 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLV. LV Family: ASLV. Launch Vehicle: ASLV.
  • SROSS-C2 - . Payload: SROSS C2. Mass: 113 kg (249 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SROSS. Spacecraft: SROSS. Decay Date: 2001-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 23099 . COSPAR: 1994-027A. Apogee: 938 km (582 mi). Perigee: 437 km (271 mi). Inclination: 46.2000 deg. Period: 98.00 min.

    Streched Rohini Satellite Series; measured ionospheric plasma and gamma rays. SROSS-C2 satellite carries two scientific payloads: (i) Retarding Potential Analyser (RPA), consisting of two planar detectors to measure plasma parameters and investigate energetics of the equatorial ionosphere. (ii) Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) detectors, cons isting of two scintillators to study celestial gamma ray bursts in the energy range of 20 keV to 3000 keV. Launch vehicle Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle ASLV-D4.


1994 May 5 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 32 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DASA. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi).

1994 May 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Final launch of the Scout booster from Vandenberg - . Nation: USA. Final launch of the Scout booster from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 26 April 1962)..

1994 May 9 - . 02:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • MSTI-2 - . Payload: MSTI 2. Mass: 163 kg (359 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MSTI. Spacecraft: MSTI. Decay Date: 1998-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 23101 . COSPAR: 1994-028A. Apogee: 433 km (269 mi). Perigee: 415 km (257 mi). Inclination: 93.1000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Last Scout launch; BMDO technology tests. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1994 May 10 - .
  • Mir News 213: Mir-operations - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    After the docking of Progress-M22 to the Mir-station the passes gradually shifted to the night hours. Meanwhile Mir passes take place again during the day hours, which means that regularly radio traffic can be heard. In this stage of the Mir- mission there is not too much to report: just routine matters and the well-known experiments: measurements of the flows of elementary charged particles by the Mariya-spectrometer and x- ray and gamma radiation by spectrometers in the Kvant-1 module. The crew shot a lot of video- and photo-images of the earth on request by geologists en ecologists. Polyakov continues his medical experiments. On 9.05.94 the crew made films of heavy fires along the frontier of Siberia and Mongolia. During passes in which Mir is in contact with TsUP often only Afanasyev is heard. Sometimes, but not as much as Afanasyev, Polyakov and Usachov communicate with TsUP. Daily routine for the crew still remains the functioning of the water regeneration systems, about the SRV-U -distillation of water from urine- they daily have discussions with TsUP.

    Baykonur: After long and difficult negotiations Russia and Kazakhstan reached an agreement about the use by Russia of Baykonur and Leninsk. Russia has to pay a rent of 115 million. US-dollars a year for a period of 20 years and the option for a prolongation by another 10 years. Russia can act in Baykonur and Leninsk as if it was Russian territory. Let us hope that the agreement puts an end to the uncertainties for Russian and future users of the cosmodrome and to the vexations and confiscation of vital materials by the Kazakhstan authorities.

    Soyuz-TM19: This transport ship will be launched from Baykonur on 24.06.94 with the crew for the 16th Main Expedition to Mir. The first crew consists of Musabayev and Malenchenko, both rookies. Musabayev is from Kazakhstan, but the Russians stressed that he will fly just because he is a good cosmonaut and not to please Kazakhstan. On 4.04.94 the State commission decided to exclude Strekalov from that flight. He was on schedule for the Russians use to add an experienced cosmonaut to a crew with only rookies. So for the first time in many years a Soyuz-ship will fly with only rookies on board. The reason for the exclusion of Strekalov is economical: his seat will be used for an extra amount of cargo (85 KG). Strekalov is still in the race for he will fly during the 1995 program. He will then be 'ferried' to Mir by the space shuttle Atlantis. To get the training as an 'astronaut' he will arrive in the USA one of these days.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 May 11 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 May 17 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 May 19 - . 17:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Edwards.. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus/HAPS.
  • STEP 2 (SIDEX) - . Payload: STEP M2 / P 91-A. Mass: 180 kg (390 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Program: STEP. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Eagle. Spacecraft: Eagle. USAF Sat Cat: 23105 . COSPAR: 1994-029A. Apogee: 813 km (505 mi). Perigee: 597 km (370 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 98.90 min. Did not achieve planned orbit, though still useful. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1994 May 20 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 30 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 42L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23108 . COSPAR: 1994-030A. Apogee: 35,833 km (22,265 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 4.8000 deg. Period: 1,437.60 min.

    Stationed at 142.5 deg E as 'Rimsat-2' - leased to Rimsat Corporation, using an orbital slot allocated to Tonga. Communications satellite intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 142 deg E in 1994-1997; 122 deg E in 1997-1999; 142 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 142.86 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.22W drifting at 0.132W degrees per day.


1994 May 22 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-23 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 223. Mass: 7,117 kg (15,690 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 41.44 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 23114 . COSPAR: 1994-031A. Apogee: 399 km (247 mi). Perigee: 397 km (246 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.52 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir, with Raduga return capsule. Docked with Mir on 24 May 1994 06:18:35 GMT. Undocked on 2 Jul 1994 08:46:49 GMT. The braking engine was ignited at 14:44 GMT, and the Raduga VBK reentry capsule was ejected at 14:55:45 GMT. The Progress burnt up in the atmosphere at 14:57 GMT. The Raduga deployed its parachute after reentry and landed on 2 Jul 1994 15:09:00 GMT at 51 deg 41 min N, 59 deg 21 min E, in the Orenburg region. Total free-flight time 2.34 days. Total docked time 39.10 days.


1994 May 25 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Stage 2 and 3 failed to separate due to a breakdown of the launch vehicle control system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Tselina-D - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 74. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Destroyed by launch safety..

1994 May 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: UK S28. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 June - . LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: RSA.
  • RSA-3 / RSA-4 South African satellite launchers cancelled - . Nation: South Africa.

    The RSA-3 satellite launcher began development as an IRBM in the 1980's. It was developed with the assistance of Israel. The satellite launcher was found not to be viable commercially and so was cancelled in mid-1994. The Overberg Test Range near Bredasdorp, 200 km east of Cape Town, was used for test flights.


1994 June 4 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1994 June 6 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1994 June 7 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2281 - . Payload: Zenit-8 / Oblik no. 4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 22.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23119 . COSPAR: 1994-032A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 236 km (146 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 89.80 min.

    Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule. Also photography of the earth's surface for the purpose of the natural resource mapping and area monitoring on behalf of various branches of the Russian economy and in the interests of international cooperation. Landed July 29.


1994 June 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT155GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1994 June 12 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1994 June 14 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Foton 9 - . Payload: Foton s/n 9. Mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Foton. Duration: 17.56 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 23122 . COSPAR: 1994-033A. Apogee: 358 km (222 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Microgravity experiments. Landed July 2..

1994 June 15 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 June 17 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Intelsat 702 - . Mass: 3,695 kg (8,146 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FS-1300. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 23124 . COSPAR: 1994-034A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0200 deg. Period: 1,436.07 min.

    Stationed at 1.03 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 38 deg W in 1994; 1 deg W in 1994-1996; 177 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 175.99 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 54.82E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.

