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1971 Chronology

1971 - . Launch Vehicle: Alfa.
  • Alfa SLBM project begun. - . Nation: Italy.

    The project for an indigenous Italian ballistic missile was begunby the Italian Navy. Officially it was called a 'technology program intented to develop high power solid-propellant boosters for civil and military applications'. The resulting missile was to be carried on submarines and major surface combatants.


1971 January - .
  • LLTV destroyed in crash at Houston. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Slayton. Spacecraft Bus: Apollo LM. Spacecraft: Apollo LLRV.

    Donald 'Deke' Slayton, then NASA's astronaut chief, said there was no other way to simulate a moon landing except by flying the LLTV. LLRV No. 2, the sole survivor, was eventually returned to Dryden, where it is on display as a silent artifact of the Center's contribution to the Apollo program.


1971 January 1 - .
  • Cosmonaut Anatoly Pavlovich Demyanenko dies at age of 29 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Demyanenko.

1971 - . Launch Site: Nenoksa. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: V-1000. Launch Vehicle: 1Ya2TA.
  • Yantar'-4 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1971? - . Launch Site: Teikovo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971? - . Launch Site: Teikovo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL71-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL71-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL71-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 January 3 - .
  • Skylab Orbital Workshop dynamic test article delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    The Orbital Workshop dynamic test article arrived at the Clear Lake Creek Basin adjacent to MSC aboard the barge Orion. It was offloaded on 7 January and moved to the MSC acoustic test facility where it was set up for vibroacoustic testing scheduled to start on 20 January. The acoustic test facility had been checked out previously, and the acoustic environments generated met simulated conditions surrounding the Skylab during Skylab I liftoff and Skylab 1 maximum gravity.


1971 January 4 - .
  • Meetings in January 1971 continue the level of coordination in preparation for Kontakt flights (4, 10, 12 January. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz Kontakt. (Mishin Diaries 2-314))..

1971 January 4 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1971 January 5 - .
  • VVS Reviews TsKBEM Facilities and Programs - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kutakhov, Mishin. Program: Salyut, Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    Two hour meeting between the VVS leadership and Mishin at TsKBEM. Mishin claims he will fly the N1 to orbit this year, and that it will have a payload of 95 to 100 tonnes to low earth orbit. He wants to make 4 to 5 unmanned launches in 1971-1972, followed by one unmanned lunar flyby, culminating in the first Soviet cosmonaut landing on the moon in March 1973. Afterwards the VVS leaders tour the L3 and DOS-7K mock-ups. Mishin asks - Why won't the VVS support his plan for an Indian Ocean landing for the L3? Why is the VVS against a 30-day duration for the first DOS flight? Why isn't the VVS training engineer-cosmonauts as pilots? Kutakhov replies that these are decisions that have to be made by aviation specialists, not by engineers or chief designers. The General Staff supports the VVS position.


1971 January 6 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1971 January 7 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1971 January 7 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1971 January 8 - . Launch Site: Minot AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The first squadron of Minuteman III (LGM-30G) ICBMs was officially turned over to SAG's 91st Strategic Missile Wing at Minot AFB, North Dakota. - .

1971 January 8 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1971 January 8 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 January 8 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi).

1971 January 9 - .
  • Shatalov comes to leadership attention after good work on Pompidou visit. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shatalov. The leadership wants to appoint Shatalov as a space adviser to the General Staff. Kamanin wants him as Deputy Commander of TsPK..

1971 January 9 - .
  • VVS Reviews TsKBM Facilities and Programs - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Mishin, Ustinov. Program: Almaz, Salyut. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1.

    The VVS leadership visits Chelomei's facility at Reutov. Kamanin recalls first seeting the Almaz mock-up five years earlier - it was already fully defined then. But it was only in August 1970 that a resolution was issued setting a firm schedule: Chelomei was to start flight trails in the second half of 1971, and the station was to enter service in 1972. Mishin is proposing to cancel Almaz and build 10 DOS stations instead. Mishin currently supervises five design bureaux, 60,000 workers, and is working on Soyuz, 7K-S, L3, DOS-7K, and a very few other projects. Chelomei has only one design bureau and 8,000 workers. Yet he has produced well-designed, mass-produced cruise missiles for the Navy, over 1,000 ICBM's for the RVSN, and the high-quality UR-500 Proton launch vehicle. Almaz could have flown on time if Ustinov had allowed Chelomei just 10% of the resources he has let Mishin squander on DOS. Chelomei easily agrees with the VVS to a mutual schedule for Almaz crew training, crew composition, etc. The contrast with the argumentative Mishin couldn't be greater.


1971 January 9 - . Launch Site: Green River. LV Family: Athena RTV.
  • After a six-month halt due to the 11 July 1970 malfunction, Athena testing was resumed from the Green River, Utah, complex. - .

1971 January 10 - . 15:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para, AN/DMQ-9 - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 43 km (26 mi).

1971 January 11 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • SAFEGUARD M1-30 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 January 11 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • SAFEGUARD M1-30 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 January 11 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-30 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 January 12 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1971 January 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 390 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4845 . COSPAR: 1971-001A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 January 12 - . 20:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1971 January 13 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant II.
  • O2 profile Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1971 January 14 - .
1971 January 14 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 391 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 11. Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1971-04-01 . Decay Date: 1972-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4847 . COSPAR: 1971-002A. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 267 km (165 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1971 January 15 - .
  • Spiral to be raised at VVS Soviet. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Leonov, Nikolayev, Zakharov. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    Kamanin manges to get to Zakahrov, who agrees to take the Spiral issue to the Military Soviet of the VVS. Leonov and Nikolayev review Kamanin's new draft decree to be presented to he Military Soviet. The DOS-7K is two weeks behind schedule for the planned 15 March launch date.


1971 January 15 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi).

1971 January 16 - .
  • Lunokhod 1 has completed its lunar activities. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Keldysh. Spacecraft: Lunokhod. Kamanin's son, also a VVS pilot, is being sent to Hanoi for service. Kamanin writes a letter to Keldysh on the naming of lunar craters for deceased cosmonauts..

1971 January 16 - .
  • A note (Mishin Diaries 2-320) indicates that a primary purpose of the DOS Salyut station was to demonstrate long-stay crew endurance for the rotating crews of the MKBS. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: , MKBS, Salyut. 10:00 - IMBP (Vorobyev, Gazenko Nefedov) About 30-day flight to the DOS number 1. Increasing the duration spaceflight on these DOS missions. Work on the MKBS. (Mishin Diaries 2-320).

1971 January 16 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • MUMP 9 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi).

1971 January 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1971 January 16 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 357 km (221 mi).