  • STRV-1B - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: UK. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: STRV. Spacecraft: STRV. USAF Sat Cat: 23125 . COSPAR: 1994-034B. Apogee: 31,817 km (19,770 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 7.5000 deg. Period: 557.00 min. 50 cm cube; Space Technology and Research Vehicle; included solar cell tests..
  • STRV-1A - . Mass: 53 kg (116 lb). Nation: UK. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: STRV. Spacecraft: STRV. USAF Sat Cat: 23126 . COSPAR: 1994-034C. Apogee: 31,321 km (19,461 mi). Perigee: 273 km (169 mi). Inclination: 7.4000 deg. Period: 547.70 min. 50 cm cube; Space Technology and Research Vehicle; included solar cell tests..

1994 June 20 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). First flight of second series after additional SDIO funding received. Full propellent load; radar altimeter in control loop. Reached altitude of 870 m during a 136 second flight..

1994 June 22 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 June 22 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 June 24 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I.
  • USA 104 - . Payload: UHF F/O F3. Mass: 2,847 kg (6,276 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 601. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23132 . COSPAR: 1994-035A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 4.8100 deg. Period: 1,436.05 min. US Navy communications . Stationed at 14.38 deg W 1995-1999. Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option..

1994 June 25 - .
  • Mir News 216: Soyuz-TM19 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.

    The launch of this ship had been put back several times due to problems with the production of the fairing for the protection of Soyuz-TM19 during the first phase of the launch. Now this launch from Baykonur is on schedule for 1.07.94 at abt. 1224 UTC. If all goes well Soyuz-TM19 will dock to the Mir- complex (aft, Kvant-2 docking port) 2 days later. This ship will ferry the relief crew, Malenchenko and Musabayev, to Mir. On 9.07.94 the present crew Afanasyev and Usachov will return to earth with the Soyuz-TM18. Dr. Polyakov will remain on board to reach a place in the Guiness Book of Records after a stay of 429 days in space.

    Kazakhstan insists upon the fact that Musabayev will make his spaceflight as a representative of Kazakhstan for he is a native of that country. The Russians agreed with that, but told Kazakhstan that this means that Musabayev will fly as a foreign guest cosmonaut and that Kazakhstan has to pay for that just like western countries have to pay for their cosmonauts. Kazakhstan cannot afford this.

    Progress-M23: Before Soyuz-TM19 can dock to the aft docking port the freighter Progress-M23 has to undock from there. If all goes well on board Soyuz-TM19 after launch Progress-M23 will separate from Mir on 2.07.94. The return capsule (VBK) of Progress-M23 has to make a soft landing somewhere in Kazakhstan.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 June 27 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). In-flight abort after gaseous hydrogen explosion; vehicle demonstrated autoland capabilities. Reached altitude of 790 m during a 78 second flight..

1994 June 27 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. FAILURE: Destroyed on launch . Failed Stage: 1.
  • STEP 1 - . Payload: STEP M1 / P90-1. Mass: 180 kg (390 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Program: STEP. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Eagle. Spacecraft: Eagle. Apogee: 38 km (23 mi). Destroyed on launch Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1994 June 27 - . 22:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1994 June 29 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 July - .
  • Comet Shoemaker-Levy crashes into Jupiter - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Galileo. Spacecraft: Galileo probe. Galileo was also the only vehicle in a position to obtain images of the far side of Jupiter when more than 20 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy plunged into Jupiter's atmosphere..

1994 July 1 - .
  • Air Force Space Command gained Malmstrom AFB, Montana. - . Nation: USA.

1994 Q3 - . Launch Pad: Unreported location in Syria. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Hwasong 6.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1994 July 1 - . 12:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1994 July 3 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2D.
  • FSW-2 No. 2 - . Payload: FSW-2 No. 02. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FSW. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 23145 . COSPAR: 1994-037A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 90.08 min.

    The second Fanhui Shi Weixing FSW-2 was launched on 3 July 1994 into an orbit of 173 km by 343 km at an inclination of 63.0 deg. The spacecraft remained in orbit for 15 days, making four small manoeuvres before successfully returning to Earth. The payload included Earth observation systems, a biological experiment, and microgravity research instruments. The retrievable capsule was recovered in China on July 18


1994 July 5 - .
  • As part of the drawdown of US ICBM forces, 44th Missile Wing inactivated at Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota. - . Nation: USA.

1994 July 6 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT156GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1994 July 6 - . 23:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2282 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 3. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Prognoz SPRN. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23168 . COSPAR: 1994-038A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,754 km (22,216 mi). Inclination: 1.8600 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min.

    Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1994-1995 As of 5 September 2001 located at 170.85 deg W drifting at 0.127 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 58.90W drifting at 0.281E degrees per day.


1994 July 8 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • MSTI-2 Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1994 July 8 - . 16:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-65 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Cabana, Chiao, Halsell, Hieb, Mukai, Thomas, Walz. Backup Crew: Favier. Payload: Columbia F17 / EDO. Mass: 10,811 kg (23,834 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana, Chiao, Favier, Halsell, Hieb, Mukai, Thomas, Walz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-65. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 14.75 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

    Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) 2, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX).

  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EDO. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039xx. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.
  • Spacelab IML 2 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: Spacelab. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1994-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23173 . COSPAR: 1994-039xx. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

1994 July 8 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Panamsat 2 - . Payload: PAS K1. Mass: 2,290 kg (5,040 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Panamsat. Program: Panamsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 601. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23175 . COSPAR: 1994-040A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0400 deg. Period: 1,436.07 min. Stationed at 168.97 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 169 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 169.03 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 168.96E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day..
  • Yuri 3N - . Payload: BS-3N. Mass: 1,210 kg (2,660 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NHK. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: BS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 3000. Spacecraft: AS 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 23176 . COSPAR: 1994-040B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0500 deg. Period: 1,436.15 min. Stationed at 109.67 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 109 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.71 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 109.92E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

1994 July 9 - .
  • Mir News 219: Soyuz-TM18 safely landed in Kazakhstan. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18, Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    The relieved cosmonauts Afanasyev and Usachov landed with the Descent Module of the Soyuz-TM18 at 100 KM NE of Arkalyk on 9.07.- 94 at 1033 UTC. Radio traffic of Soyuz-TM18 during the descent -also the ANAN aiming beacon- could be monitored via Altair until 1020 UTC. Immediately after the landing the cosmonauts boarded an aircraft for a non-stop flight to Star City near Moscow.

    Mir: 2 days ago the command of the Mir-complex was handed over by Afanasyev to Malenchenko. From this moment on the call sign of Polyakov changed from Derbent-3 to Agat-3.

    Soyuz-TM19: This ship is still docked to the aft (Kvant-1) docking port of the Mir-complex. Contrary to the normal practice this ship will remain there, so no redocking from the aft to the forward docking port has been planned. One of the reasons may be the future operations with modules like Module- T (Kristall), Spektr and Priroda.

    Progress-M24: Thus far the launch of this freighter is still on schedule for 13.07.94.

    Tracking ships: On 8.07.94 the tracking ship Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev moored in the port of Antwerp. A few hours later I visited the ship for a long interview with the Chief of the Expedition of KPB. I was able to follow the movements of the ship and to determine her destination by monitoring radio traffic between the ship and the Mir-station. The chief answered a lot of questions regarding the fate and future of the famous fleet of tracking ships. The KPB is now on her way to Sankt Peterburg. A ship to take over her task in the Atlantic did not show up but remained in Sankt Peterburg due to budget problems.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 July 9 - .
1994 July 11 - .
  • Contract for Lewis satellite issued. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Lewis satellite. Spacecraft: Lewis satellite. Lewis was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Clark, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies..

1994 July 11 - .
  • Clark satellite contract - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Clark satellite. Spacecraft: Clark satellite. Clark was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Lewis, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies..

1994 July 13 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 July 14 - . 05:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Nadezhda 4 - . Payload: Tsikada-Kospas. Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Nadezhda. USAF Sat Cat: 23179 . COSPAR: 1994-041A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 951 km (590 mi). Inclination: 82.9400 deg. Period: 104.68 min. Carried COSPAS/SARSAT search and rescue package. Civilian navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 14 of constellation. Maritime navigation. Signals at 150,00 MHz and 400.00 MHz..

1994 July 16 - .
1994 July 16 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 July 17 - .
  • Mir News 220: Progress-M24 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    The launch of this freighter has been put back. Originally 2 Progress-M's had to be launched in the period July/August 1994. The Russians had to give up one of the Progress-Ms for economical reasons. Now the Progress-M24 is on schedule to be launched on 24.08.94. Progress-M24 will deliver the normal cargo to the Mir-complex plus the equipment to be used by an European cosmonaut (Ulf Merbold or Pedro Duque) during the EuroMir94 mission in October 1994.

    Soyuz-TM19: This ship is still docked to the aft (Kvant-1) port of the Mir-station. Contrary to the normal practice S- TM19 will not be redocked to the forward (PKhO) docking port of the complex.

    EuroMir94: The Soyuz-TM20 with on board the relief crew (Viktorenko and Kondakova or the stand-in crew Gidzhenko and Avdeyev) with an ESA-cosmonaut (Ulf Merbold or Pedro Duque) is on schedule for launch on 3.10.94. The European cosmonaut will remain on board Mir for a period of 30 days. The training of the crews takes place in Starcity near Moscow as well as in the European Astronaut Centre of ESA in Cologne. In Moscow they have to study the Russian language and to get familiar with the Soyuz-TM and the Mir-space station and its modules and in Cologne the training is aimed at the European experiments, which for the greater part will cover life-sciences, i.e. monitoring the human body in microgravity conditions.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 July 19 - .
  • TAOS satellite IMU fails - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: TAOS. Spacecraft: TAOS.

    TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose is to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs. Satellite operations were interrupted when an inertial measurement unit failed. During the following two month period, the satellite's solar panels could not be properly sun-pointed, resulting in a loss of satellite power. Vehicle control was regained following the development of a new satellite control system.


1994 July 20 - . 05:53 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EUVS Jupiter Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1994 July 20 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. Launch Pad: LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2283 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 71.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23182 . COSPAR: 1994-042A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.42 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1994 July 21 - .
  • Clementine asteroid flyby cancelled - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Clementine. Spacecraft: Clementine. After the lunar mapping phase was completed, the spacecraft left lunar orbit for a planned encounter with Geographos, but a computer fialure on 17 May 1994 led to the flyby being cancelled..

1994 July 21 - .
  • Death of Hans Rudolf Palaoro - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Palaoro. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1994 July 21 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3.
  • Apstar 1 - . Mass: 1,383 kg (3,048 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT Satellite Company. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 376. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23185 . COSPAR: 1994-043A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Asia-Pacific communications. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 138 deg E in 1994-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 138.04 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 141.96E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1994 July 22 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC42. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: STARS.
  • ODES - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SDC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 July 23 - .
1994 July 25 - .
  • Mir News 221: Russian spaceflight tracking ships. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    Until 1992 the fleet of tracking ships consisted of ten ships. These ships formed a part of the infrastructure of control centres and measurement points for soviet spaceflight operations. In this case the word 'operations' covers a wide variety for the assistance of the manned spaceflight program was only a small part of their duties. The role of the ships, as far as manned spaceflight was concerned, sharply deteriorated after the beginning of the use of geostationary satellites for communications between the Salyut-7 and the Mir-space stations. The TDRS system used by the Russians did not always work satisfactorily and so all experts involved in Russian spaceflight expected that the 'ships' would remain operational at least until 2000. Already in 1990 there circulated rumours about the a gradual withdrawal of that fleet, but nobody dared to take the responsibility. However the economical problems in the last year of the S.U. forced the Russians to withdraw most of the ships from service and as of January 1st 1992 the ships in the Atlantic apart from some modest exceptions ceased to assist during Mir-operations. Sometimes a ship was operational in the Atlantic to assist space-operations for other objects and organisations and now and then had to be stand-by during Mir-operations (launches of Progresses, Soyuzes, dockings, return operations, EVA's a.s.o.), but always on a secondary basis. For the last half year the Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev operated from a position west of Africa and even played an important role during the almost fatal flight of Soyuz-TM17 on 14.01.94. After some bumps of the Soyuz-TM17 into the Mir-station the communications via the Altair (Cosmos-2054) ceased and this caused great concern at TsUP. KPB was the first to pick up radio traffic from the Soyuz-TM17 and thus shortened the awful uncertainty phase at TsUP by 10 minutes. In the past the ships relayed traffic between Mir and TsUP via Molniya satellites during the first part of Mir's footprint for our position. Nowadays the traffic between Mir and TsUP only begins at TCA for our position. The fate of the fleet: the ships belonged to the Soviet (now Russian) Academy of Sciences. The maritime part fell under the responsibility of the Baltic- and Black sea shipping. The ships which have home ports in the Ukraine (the Kosmonavt Yuriy Gagarin and the Akademik Sergey Korolyov) now belong to that country and so their role in spaceflight fully ceased. The ships made some trips for tourists, but that was not successful. Both ships have been used to evacuate Russian military personnel and their families from Cuba to St. Petersburg. From there they returned to their Ukrainian ports. The Ukraine does not know what to do with the ships and tried to sell them to the Russians. The Russians were not interested: they still have 4 ships for the Western Hemisphere and a 5th one is under construction. Spaceflight needs over the Pacific are covered by 2 ships of the Russian Navy, the Marshal Nedelin and the Marshal Krylov. The Odessa based Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov already before the independence of the Ukraine was transferred to Leningrad to be refurbished for other purposes: ecological expeditions in the Baltic and the North Atlantic. Thus far this plan did not work: the attempts to use the ship for that purposes on a commercial base did not have success due to the lack of customers. So in St Petersburg we have 4 ships: the Kosmonavt Pavel Belyayev, the Kosmonavt Vladislav Volkov, the Kosmonavt Viktor Patsayev and the Kosmonavt Georgiy Dobrovolskiy. They are waiting for an assignment. Possibly one of them will be used in the Atlantic west of Africa in October and November 1994 to assist during the launch and docking of Soyuz-TM20 (resp. 3 and 5.10.94) and the return flight of the Soyuz-TM19 on 3.11.94. A new ship, the Akademik Nikolay Pilyugin, has already been launched and has to be fitted. Thus far it is not known whether this new ship will influence the fate of 1 or more ships of the 4 in St Peterburg. After the last expedition the Belyayev several times had contact with the crew of the Mir-complex. From this traffic I could derive the indication that the ship planned to visit Antwerp in Belgium. This enabled me to go on board and I had a long and interesting conversation with the chief of the expedition, Nikolay Burov and the captain Sivtsov. In spite of the enormous economical difficulties of their country their hospitality towards me was 100%.