1971 January 16 - . 23:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • NUTMEG Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 14:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C37 / 2 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 15:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • MPE Barium release / Brigitte Ionosphere / fields mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi).

1971 January 18 - .
  • Spiral controversy continues. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kutakhov. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Kutakhov flies to Minsk, with the draft decree to be submitted to the Military Soviet still not approved. The leadership have many questions, especially concerning the Spiral project..

1971 January 19 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D.
  • AFCRL 71-1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1971 January 20 - .
  • Mishin pushing 'Big Orbital Station'. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Kozlov, Mishin. Program: Almaz, Salyut. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, MKBS.

    Mishin is attempting to set up a separate training centre for civilian cosmonauts at the Moscow Aviation Institute. Mishin and the civilian cosmonauts come to view the TsPK premises to get ideas. This is a new attack by Mishin, in Kamanin's eyes. Mishin has been ill for a long time, but it doesn't stop him from meddling in the details of work of his deputies. Now they are working on a Big Orbital Station (BOS) for 9-12 crew. This amounts to nothing more than a new move against Chelomei. Mishin is intent on monopolising manned spaceflight at any cost. He attempts to take over any other such projects allocated to Chelomei or Kozlov.


1971 January 20 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-07 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 7. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2005-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4849 . COSPAR: 1971-003A. Apogee: 550 km (340 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 January 20 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • PLUM Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1971 January 20 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • SECEDE II Early Beacon - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 January 21 - .
  • X-24 Flight 21 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1093 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 462 sec..

1971 January 21 - . 02:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Auroral Aurora / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 392 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4872 . COSPAR: 1971-004A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 January 21 - . 18:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D.
  • AFCRL 71-2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 7776 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 30 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4874 . COSPAR: 1971-005A. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Perigee: 139 km (86 mi). Inclination: 110.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1971 January 21 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D.
  • AFCRL 71-3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D.
  • AFCRL 71-4 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D.
  • AFCRL 71-5 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 21:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D.
  • AFCRL 71-6 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1971 January 22 - .
  • Low and Anders visit the Gagarin Training Centre. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anders, Low. They are very interested in the Soyuz and Volga trainers..

1971 January 22 - . 20:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 26 / Polar 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1971 January 23 - .
  • Meeting of VVS leadership. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tereshkova. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    Kamanin reviews his public relations operations. In ten years the cosmonauts have made 6,000 speeches and gone on 200 publicity tours. Tereshkova is the most in demand. 30 documentary films have been produced, as well as hundreds of books and brochures. The Star City Museum had 13,000 visitors in 1970.


1971 January 23 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 January 23 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Auroral VUV Aurora / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi).

1971 January 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi).

1971 January 23 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 January 24 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Sco X-1 X-ray astronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi).

1971 January 25 - .
  • Cosmonauts on public relations duty. - . Nation: Russia. A record number of cosmonauts are away from the training centre on public relations trips..

1971 January 25 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • PCA particle spectra Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • JHU UVT F6 (Venus) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C60 / 1 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • JHU Airglow 10 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 15:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • PCA particle spectra Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 January 26 - .
  • ECS technology review. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gazenko, Keldysh, Severin, Voronin. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft: Aelita satellite, MKBS, Salyut 1.

    Keldysh heads a review of spacecraft environmental control system development. The work of the IMBP is not well organised. They have been developing systems for eight years with no concrete results. G I Voronin is responsible for oxygen regenerator and thermal regulation systems; G I Severin, for space suits; O G Gazenko for biosensors, medicines, and space food. Two problems need to be solved: to understand and counter the effects of zero gravity on the human organism; and to develop a reliable environmental control system with a guaranteed life of two to three years. Keldysh declares that in the next five to ten years the Soviet Union will not fly space stations with artificial gravity. Therefore, due to the inevitable deterioration of the human body in zero gravity, crews will have to be rotated every 30 to 60 days. Development must continue with an eye to supporting eventual lunar bases and manned expeditions to Mars.


1971 January 26 - . 00:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
  • Intelsat 4 F-2 - . Mass: 706 kg (1,556 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 312 / HS 351 / HS 353. Spacecraft: Intelsat 4. Completed Operations Date: 1983-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 4881 . COSPAR: 1971-006A. Apogee: 36,236 km (22,515 mi). Perigee: 36,151 km (22,463 mi). Inclination: 15.3000 deg. Period: 1,457.00 min.

    Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit; the satellite performed the apogee burn and positioned itself in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 24.5 deg W. Subsequently at 23 deg W in 1971-1975; over the Atlantic Ocean 1-6 deg W in 1976-1980; over the Atlantic Ocean 0-5 deg E in 1980-1983. As of 3 September 2001 at 31.91 deg E drifting at 5.168 deg W per day. As of 2006 Dec 18 located at 133.93E drifting at 5.166W degrees per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1971 January 26 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C60 / 2 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 12:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 393 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 34. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1971-06-12 . Decay Date: 1971-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4884 . COSPAR: 1971-007A. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 January 26 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • ESRO P40 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 17:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Airglow Ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • Cert.Round (Probe C) test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 23:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • SECEDE II Early Beacon - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • REDWOOD Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi).

1971 January 27 - .
  • DOS training conflicts. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Leonov, Mishin, Shatalov. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Beregovoi, Leonov, and Shatalov go to TsKBEM to review the training plan for the DOS-7K station at the KIS (Experimental Control Station) facility. Mishin wants the crew of Soyuz s/n 32 to be working aboard the 'live' spacecraft on 3-4 February, but they need to be at the cosmodrome on those dates for training on the Svinets ICBM detector experiment. This conflicts with Mishin's schedule for availability of a 'live' Soyuz for training. Mishin still wants, completely unrealistically, to launch on the day of the 24th Party Conference.


1971 January 27 - .
  • Kamanin lists Soviet space management failures. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Karas, Keldysh, Smirnov, Ustinov. Spacecraft: LK, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    It is obvious to Kamanin from the ECS conference that there are many mistakes in the organization of the Soviet space program. There is no single agency directing the program, like the American NASA. There is not only no five year plan for manned spaceflight, there is not even a plan for next year! Decisions on manned space are made erratically by unqualified members of the leadership. There is no single manager of military space projects. Ustinov, Smirnov, Keldysh, and Karas at GUKOS are all pulling in different directions. Ustinov, Smirnov, and Keldysh don't give space more than 10% of their working time.


1971 January 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 04M demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 January 27 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C78 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 January 28 - .
  • Spiral negotiations continue. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    An article Kamanin has written on aircraft designer Ilyushin has been published in Pravda. Kamanin is impressed by a new book by Orlov on possible civilian medical applications of technology developed for spaceflight. Negotiations continue with the Military Soviet on the resolution on future manned military space projects.