    (This Mir-report is derived from the reports in Dutch 221 and 222. So the next Mir-report in English will be MirNEWS.223)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 July 28 - . 22:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Echo 94 F-102 DUSTY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 July 29 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2284 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 17. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23187 . COSPAR: 1994-044A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 89.35 min. Topographic mapping for the Army General Staff. Landed September 11 1994..

1994 July 30 - .
  • Mir News 222: Radio-amateur information - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    Info for Radio-amateurs trying to make QSO's with Mir:

    On 30 July 1994 during pass in orbit nr. 48273 Musabayev asked TsUp to inform Sergey Samburov that the power unit of the transceiver for Radio-amateurism is out of order. The last time I monitored traffic on 145.550 Mc from Mir was on 27 July 1994 during the passes in orbits 48226 and 48227 when Polyakov (U3Mir) tried to make a QSO with Francis in France and with OE1AKB.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 July 31 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Echo 94 F-103 DUSTY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 August 2 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2285 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-1. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. USAF Sat Cat: 23189 . COSPAR: 1994-045A. Apogee: 1,013 km (629 mi). Perigee: 974 km (605 mi). Inclination: 74.0300 deg. Period: 104.98 min. Radar calibration mission..

1994 August 3 - . 14:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Edwards.. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus.
  • P90-6 APEX - . Payload: APEX/Orion 38. Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: APEX. Spacecraft: APEX. USAF Sat Cat: 23191 . COSPAR: 1994-046A. Apogee: 2,534 km (1,574 mi). Perigee: 360 km (220 mi). Inclination: 69.9800 deg. Period: 114.82 min. Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronic Experiments; studied radiation and plasma effects on solar power systems. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1994 August 3 - . 23:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • DBS 2 - . Mass: 2,860 kg (6,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DirecTV. Program: DirecTV. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 601. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23192 . COSPAR: 1994-047A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0100 deg. Period: 1,436.11 min.

    Commercial TV broadcast. Stationed at 100.79 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 101 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 100.81 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 91.17W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


1994 August 5 - . 01:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2286 - . Payload: Oko #75. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 23194 . COSPAR: 1994-048A. Apogee: 36,384 km (22,607 mi). Perigee: 3,982 km (2,474 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 78 degree longitude of ascending node..

1994 August 8 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • CEC Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1994 August 10 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Brasilsat B1 - . Payload: HS 376W. Mass: 1,765 kg (3,891 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: Tele Mex. Program: Brasilsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 376. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23199 . COSPAR: 1994-049A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0300 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min.

    28 C-band transponders, 1 X-band transponder (military). Stationed at 70.05 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 70.00 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 71.44W drifting at 0.304W degrees per day.

  • Turksat 1B - . Mass: 1,779 kg (3,922 lb). Nation: Turkey. Agency: Turk Tel. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Turksat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Spacebus 2000. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23200 . COSPAR: 1994-049B. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    16 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 41.92 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 42 deg E in 1994-1996; 31 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 31.29 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 6 located at 144.60E drifting at 4.406W degrees per day.


1994 August 11 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2287 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 67L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23203 . COSPAR: 1994-050A. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,118 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2288 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 70L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23204 . COSPAR: 1994-050B. Apogee: 19,168 km (11,910 mi). Perigee: 19,091 km (11,862 mi). Inclination: 64.8100 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Glonass navigation satellite..
  • Cosmos 2289 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 75L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23205 . COSPAR: 1994-050C. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,126 km (11,884 mi). Inclination: 64.8100 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Glonass navigation satellite..

1994 August 12 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Echo 94 F-101 CONE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 August 16 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EUVS Venus Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 August 17 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Endeavour Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-68. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour.

    The countdown for Endeavour's first launch attempt ended 1.9 seconds before liftoff when on-board computers detected higher than acceptable readings in one channel of a sensor monitoring the discharge temperature of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump in main engine #3. A test firing of the engine at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi on September 2nd confirmed that a slight drift in a fuel flow meter in the engine caused a slight increase in the turbopump's temperature. The test firing also confirmed a slightly slower start for main engine #3 during the pad abort, which could have contributed to the higher temperatures. After Endeavour was brought back to the Vehicle Assembly Building to be outfitted with three replacement engines, NASA managers set October 2nd as the date for Endeavour's second launch attempt.


1994 August 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • JTF-95 MSTI Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DoD. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1994 August 19 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1994 August 20 - . 02:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1994 August 21 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 22 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 23 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. Launch Pad: LC43/4?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-3-46 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 60. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2009-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 23211 . COSPAR: 1994-051A. Apogee: 38,837 km (24,132 mi). Perigee: 1,518 km (943 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Replaced Molniya 3-40. As of 1994, the Molniya 3 constellation consisted of Molniya 3-36, 3-38, 3-39, 3-42, 3-43, 3-44, 3-45, and 3-46..

1994 August 24 - . 13:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1994 August 25 - . 01:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • GUARA MALTED / CADRE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1994 August 25 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-24 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 224. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 40.35 days. Completed Operations Date: 1994-10-04 22:41:48 . Decay Date: 1994-10-04 22:41:48 . USAF Sat Cat: 23215 . COSPAR: 1994-052A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.47 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Failed to dock with Mir on 27 Aug 1994. A second automatic docking attempt on 30 Aug 1994 also failed and the Progress collided with the Kvant module. A third and final attempt, manually controlled by Mir commander Yuriy Malenchenko, was successful on 2 Sep 1994 13:30:28 GMT. The Mir commander and flight engineer, Yuriy Malenchenko and Talgat Musabaev, made a spacewalk on 9 Sep 1994 to inspect the damage to the Kvant module made when the Progress collided with Kvant. Undocked on 4 Oct 1994 18:55:52 GMT, leaving the rear docking port free for Soyuz TM-20. Destroyed in reentry over the Pacific at 38.4 deg S, 137.4 deg W,on 4 Oct 1994 22:43:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 8.12 days. Total docked time 32.23 days.


1994 August 26 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2290 - . Payload: Orlets-2 no. 1. Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Orlets-2. Decay Date: 1995-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 23218 . COSPAR: 1994-053A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.25 min. Only flight of Orlets-2 long-duration military reconnaissance satellite with 22 film-return capsules..

1994 August 27 - . 08:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 401A/Centaur.
  • USA 105 - . Payload: Mercury ELINT 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft Bus: Mercury ELINT. Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. USAF Sat Cat: 23223 . COSPAR: 1994-054A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. First launch of Mercury ELINT satellite..

1994 August 27 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2E.
  • Optus B3 - . Mass: 2,760 kg (6,080 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Optus. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 601. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23227 . COSPAR: 1994-055A. Apogee: 35,855 km (22,279 mi). Perigee: 35,718 km (22,194 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Telephone; TV; mobile communications; air traffic control. Stationed at 156 deg deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 152 deg E in 1994-1995; 156 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 156.00 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 151.97E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.


1994 August 28 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-II. FAILURE: LAPS apogee kick motor failed to ignite. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Kiku 6 - . Payload: ETS 6. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ETS. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 23230 . COSPAR: 1994-056A. Apogee: 38,677 km (24,032 mi). Perigee: 8,565 km (5,322 mi). Inclination: 13.2300 deg. Period: 861.84 min. Failed to reach geostationary orbit; Engineering Test Satellite; partial mission success. Also tested ion engines for NSSK..

1994 August 29 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • USA 106 - . Payload: DMSP 23545/Star 37S S/N 15030 / DMSP 5D-1 F12. Mass: 830 kg (1,820 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 5D-2. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23233 . COSPAR: 1994-057A. Apogee: 860 km (530 mi). Perigee: 840 km (520 mi). Inclination: 98.8900 deg. Period: 101.94 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1994 August 30 - . LV Family: Angara. Launch Vehicle: Angara 1.1.
  • Work starts on Angara launch vehicle - . Nation: Russia. Ministry of Defence authorizes work to start on Angara launch vehicle. Angara will replace Zenit (built in Ukraine) and Proton as future Russian medium launch vehicle, launched from Plesetsk and Svobodny..

1994 August 31 - .
  • Mir News 226: Progress-M24 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    The 2d attempt to dock this freighter to Mir also did fail. The estimated docking time was 30.08.94 at 1450 UTC. The Progress-M24 softly hit the Mir-complex twice after which Progress-M24 immediately moved away. The Mir-crew felt the little shocks caused by the 2 contacts. They reported this during the pass in Mir's orbit 48762 at 1615 UTC. They also tried to assess eventual damages by looking through portholes. The transmitters of Progress-M24 functioned normally after the event.

    TsUP: In this flight control centre specialists did (until deadline of this report) not know the causes of both failures. More docking attempts are under consideration, but the decision depends on further analyses and results of meetings of specialists today. An eventual 3d attempt will not be made today (31.08). Among the possibilities is the use of the system TORU (Tele-orientation and guidance), which enables the crew to guide Progress-M24 from inside Mir.

    Consequences: These can be far-reaching for Russian manned spaceflight if further attempts to dock Progress-M24 would fail. Except from the normal cargo (food, water, fuel, repair material, post etc.) Progress-M24 had to deliver a part of the experiments for the Euromir94 mission and American equipment to enhance some systems on board Mir. The spare stock now available for life on board of the complex is enough for 1 month. So new supply before the end of September is urgently needed. Further failures can hamper the plans for the near future, i.e. the EVA-s in September, Euromir94 and the flights of American astronauts and Mir-Shuttle operation.

    (Derived from an enormous amount of information available until 31.08.94 at 1130 UTC.)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 September 2 - .
  • Mir News 227: Progress M-24 docks to Mir. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    TO BE ALLOWED TO TRY THREE TIMES RUNNING IS BUT FAIR!!

    The 3d attempt to dock the freighter Progress-M24 to Mir succeeded. This time they used the system TORU instead of Kurs. Malenchenko safely guided and docked Progress-M24 to the forward axial docking port (P.Kh.O.-transition section). The docking took place on 2.09.94 at 1330 UTC. During the last phase of the approach Malenchenko was fully responsible and in an admirable way he performed his task. Molodets!! Voice communication between Mir and TsUP via Altair was loud and clear and so I was able to monitor the actions and observations of Malenchenko. Just before docking the voice communication stopped while Progress-M24 was on a distance of 5 Meters with an approach speed of 26 cm/sec. M. had to correct Progress-M24's course due to a slight deviation to left.

    Radio traffic via VHF after the docking:

    During the pass in orb. 48809 (1648 UTC) M. reported that the hatch had been opened and that they already more or less had started the unloading. The ship was in good order and all was clean. The crew had to unload the container Biokrist and install it in the right place as soon as possible. (Biokrist is complex of protein crystallisation experiments) During the next pass (orb. 48810, 1824 UTC) the main subject again was the cargo and the special attention for the container Biokrist).

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 September 6 - .
  • Mir News 228: Spacewalks (EVA's) - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    The delay in the arrival of the freighter Progress-M24 will not cause significant changes in the original programme for the near future. The EVA's to be made in September have been put back by only 1 day: so to 9 and 13.09.94. The EVA on 9.09 will start at abt. 1300 UTC. The schedule for 13.09 depends on the results of the 1st EVA. The main task during these EVA's will be the transfer of the solar batteries from Module-T (Kristall) to Module-E (Kvant-1).

    Euromir94:

    Rumours suggested a substantial delay of the beginning of that mission. This has not officially been confirmed. Officially has been stated that it might be possible that Soyuz-TM20 with the European cosmonaut on board will blast off on 4.10.94, so 1 day later.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 September 7 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Peacekeeper. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 September 8 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 September 9 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L.
  • Telstar 402 - . Mass: 3,415 kg (7,528 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Arianespace. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Telstar series. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 7000. Spacecraft: AS 7000. Decay Date: 2004-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23249 . COSPAR: 1994-058A. Apogee: 19,340 km (12,010 mi). Perigee: 292 km (181 mi). Inclination: 7.1000 deg. Period: 341.80 min.

1994 September 9 - . 07:00 GMT - .
1994 September 9 - . 13:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 September 9 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-64 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Payload: Discovery F19 / Spartan / LITE. Mass: 9,260 kg (20,410 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-64. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 10.95 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    Payloads: Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II, Robot-Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with ten GAS experiments, Trajectory Control Sensor (TCS), Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) III, Radiation Monitoring Experiment (RME) III, Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  • LITE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059xx. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, carried in shuttle payload bay. Measured the Earth's cloud cover and tracked particles in the atmosphere..
  • GBA-7 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: GBA. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23251 . COSPAR: 1994-059xx. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,288 kg (2,839 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1994-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 23253 . COSPAR: 1994-059B. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 252 km (156 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.68 min. Deployed from STS-64 9/13/94; retrieved 9/15/94; solar studies..

1994 September 10 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: Fun, Fun, Fun - . Flight: STS-64. "Fun, Fun, Fun" Parody of The Beach Boys song called"We'll Have Fun, Fun, Fun on the Shuttle" sung by Max Q (from Mach 25 tape)..

1994 September 11 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: My Girl - . Flight: STS-64. "My Girl" Parody of the song called"My World" by Max Q (from Mach 25 tape)..

1994 September 12 - .
  • Cosmonaut Dr Boris Borisovich Yegorov dies at age of 56 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yegorov. Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 1. First physician in space..

1994 September 12 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: Ace in the Hole - . Flight: STS-64. "Ace in the Hole" by George Strait..

1994 September 12 - . 15:34 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 35 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 September 13 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: I Get Around - . Flight: STS-64. "I Get Around" Parody of The Beach Boys song called"We Orbit Around" by Max Q (from Mach 25 tape)..

1994 September 13 - . 06:30 GMT - .
1994 September 14 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: Green Acres - . Flight: STS-64. "Green Acres" TV theme Parody by Max Q (from Mach 25 tape) called"On Orbit"..

1994 September 15 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: Hound Dog - . Flight: STS-64. "Hound Dog" by Elvis Presley.

1994 September 15 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho II. FAILURE: Failure.
  • 'Ofeq? - . Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 September 15 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 36 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1994 September 16 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K?. LV Family: SB-735. Launch Vehicle: ST-735.
  • FIH test - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1994 September 16 - . 14:42 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-64-1 - . Crew: Lee, Meade. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lee, Meade. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-64. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Tested SAFER emergency manoeuvring backpack..

1994 September 18 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: This Is the Time - . Flight: STS-64. "This Is the Time" by Billy Joel..

1994 September 18 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135.
  • NNP-O3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1994 September 19 - .
  • Kompsat contract - . Nation: Korea South. Spacecraft Bus: KOMPSAT. Spacecraft: KOMPSAT. TRW and Korean engineers would work together to develop the spacecraft. KOMPSAT was based on TRW's Eagle class of light weight, modular spacecraft..