1971 January 28 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.37 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1971 January 28 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.38 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1971 January 28 - . 15:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • MPE Barium release / Erika Ionosphere / fields mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi).

1971 January 28 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S46 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi).

1971 January 28 - . 22:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • REDWOOD (Probe F) Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 January 29 - .
  • Space vehicle for the Apollo 14 mission determined ready for launch - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 14.

    The space vehicle for the Apollo 14 mission was determined ready for launch on January 31. The Flight Readiness Review had been held at KSC on December 17, 1970; all required action and open work had been completed; and the Pre-Liftoff Readiness Review had been favorably completed January 29.


1971 January 29 - .
  • Plans for test of DOS ABM sensor technology at Baikonur. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Three DOS-7K crews are to fly on two Tu-104's to Baikonur on 30 January. The Tu-104's are fitted with the Svinets equipment, which the cosmonauts will use to capture spectral data on two rocket launches. This training will prepare them for use of the Svinets equipment aboard the DOS station. Lots of bigwigs from the VVS plan to tag along as well.


1971 January 29 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT90B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • XRB anisotropy X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 17:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Keweenaw. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 19:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 23:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Strypi.
  • OLIVE (352 kg) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 23:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • SECEDE II Early Beacon - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

1971 January 30 - .
  • Warsaw Pact officers tour Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre. - . Nation: Russia. The TsPK is visited by participants in a meeting of the Warsaw Pact General Staff. This amounts to 29 generals, 2 to 3 from each country of the pact..

1971 January 30 - . 00:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • SECEDE II Late Beacon - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1971 January 31 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Keweenaw. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1971 January 31 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: LUT2. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo 14 - . Call Sign: Kitty Hawk. Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Backup Crew: Cernan, Engle, Evans. Support Crew: Chapman, McCandless, Pogue. Payload: Apollo CSM 110 / Apollo LM 8 / ALSEP / S-IVB-509. Mass: 29,230 kg (64,440 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan, Chapman, Engle, Evans, McCandless, Mitchell, Pogue, Roosa, Shepard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4900 . COSPAR: 1971-008A. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 31.1200 deg. Period: 88.18 min.

    The Apollo 14 (AS-509) mission - manned by astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell - was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 4:03 p.m. EST January 31 on a Saturn V launch vehicle. A 40-minute hold had been ordered 8 minutes before scheduled launch time because of unsatisfactory weather conditions, the first such delay in the Apollo program. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection were similar to those of the previous lunar landing missions. However, during transposition and docking, CSM 110 Kitty Hawk had difficulty docking with LM-8 Antares. A hard dock was achieved on the sixth attempt at 9:00 p.m. EST, 1 hour 54 minutes later than planned. Other aspects of the translunar journey were normal and proceeded according to flight plan. A crew inspection of the probe and docking mechanism was televised during the coast toward the moon. The crew and ground personnel were unable to determine why the CSM and LM had failed to dock properly, but there was no indication that the systems would not work when used later in the flight.

    Apollo 14 entered lunar orbit at 1:55 a.m. EST on February 4. At 2:41 a.m. the separated S-IVB stage and instrument unit struck the lunar surface 174 kilometers southeast of the planned impact point. The Apollo 12 seismometer, left on the moon in November 1969, registered the impact and continued to record vibrations for two hours.

    After rechecking the systems in the LM, astronauts Shepard and Mitchell separated the LM from the CSM and descended to the lunar surface. The Antares landed on Fra Mauro at 4:17 a.m. EST February 5, 9 to 18 meters short of the planned landing point. The first EVA began at 9:53 a.m., after intermittent communications problems in the portable life support system had caused a 49-minute delay. The two astronauts collected a 19.5-kilogram contingency sample; deployed the TV, S-band antenna, American flag, and Solar Wind Composition experiment; photographed the LM, lunar surface, and experiments; deployed the Apollo lunar surface experiments package 152 meters west of the LM and the laser-ranging retroreflector 30 meters west of the ALSEP; and conducted an active seismic experiment, firing 13 thumper shots into the lunar surface.

    A second EVA period began at 3:11 a.m. EST February 6. The two astronauts loaded the mobile equipment transporter (MET) - used for the first time - with photographic equipment, tools, and a lunar portable magnetometer. They made a geology traverse toward the rim of Cone Crater, collecting samples on the way. On their return, they adjusted the alignment of the ALSEP central station antenna in an effort to strengthen the signal received by the Manned Space Flight Network ground stations back on earth.

    Just before reentering the LM, astronaut Shepard dropped a golf ball onto the lunar surface and on the third swing drove the ball 366 meters. The second EVA had lasted 4 hours 35 minutes, making a total EVA time for the mission of 9 hours 24 minutes. The Antares lifted off the moon with 43 kilograms of lunar samples at 1:48 p.m. EST February 6.

    Meanwhile astronaut Roosa, orbiting the moon in the CSM, took astronomy and lunar photos, including photos of the proposed Descartes landing site for Apollo 16.

    Ascent of the LM from the lunar surface, rendezvous, and docking with the CSM in orbit were performed as planned, with docking at 3:36 p.m. EST February 6. TV coverage of the rendezvous and docking maneuver was excellent. The two astronauts transferred from the LM to the CSM with samples, equipment, and film. The LM ascent stage was then jettisoned and intentionally crashed on the moon's surface at 7:46 p.m. The impact was recorded by the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 ALSEPs.

    The spacecraft was placed on its trajectory toward earth during the 34th lunar revolution. During transearth coast, four inflight technical demonstrations of equipment and processes in zero gravity were performed.

    The CM and SM separated, the parachutes deployed, and other reentry events went as planned, and the Kitty Hawk splashed down in mid-Pacific at 4:05 p.m. EST February 9 about 7 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. New Orleans. The Apollo 14 crew returned to Houston on February 12, where they remained in quarantine until February 26.

    All primary mission objectives had been met. The mission had lasted 216 hours 40 minutes and was marked by the following achievements:

    • Third manned lunar landing mission and return.
    • Use of mobile equipment transporter (MET).
    • Payload of 32,500 kilograms placed in lunar orbit.
    • Distance of 3.3 kilometers traversed on lunar surface.
    • Payload of 43.5 kilograms returned from the lunar surface.
    • Lunar surface stay time of 33 hours.
    • Lunar surface EVA of 9 hours 47 minutes.
    • Use of shortened rendezvous technique.
    • Service propulsion system orbit insertion.
    • Active seismic experiment.
    • Inflight technical demonstrations.
    • Extensive orbital science period during CSM solo operations.
  • Apollo 14 LM - . Call Sign: Antares. Payload: Apollo LM 8. Mass: 15,279 kg (33,684 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4900 . COSPAR: 1971-008x. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 31.1200 deg. Period: 88.18 min.