1994 September 19 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: Yakety Yak - . Flight: STS-64. "Yakety Yak" by The Coasters..

1994 September 20 - .
  • STS-64 - Wakeup Song: Woody Woodpecker theme - . Flight: STS-64. "Woody Woodpecker theme" ; preceded by sounds of chirping birds and a crowing rooster and a medley of cartoon theme songs including Woody Woodpecker..

1994 September 20 - .
1994 September 21 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 September 21 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2291 - . Payload: Potok no. 8 s/n 19L. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Potok. USAF Sat Cat: 23267 . COSPAR: 1994-060A. Apogee: 35,829 km (22,263 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min.

    Cosmos 2291 quickly moved to 80 degrees E, joining Cosmos 2085 as a replacement for Cosmos1961. Thus, at the end of 1994 the Potok constellation had been restored to its normal 4·sateellite complement: Cosmos 2085 and 2291 at 80 degrees E and Cosmos 1888 and 2172 at 13.5 degrees W. Cosmos 2291 continued at 80 deg E in 1994-1995; then it was moved to 14 deg W in 1995-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 62.64 deg W drifting at 0.324 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 112.35W drifting at 0.417W degrees per day.


1994 September 23 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 September 23 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 September 23 - . 21:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 September 24 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 September 24 - . 21:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • GUARA Sunset Electrodynamics Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1994 September 27 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2292 - . Mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-1. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. USAF Sat Cat: 23278 . COSPAR: 1994-061A. Apogee: 1,951 km (1,212 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 82.9900 deg. Period: 108.90 min. Radar calibration mission..

1994 September 28 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 September 29 - .
  • Mir News 230: Soyuz-TM20 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19.

    The preparations for the launch of this ship with the relief crew and the Euromir94 astronaut are proceeding normally. The launch from Baykonur is scheduled for 3.10.94 at 2242 UTC (so for Moscow: 4.10.94 at 0142 Msc Winter Time.) If all goes well during the 2-days flight the Soyuz-TM20 will dock to the Mir complex on 6.10.94 at 0013 UTC. Radio traffic and beacon signals from Soyuz-TM20 can be monitored in our area for the first time on 4.10.94 at abt. 0142 UTC on the known frequencies. The crews on the roll are still: Aleksandr Viktorenko (commander), Yelena Kondakova (board-engineer) and the ESA astronaut, the German Ulf Merbold. The stand-ins: Yuriy Gidzenko (comm.), Sergey Avdeyev (B.E.), and the ESA astronaut, the Spaniard Pedro Duque. If the state commission decides to appoint the main-crew for the flight the crew of Soyuz-TM20 will use the call sign Vityaz (so Vityaz-1, 2 and 3.)

    Mir: The Mir-crew is preparing the station for the extension of the crew with another 3 persons. Therefore the life-support systems get special attention. The crew also modified the ASU (waste collection equipment) for the use by a lady. The crew is also busy with the loading of the freighter Progress-M24 with garbage and no things which are no longer needed. The Progress-M24 will have to leave the complex to free the docking port for the Soyuz-TM20. There have been plans to execute some test-approaches by the Progress-M24 after the undocking to try to unveil the causes of the malfunction of the Kurs system during the unsuccessful docking attempts on 26 and 30.08.94. After that operation the Progress-M24 will burn up in the atmosphere over a designated area in the Pacific ocean. Progress-M24 does not carry a VBK (ballistic return capsule).

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1994 September 30 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-68 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Baker, Mike, Bursch, Jones, Smith, Steven, Wilcutt, Wisoff. Payload: Endeavour F07 / SRL-2. Mass: 12,510 kg (27,570 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker, Mike, Bursch, Jones, Smith, Steven, Wilcutt, Wisoff. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-68. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.24 days. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    Carried SIR-C SAR. Landed at Edwards Air Force Base on October 11. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 2, five Getaway Special payloads, Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX) 5, Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) 01, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG).

  • SRL-2 - . Payload: SRL PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062xx. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 2..
  • MAPS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: MAPS. Decay Date: 1994-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23285 . COSPAR: 1994-062xx. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

1994 October 1 - .
  • Air Weather Service transferred Air Force Space Forecast Center to Air Force Space Command as the 50th Weather Squadron. - . Nation: USA.

1994 October - .
  • XMM Prime Contractor selected. - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft Bus: XMM. Spacecraft: XMM.

1994 October 3 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-20 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Kondakova, Merbold, Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Budarin, Reiter, Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 69. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Budarin, Kondakova, Merbold, Reiter, Solovyov, Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 169.22 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 23288 . COSPAR: 1994-063A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 392 km (243 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.43 min.

    Mir Expedition EO-17. Docked at the Mir forward port at 00:28 on 1994 October 6. The Mir crew of Viktorenko, Kondakova and Polyakov boarded Soyuz TM-20 on January 11, and undocked from Mir's front port at 09:00 GMT. The spacecraft withdrew to about two hundred metres from Mir and then redocked in a test of the automatic Kurs system, which had failed in Progress M-24's attempted docking. Redocking came at 09:25 GMT.


1994 October 4 - . 18:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • PIMS Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 October 5 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT157GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1994 October 6 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Intelsat 703 - . Payload: NSS 703. Mass: 3,656 kg (8,060 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: FS-1300. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 23305 . COSPAR: 1994-064A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0400 deg. Period: 1,436.07 min.

    38 C-band and 20 Ku-band transponders. Initially positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 177 deg E in 1994-1996. Then reassigned to Intelsat subsidiary New Skies, redesignated NSS 703, and moved to 57 deg E after 1996. At the crossroads of three continents, NSS-703 provided cross-connectivity for Europe, Africa and Asia. NSS-703 was used for video contribution from Europe to India and Africa, and was capable of bringing signals from London to India and Australia in one hop. NSS-703's coverage included a global beam, and two C-band hemispheric beams, which covered Africa and the triangle from Eastern Iran to Japan and Australia, including all of India and China. Three steerable Ku-band spot beams targeted Europe and Iran, Central Asia and Afghanistan-Pakistan-North India. Expected end of life March 2009. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 56.96E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.


1994 October 6 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 October 8 - . 01:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Solidaridad 2 - . Mass: 2,776 kg (6,120 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Tele Mex. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 601. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23313 . COSPAR: 1994-065A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    18 C-Band transponders. Stationed at 113.06 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 112.96 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 114.89W drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.

  • Thaicom 2 - . Mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Shinawat. Program: Thaicom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 376. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23314 . COSPAR: 1994-065B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    10 C-band, 2 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 78.42 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 78 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 78.46 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.52E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.


1994 October 11 - .
  • STS-68 - Wakeup Song: Tiny Bubbles - . Flight: STS-68. "Tiny Bubbles" There was a problem with the galley water system putting bubbles into the crew's drinking water. So Capcom Bill McArthur sent the song to the Blue shift..

1994 October 11 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Okean-O1 no. 7 - . Payload: Okean-O1 no. 7. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Okean-O1. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 23317 . COSPAR: 1994-066A. Apogee: 665 km (413 mi). Perigee: 631 km (392 mi). Inclination: 82.5400 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Oceanography..

1994 October 11 - .
1994 October 12 - .
  • Magellan Burnup in Venus' Atmosphere - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Magellan. Spacecraft: Magellan.