1971 February 1 - .
  • Taifun-1 accepted into military service. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On adoption of the Taifun-1 into armaments' was issued..

1971 February 1 - .
  • Salyut shipped to Baikonur - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bugayskiy, Chelomei, Mishin, Semenov. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The first DOS station was shipped in to Baikonur in an incomplete state. Work continued to complete it day and night without break. The old MIK at Baikonur was used to prepare the Soyuz launch vehicle and 7K-TOK ferry spacecraft. The station was to be called Zarya, or 'Dawn', but the name was changed just before launch to prevent confusion with the secret Chinese manned spacecraft of the same name. Additional Details: here....


1971 February 1 - .
  • Military Soviet of the VVS considers manned space plans - Day 1. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    The Military Soviet of the VVS meets from 10:00 to 15:00. Kamanin's draft decree is debated. The Apollo 14 launch has bolstered interest in Soviet spaceflight. Problems with the decree are identified, but solved. Kamanin is particularly happy that mention is made of good use of crewed spacecraft designs as opposed to total automation.


1971 February 1 - . 00:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • SECEDE II Late Beacon - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1971 February 1 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. Launch Vehicle: JCR.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 February 1 - . 22:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • SPRUCE II (Probe C) Ionosphere / fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1971 February 2 - .
  • Military Soviet of the VVS considers manned space plans - Day 2. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Kamanin waits and waits to give his speech on the second day of the VVS Military Soviet. It is constantly postponed. He spends 16 hours waiting 'on-call'. This demonstrates to him the poor organisation of the military leadership..

1971 February 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • First State trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 February 2 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • QUINCE II (Probe A) Aeronomy / ionosphere / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 February 2 - . 15:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • QUINCE II (Probe E) Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 February 2 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • SECEDE II Early Beacon - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi).

1971 February 3 - .
  • First Svinets test successful. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Leonov reports that the Tu-104 was ready last night for the flight to observe a rocket launch using the Svinets device. All went normally. The second launch will be made tonight at 20:00..

1971 February 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF24. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT101F Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL71-02 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 February 3 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M.
  • NATO 2 - . Payload: NATO IIB. Mass: 243 kg (535 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Skynet. Spacecraft: NATO 1. Completed Operations Date: 1984-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4902 . COSPAR: 1971-009A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 13.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    The second NATO military communications satellite (NATO IIB) was launched by NASA aboard a Thrust Augmented Thor/Delta booster. Developed for NATO under SAMSO program management, the spacecraft was first placed in a transfer orbit and then moved into an acceptable synchronous orbit on 4 February. Although numerous difficulties were experienced prior to launch, the satellite achieved its stationary orbit and has performed successfully since then. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 26 deg W in 1971-1975?; over the Americas at 105 deg W in 1976-1983; over the Americas at 110 deg W in 1983; over the Americas at 105 deg W in 1983-1998 As of 5 September 2001 located at 104.88 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 105.24W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.


1971 February 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 22 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Powell's check flight, glide. Maximum Speed - 700 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 235 sec..

1971 February 4 - .
  • Second Svinets test successful. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. The DOS crews return from Tyuratam. The second missile launch was observed successfully by the Svinets apparatus as well. Cosmonaut teams are assigned to public relations tours of Egypt, USA, Italy, Viet Nam, and Hungary..

1971 February 4 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 632. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 February 5 - .
  • Soviet view of Apollo 14. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Keldysh, Mishin, Shonin, Smirnov, Ustinov. Program: Apollo, Lunar L3. Apollo 14 successfully lands on the moon. Kamanin notes that the Soviet Union is now five to six years behind, due to the mistakes of Mishin, Keldysh, Smirnov, and Ustinov. Shonin is training on Soyuz s/n 32 at the KIS of TsKBEM..

1971 February 5 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT60M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 5 - . 09:18 GMT - .
  • Apollo 14 lands on the moon - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 14.

    After rechecking the systems in the LM, astronauts Shepard and Mitchell separated the LM from the CSM and descended to the lunar surface. Shepard piloted the spacecraft to a routine landing at 09:18:11 GMT about 350 miles (563 kilometers) west-southwest of the center of the moon's visible side. Antares was only 175 feet (53 meters) from its targeted landing site. Additional Details: here....


1971 February 5 - . 14:42 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 14-1 - . Crew: Mitchell, Shepard. EVA Duration: 0.20 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mitchell, Shepard. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Explored lunar surface near LM and deployed ALSEP unmanned scientific station equipment..

1971 February 5 - . 22:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVB.
  • Impedance dipole Aurora / ionosphere / meteorology mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 784 km (487 mi).

1971 February 6 - .
1971 February 6 - .
  • Incident with Shonin during DOS training. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shonin. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The training session at KIS yesterday was subverted by Shonin's drunkenness. Kamanin investigates the matter all day. Shonin is said to have brought vodka to the KIS and consumed vodka during the session. Kamanin confronted him, but of course he is sober now. Kamanin cannot understand the man, He has known him for eleven years and thought him a competent person.


1971 February 6 - . 08:11 GMT - .
1971 February 6 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S80 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S80 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1971 February 7 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S80 / 3 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1971 February 8 - .
  • Repercussions of Shonin incident. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Khrunov, Kubasov, Mishin, Rukavishnikov, Shonin, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut.

    Kamanin has a meeting with Leonov and Shonin on the KIS incident. Shonin claims he was sober. Mishin calls. He says Khrunov and Shonin were not ready for training anyway; they had to be led by the nose the whole time. He would prefer that Yeliseyev, Kubasov, and Rukavishnikov be assigned to the mission.


1971 February 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT91B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 8 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1971 February 9 - .
  • Skylab Orbital Workshop management review. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    An Orbital Workshop management review was conducted at McDonnell Douglas. Representatives from McDonnell Douglas, NASA Hq, KSC, MSFC, and MSC attended. Significant agenda items included the program schedule, engineering changes, design status, component tests, and procurement status. The OWS flight module was about three months behind schedule. The component development and qualification testing was also behind schedule. McDonnell Douglas reorganized the procurement activity and was making a significant effort to improve this area since it directly impacted the schedule slip.


1971 February 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 21 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F3 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1971 February 9 - . 18:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 394 - . Payload: DS-P1-M s/n 2. Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. Completed Operations Date: 1972-02-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4922 . COSPAR: 1971-010A. Apogee: 552 km (342 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Target for IS ASAT systems tests. First test using Yangel-designed lighter, cheaper target launched by Kosmos 11K65M booster from Plesetsk..

1971 February 9 - .
  • Landing of Apollo 14 - . Return Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 14.

    The CM and SM separated, the parachutes deployed, and other reentry events went as planned, and the Kitty Hawk splashed down in mid-Pacific at 21:05 GMT 7 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. New Orleans. The Apollo 14 crew returned to Houston on February 12, where they remained in quarantine until February 26. All primary mission objectives had been met. Additional Details: here....


1971 February 10 - .
  • KSC awarded a contract to the Holloway Corporation of Titusville, Florida, to construct a launcher-pedestal for the Skylab Program. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab.

    The 38.7-m-tall pedestal adapted to an existing launcher-umbilical tower so that manned Saturn IB space vehicles could be launched from facilities supporting the larger Saturn V rockets. Holloway contracted to construct the launcher- pedestal in 180 days after receiving notice to proceed.


1971 February 11 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1971 February 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 February 13 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SSME Award - . Nation: USA.

    North American Rockwell's Rocketdyne division was awarded NASA contract NAS8-40000 for development of the space shuttle main engine, beating out Pratt and Whitney and Aerojet. This was the only large liquid propellant rocket motor scheduled to be developed in the United States for decades and a crushing blow to the losers. Both felt that their designs were superior to that of Rocketdyne, but Rocketdyne had become NASA's 'house' for main rocket engines.


1971 February 14 - . 08:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 February 15 - .
  • Medical verdict on Shonin. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shonin. Program: Salyut. Shonin is examined by VVS physicians. They believe he became a secret drinker after his October 1969 spaceflight..

1971 February 16 - . LV Family: Thor.
  • A Thor/Burner II launch vehicle successfully carried out a Space Experiments Support Program (SESP) orbital flight for the Naval Research Laboratory. - .

1971 February 16 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S.
  • Tansei 1 - . Payload: MS T1. Mass: 62 kg (136 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tansei. USAF Sat Cat: 4952 . COSPAR: 1971-011A. Apogee: 1,106 km (687 mi). Perigee: 986 km (612 mi). Inclination: 29.7000 deg. Period: 106.10 min. Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites. Injection point 29.7 N, 145.8 E .

1971 February 17 - .
  • Management plans for Gagarin Cosmonaut Centre jeopardised. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev, Leonov, Mishin. Management of TsPK is in question due to intrigues by Mishin and his allies within the VVS. After the death of Belyayev it was committed that Leonov would become head of the First Directorate of TsPK. This is now in doubt..

1971 February 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 February 17 - . 03:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2.
  • DMSP-Block-5A F3 - . Payload: DAPP 3526 / OPS 5268. Mass: 195 kg (429 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 4/5 satellites. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5A. USAF Sat Cat: 4953 . COSPAR: 1971-012A. Apogee: 799 km (496 mi). Perigee: 741 km (460 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.20 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..
  • Calsphere 4 - . Payload: NRL PL170B / OPS 5268. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Calsphere. Decay Date: 1989-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4958 . COSPAR: 1971-012D. Apogee: 502 km (311 mi). Perigee: 486 km (301 mi). Inclination: 98.4000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Radar calibarion sphere. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Calsphere 5 - . Payload: NRL PL170C / OPS 5268. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Calsphere. Decay Date: 1990-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 4963 . COSPAR: 1971-012E. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Radar calibarion sphere. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Calsphere 3A - . Payload: NRL PL170A / OPS 5268. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Calsphere. Decay Date: 1989-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4957 . COSPAR: 1971-012C. Apogee: 531 km (329 mi). Perigee: 509 km (316 mi). Inclination: 98.4000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Radar calibarion sphere. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1971 February 17 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 05M demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 17 - . 20:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • KH-4B 1113 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1113. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1971-02-17 .

    KH-4B. The launch vehicle had a very cold boattail due to a hose discovered to be leaking away warming air to the boattail. The boattail was colder than usual, below freezing. Based on earlier tests of the Thor for just that condition, as relayed by Ed Dierdorf, Thor chief engineer at the time, the temp low was of no concern.

    The only problem was that those tests were made with a Thor that carried a Rocketdyne engine lubricated with "lube oil". The Thor being launched used a fuel additive, "Orinite" (like STP "super snot"). The technician that pumped the Orinite into its cannister later stated, "It wasn't for lack of orinite. I put it in just like the procedure said, and I could feel when it was full (with the hand pump). To make sure, I gave it another slug."

    That "other slug" cracked the output valve that was only supposed to be cracked by turbopump output pressure. When it cracked the output valve a bit of the "honey" squirted down the tube toward engine bearing jets. This line had a low spot in it by design. The Orinite settled there. When it was chilled by the low temp air at lox loading, the Orinite formed a plug.

    Unaware of this chain of circumstances, Launch Director Philip Payne made the decision to launch. The rocket (carrying Agena D and payload) flew for 18 seconds, then wiped out its gears, causing the turbine to overspeed and shed its vanes. These punctured various parts in the boattail like machine gun bullets. With loss of power, the rocket fell not far from the launch pad into Bear Creek canyon.

    The final cause was therefore found to be loss of engine lubrication at startup.

  • SRV 825 - . Payload: SRV 1113-1. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B.
  • SRV 826 - . Payload: SRV 1113-2. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B.

1971 February 17 - . 21:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 395 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4955 . COSPAR: 1971-013A. Apogee: 546 km (339 mi). Perigee: 529 km (328 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Possible ELINT satellite..

1971 February 18 - .
  • X-24 Flight 23 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1606 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20544 m. Flight Time - 447 sec..

1971 February 18 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 396 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 4959 . COSPAR: 1971-014A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 February 19 - .
  • Kamanin fascinated by peaceful use of nuclear explosives. - . Nation: Russia. The Minister of Medium Machine Building holds a conference on the occasion of the 53rd Anniversary of the Soviet Army. A film is shown on the use of nuclear explosives to extract oil in Central Asia - fantastic images..

1971 February 20 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • Auroral emissions Aurora / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 785 km (487 mi).

1971 February 22 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 350.
  • Crab polarization X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1971 February 22 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S85 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 23 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Berenice. Launch Vehicle: Tibere.
  • ELECTRE Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 February 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-28 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 24 - .
  • VVS position to limit duration of DOS missions hopeless. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Brezhnev, Kutakhov, Smirnov, Ustinov. Program: Salyut.

    Kutakhov calls Smirnov to give the VVS position on DOS-7K flights. He is told that Mishin has not only Ustinov and Smirnov, but even Brezhnev behind him in support of 30, and then 60 day spaceflight durations aboard DOS. The VVS' position of limiting flights to 20 to 24 days has no chance.