1994 October 13 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Ekspress - . Payload: Ekspress s/n 11L. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 23319 . COSPAR: 1994-067A. Apogee: 35,935 km (22,328 mi). Perigee: 35,887 km (22,299 mi). Inclination: 1.7000 deg. Period: 1,442.40 min.

    First launch of new Ekspress communications satellite. Replaces Gorizont series. Ekspress 1 reached its checkout location of 70 degrees E at the end of October 1994 and was moved to its operational position at 14 degrees W shortly after the start of 1995. Stationed at 14.00W in 1995-2001. As of 2007 March 10 located at 95.05E drifting at 1.636W degrees per day.


1994 October 14 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • GUARA High Altitude Spread F Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 956 km (594 mi).

1994 October 15 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • IRS-P2 - . Mass: 870 kg (1,910 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: IRS. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23323 . COSPAR: 1994-068A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 818 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.6700 deg. Period: 101.29 min. Remote sensing; sun-synch orbit..

1994 October 15 - . 13:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 October 19 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 October 21 - .
  • Death of Jerome B Wiesner at Watertown, Middlesex, MA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wiesner. American scientist. Physicist, gadfly, science advisor to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy; opposed human spaceflight, the Apollo program, and the lunar orbit rendezvous method of lunar landing..

1994 October 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 October 26 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 October 31 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Elektro 1 - . Payload: Elektro s/n 1L. Mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Elektro. Spacecraft: Elektro . Completed Operations Date: 1998-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23327 . COSPAR: 1994-069A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 4.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Stationed at 76.61 deg E. Elektro 1 was finally launched on 31 October 1994, 15 years after its original public schedule. Malfunction of the local vertical sensor and the attitude control system delayed the positioning of the spacecraft at its intended location of 76 degrees E, but by early December Elektro 1 was on station. However problems with the local vertical sensor continued to plague the spacecraft, and useful images were not available. Stayed in geosynchronous orbit at 76 deg E in 1995-1998 before being shut down. As of 4 September 2001 located at 71.89 deg E drifting at 0.069 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 67.89E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.


1994 November - .
1994 November 1 - . 00:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P.
  • Astra 1D - . Mass: 2,924 kg (6,446 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 601. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23331 . COSPAR: 1994-070A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0200 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    European DBS and radio. Stationed at 19.29 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the last in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1B and 1C's backup. It will also carry four 12.5 Ghz BSS transponders that can be combined for HDTV. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.75-10.95 Ghz FSS (&12.5 Ghz BSS) down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1C, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1995-1998; 28 deg E in 1998; 19 deg E in 1998-1999; 28 deg E in 2000.- As of 3 September 2001 located at 24.18 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.50E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.


1994 November 1 - . 09:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-10.
  • Wind - . Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Wind. Spacecraft: Wind. USAF Sat Cat: 23333 . COSPAR: 1994-071A. Apogee: 1,578,658 km (980,930 mi). Perigee: 48,840 km (30,340 mi). Inclination: 19.6500 deg. Period: 318,240.00 min.

    Solar wind research in L-1 halo orbit; part of International Solar Terrestrial Physics program. 221 day orbit. NASA's Wind probe made its 32nd lunar flyby on August 19, 2000, with a closest approach of 7600 km to the surface. This placed it on a 2 million km apogee orbit, adjusted on August 26 to an approximately 567000 x 1620000 km x 21.8 deg `Distant Prograde Orbit', reaching apogee on September 29 2000.


1994 November 2 - .
  • Death of Dieter Karl F Huzel - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Huzel. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1994 November 2 - . 01:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2293 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 5. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 497.00 days. Decay Date: 1996-05-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 23336 . COSPAR: 1994-072A. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0300 deg. Period: 92.78 min. Second launch of new EORSAT, second of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 215 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Ocean surveillance..

1994 November 3 - . 16:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-66 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Brown, Clervoy, McMonagle, Ochoa, Parazynski, Tanner. Payload: Atlantis F13 / Atlas-3. Mass: 10,544 kg (23,245 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Clervoy, McMonagle, Ochoa, Parazynski, Tanner. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-66. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 10.94 days. Decay Date: 1994-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23340 . COSPAR: 1994-073A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Carried Atlas-3 laboratory; deployed and retrieved CRISTA-SPAS. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 3, Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmo-sphere (CRISTA)-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) 1, Experiment of the Sun for Complement-ing the ATLAS Payload for Education (ESCAPE) II, Inter-Mars Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ITEPC), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) A, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE/NIH-R), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG-TES and PCG-STES), Space Tissue Loss (STL/NIH-C-A), Shuttle Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), Heat Pipe Performance (HPP).

  • Atlas-3 - . Payload: Atlas-3 PLT/Igloo. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1994-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23340 . COSPAR: 1994-073xx. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.
  • CRISTA-SPAS - . Mass: 3,260 kg (7,180 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SPAS. Spacecraft: SPAS. Decay Date: 1994-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23341 . COSPAR: 1994-073B. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.55 min. Released by STS-66 11/4/94; retrieved 11/12/95; atmospheric research..

1994 November 3 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NCAR / CU-5 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi).

1994 November 3 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • MSSTA II Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi).

1994 November 4 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Resurs-O1 No. 3 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 No. 3. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 23342 . COSPAR: 1994-074A. Apogee: 663 km (411 mi). Perigee: 660 km (410 mi). Inclination: 98.0300 deg. Period: 97.98 min.

    Studied natural resources. It carried the German Safir-R1 communications experiment as a secondary attached payload. Expected life 3 to 5 years. The spacecraft mass of 1,907 kg was slightly higher than earlier models. The principal Earth observation sensors were MSU-SK and MSU-E instruments along with an experimental PVM-E local vertical sensor .


1994 November 4 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TM-19 - . Return Crew: Malenchenko, Merbold, Musabayev. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Malenchenko, Merbold, Musabayev. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94.

    Soyuz TM-19 undocked from Mir with the crew of Malenchenko, Merbold and Musabayev aboard at 07:29 GMT on November 4. The Soyuz instrument module (PAO, priborno-agregatniy otsek) fired its deorbit engine, and was jettisoned together with the orbital module (BO, bitovoy otsek) at 10:51 GMT, with entry interface for the descent module (SA, spuskaemiy apparat) at 10:54. It landed 170 km north-east of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan on 1994 November 4 at 11:18 GMT.


1994 November 9 - .
  • Mir News 237: Progress-M25 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-19, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94. The launch of this freighter from Baykonur is on schedule for 11 November 1994 at 0721 UTC. If all goes according to plan Progress-M25 will dock to the Mir-complex in the morning of 13 November 1994.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165-A-UK3202.


1994 November 10 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 November 11 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-25 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 225. Mass: 7,125 kg (15,707 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-20. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 97.39 days. Decay Date: 1995-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 23348 . COSPAR: 1994-075A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.41 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 13 Nov 1994 09:04:29 GMT. Undocked on 16 Feb 1995 13:03:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Feb 1995 16:45:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 95.17 days..

1994 November 13 - .
  • Mir News 239: Progress-M25 docked at Mir-space station. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4, Soyuz TM-20.