1971 February 24 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 February 25 - . 01:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1971 February 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT102F Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 25 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 397 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. USAF Sat Cat: 4964 . COSPAR: 1971-015A. Apogee: 2,164 km (1,344 mi). Perigee: 572 km (355 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 113.10 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercept and destruction of target successful on second orbit..

1971 February 26 - .
  • M2 Flight 22 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 821 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 348 sec..

1971 February 26 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 398 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 2. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,463.78 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4966 . COSPAR: 1971-016A. Apogee: 1,958 km (1,216 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 106.70 min.

    Second space test of the LK moon lander test using the T2K version. Followed the same programme as Cosmos 379.
    Maneuver Summary:
    189km X 252km orbit to 186km X 1189km orbit. Delta V: 251 m/s
    186km X 1189km orbit to 200km X 10905km orbit. Delta V: 1320 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2832 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1971 February 26 - . 10:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S54 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1971 February 27 - .
  • Mishin plans to get Almaz cancelled. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Karas, Kutakhov, Mishin. Program: Almaz, Salyut. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Spiral OS.

    Kamanin has a meeting scheduled with Chelomei, but this is cancelled and he is called to another meeting with Mishin -- all to advance Mishin's agenda. Mishin complains that he doesn't know what the Almaz project is about. He claims Chelomei has spent half a billion roubles so far, and has nothing to show for it. Mishin, on the other hand, has two DOS stations ready to fly, done at a cost of only 80 million roubles. But Kamanin knows very well who has really wasted hundreds of millions of roubles - Mishin. Mishin produces his plans for DOS#3 and DOS#4 follow-on stations. These are to be copies of Almaz, delivered in 18 months. Mishin says he is building ten 7K-S for the spacecraft, despite the fact that Karas at GUKOS is not interested in manned spaceflight. Afterwards Kamanin tells Kutakhov to warn Chelomei that he must support the VVS' 7K-S and Spiral projects, if he wants VVS support for Almaz.


1971 February 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT80M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 February 28 - . 07:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant III.
  • Microwave background Submillimeter radio astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1971 March 1 - .
  • X-24 Flight 24 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1064 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17343 m. Flight Time - 437 sec..

1971 March 1 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1-L3 loses remaining priority - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Flight: Apollo 13, Apollo 14. Spacecraft: LK, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    The Soviet leadership regained some interest in the N1-L3, after the near-tragedy of Apollo 13. It was felt that the Americans might cancel the remainder of the Apollo programme, leaving the road to the moon clear for the Soviet Union. However the successful flight of Apollo 14 redeemed the project, and the Central Committee lost all interest in the N1-L3. Additional Details: here....


1971 March 1 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 March 1 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Venus Lyra Alpha Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 March 2 - .
1971 March 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT92B-3 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 10:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • MPE Barium release? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 10:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • UK SL922 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S16 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 March 3 - .
  • Soviet of Chief Designers. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko, Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    DOS-7K #1 completed its factory testing on 3 March. Checkout at Baikonur is to be completed by 9 April, and launch is scheduled for 15 April. The first crew to the station will be launched aboard a Soyuz on 18-20 April. Remaining items to be cleared:

    • Vibration qualification test of the station test article are not complete. They will only begin on 5 March and will take two months using 3-shift work. Mishin wants the preliminary results on 20 March.
    • Four complete Igla systems are required. Five have been completed and are working satisfactorily.
    • The expiration date on the parachute installed in the Soyuz 10 capsule is 15 April. It will have to be repacked before the flight.
    • There were numerous failures in the first phase of environmental control system qualification tests. They have to be repaired before the second phase can even be started.
    • Mishin wants the first crew to stay on the station for 30 days, the second crew 45 days. Glushko and the doctors say this is a grave risk.

1971 March 3 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Aero High.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1971 March 3 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Aero High.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1971 March 3 - . 06:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Electrons / ions Aurora mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1971 March 3 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 399 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5003 . COSPAR: 1971-017A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 March 3 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. LV Family: DF-3. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 1.
  • SJ-1 - . Payload: Shi Jian 1. Mass: 221 kg (487 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-1. Decay Date: 1979-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5007 . COSPAR: 1971-018A. Apogee: 1,833 km (1,138 mi). Perigee: 265 km (164 mi). Inclination: 69.8000 deg. Period: 106.10 min. Similar in appearance to the American Telstar and conducted communications technology tests..

1971 March 4 - .
  • N1/L3 Expert Commission - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Keldysh, Kuznetsov, Nikolai F, Mishin, Tereshkova. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Krechet, LK-700, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Pushkin and Kuznetsov brief Kamanin on the results of the N1/L3 expert commission. They found that the N1/L3 is unreliable and that the design needs to be fundamentally re-examined. Therefore the Soviet Ministers and Central Committee passed a decree that the commission must determine by 1 May 1971 what to do with the lunar project. Kamanin's opinion: abandon the N1-L3, modify Chelomei's UR-700 design to replace it, and design a new lunar landing spacecraft for missions in 1974-1975. Mishin is afraid of such a solution. Kamanin believes that the commission, headed by Keldysh, will finally recommend continued development and flight of Mishin's bad booster and even worse spacecraft. It is true that the N1 design has been substantially reworked in the last 18 months, but Kamanin believes it to be fundamentally flawed and that nothing can make it reliable.

    After Mishin pushed his Indian Ocean recovery plan for the L3, the VVS insisted on sea trials of the capsule. These showed the cosmonauts had to get out within 30 to 35 minutes before the valves to the interior started leaking seawater. The L3 is also unsafe due to the EVA method of transfer to the LK of a single unassisted cosmonaut. The Krechet spacesuit is very bulky and unmanoeuvrable.

    Prague wanted Gagarin's widow for International Women's Day.since Tereshkkova couldn't go, but she wants no part of public appearances.


1971 March 5 - .
  • Launch of DOS#1 is set for 15 April. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Serbin, Shonin, Smirnov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Kamanin is still fighting the issue of mission length - he doesn't want to risk lives. Soyuz 9 landed virtually in the laps of the doctors, but what if they had made an emergency landing in the ocean, or taiga? They were in no condition to save themselves before assistance arrived. Every day over 20-22 days is a risk to the life of the crew, in Kamanin's view. Smirnov, Serbin, Mishin - they don't care about this.

    Meanwhile the doctor's verdict is in on Shonin. He is to be sent to a sanatorium for rehabilitation.


1971 March 5 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-2M - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1971 March 5 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63. FAILURE: Second stage failed 133 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DS-P1-Yu s/n 39 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu. Mass: 330 kg (720 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 March 6 - .
  • Space Plan for 1971 unrealistic. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut, Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Spiral OS, TKS.