    The freighter P-M25 docked at Mir's aft (Kvant-1) docking port on 13.11.94 at 0904 UTC (during orb. 49926). The approach and docking took place in the automatic mode by the system Kurs. On board Soyuz-TM20 Viktorenko was standby with the system TORU, but manual interference was not necessary. The operation could be monitored via Altair between 0822 and 0904 UTC. During the next pass (orb. 49927, 1027 UTC) the gentlemen on board left the honour to give the first post-docking report to Yelena Kondakova. Enthusiastically she reported the airseal, the opening of the hatch, the fact that Progress-M25 was clean and that they enjoyed the nice smell of apples and lemons. Polyakov said that the Progress-M25 was an ideal freighter.

    Progress-M25 delivered to the Mir-station new supplies of water, fuel, food, spare parts for repair (among which parts for the furnace to be used for the conclusion of the Euromir94 materials processing experiments) and post. Progress-M25 has not been equipped by a VBK (Ballistic Return Capsule).

    Jubilees: In the early morning of 18.11.94 Mir -that is to say the first part, the base block, launched on 19.02.1986- will make her 50000th orbit around the Earth. From that early beginning I tried to monitor as much as possible all passes within range. If I was a robot and had been able to monitor all passes this number would be 12500. But not being a robot I needed holidays etc. Nevertheless at a rough estimation I must have been monitoring Mir's radio traffic during 10000 passes. Homage to my poor ear-drums!

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1994 November 13 - .
  • Death of Richard V Rhode - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rhode. American engineer, at NASA 1925-1967, involved with air and launch vehicle research and advanced design criteria..

1994 November 14 - .
1994 November 16 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 November 20 - . 00:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2294 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 62L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23396 . COSPAR: 1994-076A. Apogee: 19,203 km (11,932 mi). Perigee: 19,057 km (11,841 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2295 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 63L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23397 . COSPAR: 1994-076B. Apogee: 19,155 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,105 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite..
  • Cosmos 2296 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 64L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23398 . COSPAR: 1994-076C. Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,122 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite..

1994 November 22 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 November 23 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 November 24 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2297 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 18. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-2. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23404 . COSPAR: 1994-077A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0100 deg. Period: 101.96 min.

1994 November 24 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: S-310. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • NNP / AIR / NID / NEL Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1994 November 25 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • CWS-58 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1994 November 29 - . 02:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Geo-IK - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 14. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Geo-IK. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 23411 . COSPAR: 1994-078A. Apogee: 1,526 km (948 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Also tested Elekon communcations payload..

1994 November 29 - . 10:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • Orion 1 - . Mass: 2,358 kg (5,198 lb). Nation: USA. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Orion. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Eurostar 2000. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23413 . COSPAR: 1994-079A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    34 Ku-band transponders for TV. Stationed at 37.48 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 37 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 37.54 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 37.60W drifting at 0.015W degrees per day.


1994 November 29 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3A.
  • Zhongxing 5 - . Payload: Chinasat 5. Mass: 2,230 kg (4,910 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Program: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DFH-3. Spacecraft: DFH-3. Completed Operations Date: 1994-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23415 . COSPAR: 1994-080A. Apogee: 35,957 km (22,342 mi). Perigee: 35,225 km (21,887 mi). Inclination: 0.1500 deg. Period: 1,426.15 min.

    The first test launch of a DFH-3 by a CZ-3A launch vehicle was successful in attaining the proper transfer orbit, but during the subsequent manoeuvres to achieve geostationary orbit, the DFH-3 failed due to a malfunction of the satellite on-board propulsion system. The satellite was positioned at 132 deg E prior to the failure. As of 4 September 2001 located at 113.80 deg E drifting at 2.499 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 90.02E drifting at 2.513E degrees per day.


1994 November 30 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 33 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DASA. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi).

1994 December 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 740. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 December 1 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: S-520. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi).

1994 December 1 - . 22:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. FAILURE: Stage 3 gas generator.. Failed Stage: U.
1994 December 3 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • WISP 1 Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 December 5 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Improved Orion.
  • Hygrosonde Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1994 December 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 730. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 December 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 730. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 December 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: LC36 L-455. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • CSAR-2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CSA. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). CSAR II (Canadian materials processing payload).

1994 December 12 - .
  • Death of Stuart Allen 'Stu' Roosa at Falls Church, Virginia. Natural causes - Viral pneumonia, a complication of pancreatitis. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Roosa. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 14..

1994 December 14 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-1-88 - . Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 23420 . COSPAR: 1994-081A. Apogee: 38,562 km (23,961 mi). Perigee: 1,795 km (1,115 mi). Inclination: 64.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Molniya 188, relieved Molniya 1-82 of its duties. At the end of 1994, operational Molniya satellites were 1-79, 1-80, and 1-83 through 1-88..

1994 December 15 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 December 16 - .
  • Discovery of QUE 94201 (Mars Meteorite) - .

1994 December 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Luch - . Payload: Luch s/n 13L. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Luch . Completed Operations Date: 1998-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23426 . COSPAR: 1994-082A. Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 2.4800 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min.

    Stationed at 95 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Improved Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg E in 1994-1997; 16 deg W in 1997-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 143.35 deg W drifting at 0.319 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 64.95W drifting at 0.320E degrees per day.


1994 December 17 - . 02:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1994 December 20 - . 05:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2298 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 23431 . COSPAR: 1994-083A. Apogee: 810 km (500 mi). Perigee: 785 km (487 mi). Inclination: 74.0300 deg. Period: 100.83 min. Replaced Cosmos 2150. Final operational constellation was Cosmos 2208, 2251, and 2298..

1994 December 20 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk Yu-1. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 December 22 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 402A/IUS.
  • USA 107 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 14 F17. Mass: 2,360 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DSP. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 23435 . COSPAR: 1994-084A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1999. Still in service as of March 2007..

1994 December 26 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC175/59. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • Radio-ROSTO RS-15 - . Payload: RS-15. Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Radio. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 23439 . COSPAR: 1994-085A. Apogee: 2,151 km (1,336 mi). Perigee: 1,894 km (1,176 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 127.70 min.

1994 December 26 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. Launch Pad: LC32/2?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2299 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 99. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23441 . COSPAR: 1994-086A. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,402 km (871 mi). Inclination: 82.5700 deg. Period: 113.97 min. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2303 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 103. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23445 . COSPAR: 1994-086E. Apogee: 1,430 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.5600 deg. Period: 114.26 min.
  • Cosmos 2302 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 102. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23444 . COSPAR: 1994-086D. Apogee: 1,423 km (884 mi). Perigee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 2301 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 101. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23443 . COSPAR: 1994-086C. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Inclination: 82.5600 deg. Period: 114.11 min.
  • Cosmos 2300 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 100. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23442 . COSPAR: 1994-086B. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Inclination: 82.5500 deg. Period: 114.05 min.
  • Cosmos 2304 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 104. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 23446 . COSPAR: 1994-086F. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.5600 deg. Period: 114.11 min.

1994 December 28 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 32 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 43L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 23448 . COSPAR: 1994-087A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 1.4100 deg. Period: 1,436.22 min.

    Raduga 32 joined Raduga 25 and Raduga 1-1 at 70 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1995-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.00 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 73.08E drifting at 0.033E degrees per day.


1994 December 29 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2305 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 354.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23453 . COSPAR: 1994-088A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Photo/digital surveillance..

1994 December 30 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 14 - . Payload: NOAA K. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 23455 . COSPAR: 1994-089A. Apogee: 861 km (534 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 98.8800 deg. Period: 102.02 min.


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