    The space plan for 1971 has finally been approved. There are to be three space stations launched, manned by ten Soyuz launches and a total of over 12 different crewmembers in space during the year. But it is clear to Kamanin that the second DOS and first Almaz station will not really be ready this year. And there won't be more than two Soyuz and two TKS transports available by the end of the year. Ranazomov says that Chelomei's TKS, being designed to fly to the Almaz, will cover many of he same requirements of the Spiral spaceplane. He proposes that Mikoyan should collaborate with Chelomei on Spiral. Meanwhile simulators at TsPK remain underfunded.


1971 March 8 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Caribou V Aurora ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1971 March 9 - .
  • Major DOS training exercise by first crew. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anders, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    A major training session is held with Shatalov, Yeliseyev, and Rukavishnikov. They make a 15 hour simulated 'flight' aboard the DOS trainer from 09:15 to 22:45. All operations expected in a thirty-day mission to the station are gone through. This includes simulation of emergencies to test the reactions of both the crew and ground controllers. Kamanin receives a letter from Anders, thanking him for the tour of Star City. Representatives from the Swedish firm are in town to negotiate the contract for the TsF-18 18-metre radius centrifuge. Both Korolev and Mishin fought against the VVS getting such a centrifuge.


1971 March 10 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1971 March 10 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 53 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1971 March 10 - . 18:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 54 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1971 March 10 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 55 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1971 March 10 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1971 March 11 - .
1971 March 11 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 March 11 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S55 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1971 March 11 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aurora ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 12 - . 04:13 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1971 March 12 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi).

1971 March 12 - . 21:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Auroral electrons Aurora mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1971 March 13 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 March 13 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 13 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M6.
  • Explorer 43 - . Payload: IMP I. Mass: 288 kg (634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: IMP. Decay Date: 1974-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5043 . COSPAR: 1971-019A. Apogee: 203,130 km (126,210 mi). Perigee: 1,845 km (1,146 mi). Inclination: 31.2000 deg. Period: 5,957.90 min.

    In its first use at Cape Canaveral, a NASA Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/ Delta boosted Explorer 43 into orbit. This was the first "Super Six" configuration Thor/Delta, with strap-on solid-rocket boosters motors, to be launched from the Eastern Test Range. Earth magnetosphere research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1971 March 13 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 14 - . 16:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 15 - .
  • Major DOS training exercise by third crew. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Sevastyanov, Shatalov, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The third, back-up DOS crew of Dobrovolsky, Volkov and Patsayev train in the DOS trainer. All of the crews have made good runs, with no mistakes or failures. Shatalov, after training on the DOS simulator, now supports Mishin's 30 day flight approach. He has also talked to Yeliseyev and Sevastyanov about the matter. He believes there may be a very different reaction to zero-G from individual to individual, and the Soyuz 9 crew may have been the wrong two individuals.


1971 March 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Last State trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 15 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Recruit.
  • SAMS Vehicle 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1971 March 15 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S87 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1971 March 15 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 15 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 632. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 March 16 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 16 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 17 - .
1971 March 17 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-13 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 March 17 - . 10:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 17 - . 16:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 18 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 18 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 18 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1971 March 18 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 400 - . Payload: DS-P1-M s/n 3. Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. Completed Operations Date: 1972-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5050 . COSPAR: 1971-020A. Apogee: 995 km (618 mi). Perigee: 990 km (610 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. ASAT target for Cosmos 404 interceptor..

1971 March 19 - .
  • State Commission for Launch of DOS#1. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. The VVS insists that the Soyuz 10 crew land in daylight. Mishin says that in order that the crew can land in daylight at the end of the 30-day mission, the spacecraft must be launched at 03:00 at night. Kamanin believes this also to be unsafe..

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 659. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 659. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 659. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 659. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 659. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 659. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1971 March 19 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 19 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 19 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 20 - .
  • DOS crews arrives in Baikonur. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Shatalov's crew arrived at 09:00 aboard a Tu-104 and were ensconced in Room 14 of the Hotel Kosmonavt. Two further Tu-104's arrived 20 and 30 minutes later with the second and third crews. At 18:00 they all went to the MIK assembly hall to view the two Soyuz spacecraft and the station. There were electrical problems with the station, and they finally returned to the hotel at 24:00 without the problem having been resolved. Kamanin notes two films are to be screened tomorrow - a Bulgarian movie and the Soviet film 'Diplomat'.


1971 March 20 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170. FAILURE: Failure.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 07:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant II.
  • Auroral VUV Test / aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 21 - .
  • DOS communications tests at Baikonur - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Penguin, Salyut 1.

    Due to problems with the electrical system aboard the station, the crews are unable to start their training aboard the actual station until 22:00. So after breakfast they work on their flight plans and logs and test the training suits to be used on this flight for the first time. This includes the Penguin suit which has elastic bands sewn into it to simulate the strain of gravity. At 17:00 the crews go to the MIK and start communications tests on the DOS. All proceeds normally. On the bus back, the crews discuss the new tracking ship Yuri Gagarin. It has a displacement of 45,000 tonnes and cost 120 million roubles. It will expand the time communications are possible with the ground during the long station flight.


1971 March 21 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 21 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 33B.
  • Jumpseat 1 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Jumpseat. USAF Sat Cat: 5053 . COSPAR: 1971-021A. Apogee: 33,800 km (21,000 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 596.70 min.

1971 March 22 - .
  • Problems with Igla system on DOS. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Shabarov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    There are problems with the Igla rendezvous system and also the stabilisation systems aboard DOS#1. The April 15 launch date is not realistic, according to Shabarov's deputies, although he himself says he can still meet the schedule. From 12:00 to 16:00 the cosmonauts participate in communications tests between the Soyuz spacecraft and the station. They go all right, but there are many problems with the ground segment. Mishin arrives in the evening. He has to give the VPK the final word on 27 March as to the launch date for the station. Shabarov is afraid to tell Mishin about the problems they are having with the Igla system.


1971 March 22 - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1971 March 22 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1971 March 23 - .
  • Cosmonauts return to Moscow from Tyuratam. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1.

    A four-story school burned down the previous night in Leninsk. The cosmonauts and space centre technicians watched the USA-USSR ice hockey match, which went from 23:00 until 02:00 the next morning. Kamanin returns to Moscow aboard a Tu-104. Aboard the flight the political intrigues surrounding selection of Kamanin's deputy are discussed.


1971 March 23 - .
  • Mishin is already dealing in delays with getting the MIK facilities in Baikonur converted to MKBS work. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: , MKBS. There is no clarity on hydrogen handling and lightning protection systems; Need supply of equipment; There's nothing on the long-term work (test stands, MIK expansion, MKBS accommodation, and EYaRD)..

1971 March 24 - .
  • Gagarin film - . Nation: Russia. Gagarin Centre management are away at various sites. Kamanin enjoys the television film on Gagarin, 'About my friend', broadcast from Leningrad..

1971 March 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 24 - . 05:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Airglow / Auroral infrared Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi).

1971 March 24 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT01GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). SAC launched the first Minuteman III Operational Test (Phase I) missile from Vandenberg AFB. .

1971 March 24 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S87 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 March 24 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • KH-4B 1114 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1114 / Agena D 1660 / OPS 5300. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1971-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5059 . COSPAR: 1971-022A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 81.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. KH-4B. The overall image quality is good and comparable to the best of past missions. On-board program failed.

1971 March 25 - .
  • DOS#1 Launch Commission. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The launch date, time, and first mission duration are debated. The VVS specialists now say a night landing by a Soyuz is acceptable from a safety point of view. Only two months earlier they were rejecting the possibility - these are people without principles, in Kamanin's view. He believes the crew's lives will be at risk with the planned thirty day flight duration.


1971 March 25 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Skylark. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S56B / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 March 25 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 March 26 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Yantar-1FKT development authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 182-63 'On development of the Yantar-1KFT reconnaissance and cartographic satellite and the 11A511K launcher' was issued..

1971 March 26 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Phase B Final Reports - . Nation: USA.

    Taking into account NASA and USAF comments on the draft proposals, and specification revisions, the teams of McDonnell Douglas/Martin Marrietta and North American Rockwell/General Dynamics made their final proposals under shuttle Phase B contracts. Based on the strict specifications of NASA, the low cross-range and high-cross range versions of the orbiter stages were similar. The associate contractors provided considerably different winged booster stage designs. One common feature was the use of aluminium structures and non-metallic thermal protection systems. In late 1969 the USAF had indicated a preference for all-aluminium structures in the shuttle due to a titanium shortage. This requirement forced a move to non-metallic thermal protection systems, which at the time it was thought would weigh 15% less but cost 300% more. Thermal protection shingles for a titanium structure would weigh 2300 to 4500 kg less, but an aluminium structure would weight about 1800 kg more - meaning there was no essential weight difference between the two approaches. Therefore at the aluminium structure was accepted as a specification requirement. In retrospect it could hardly have been necessary to apply this requirement on a project where only a few flight vehicles were be built. It made the shuttle much more vulnerable to any breach of heat shield integrity and would lead to the death of the Columbia crew 35 years later. The resulting need for a non-metallic thermal protection system would also have enormous cost and schedule consequences for the actual program.


1971 March 26 - .
  • VPK meets at the Kremlin. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The launch of DOS#1 is set for 15-20 April. The first crew will launch three days later on a thirty-day mission. 25 days after they return to earth the second crew will be launched. That crew will stay aboard for 30 to 45 days. The spaceships and crews are declared ready for both missions.


1971 March 26 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Recruit.
  • SAMS Vehicle 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1971 March 26 - . 15:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 27 - .
  • Gagarin exhibit at Space City Museum. - . Nation: Russia. t is three years since Gagarin's death. Exhibits at the space centre museum commemorating the cosmonaut include Vostok spacecraft and MiG-15UTI aircraft of the types he flew; three automobiles he owned; films, etc..

1971 March 27 - . 02:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 March 27 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 401 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5086 . COSPAR: 1971-023A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 March 27 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 28 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 29 - .
  • X-24 Flight 25 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Fastest X-24 flight. Maximum Speed - 1667 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21488 m. Flight Time - 446 sec..

1971 March 29 - .
  • VVS crashes up. - . Nation: Russia.

    Kamanin notes that it was a bad safety month for the VVS. Ten aircraft were lost, six of those in three midair collisions (two MiG-21's in Egypt, two MiG-17's in Khabarovsk, and two helicopters in Tashkent). There were 29 losses in the first four months of 1971 (compared to 18 in 1970). Kamanin sees this as symptomatic of Kutakhov's poor management.


1971 March 29 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 29 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 March 29 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 631. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 March 30 - .
  • 24th Congress of he Communist Party of the Soviet Union - . Nation: Russia. The Congress began in the Kremlin at 10:00. Vital questions concerning the future space program will be considered..

1971 March 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 March 31 - .
  • Cosmonaut delegates to Communist Party Congress. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Nikolayev, Shatalov, Tereshkova, Yeliseyev.

    The Communist Party Congress is addressed for five hours by Brezhnev. There are 5,000 delegates, including 101 international delegations from 90 countries. Brezhnev promises that the imperialist lackeys will be wiped out one by one until communism triumphs over the whole planet. Five cosmonauts are delegates - Nikolayev, Beregovoi, Shatalov, Yeliseyev, and Tereshkova.


1971 April - .
  • McDonnell Douglas conducted a 90-day experiment with four volunteer crewmen confined in a space station simulator. - . Nation: USA.

    McDonnell Douglas, Huntington Beach, conducted a 90-day experiment with four volunteer crewmen confined in a space station simulator. The purpose of the space station simulation was to provide an artificial environment in which man could live and work; with minimal stress and compromise to a normal existence. Test objectives were met. Medical and physiological data accumulated during the test would serve as an effective control in future experiments on the long-term effects of confinement and exposure to an elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure atmosphere that would probably be encountered in a long-duration space flight.


1971 April 1 - . 02:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • Isis 2 - . Payload: Isis B. Mass: 264 kg (582 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: CRCSS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Isis. USAF Sat Cat: 5104 . COSPAR: 1971-024A. Apogee: 1,424 km (884 mi). Perigee: 1,358 km (843 mi). Inclination: 88.2000 deg. Period: 113.60 min. Ionospheric research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 April 1 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT82M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 April 1 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 402 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1971-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5107 . COSPAR: 1971-025B. Apogee: 1,011 km (628 mi). Perigee: 965 km (599 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Ocean surveillance; probably used chemical batteries..

1971 April 2 - .
  • International Delegations tour Star City. - . Nation: Russia.

    Star City staff is busy preparing for foreign delegations attending the communist party congress that will also visit the cosmonaut centre. There is dirty snow, icy roads - and in two days 100 delegates will have to get to the forested location and be able to get around. The Vietnamese are coming on 4 April, followed by the Hungarians on 6 April and the Czechs on 7 April. A standard tour is laid out, to be followed by the films 'Our Gagarin' and 'In Memory of a Visit to Star City'.


1971 April 2 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 403 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 5108 . COSPAR: 1971-026A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 April 2 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 April 3 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • HISTAR 1 Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1971 April 3 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Green River. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena H.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). The first Athena H flight test missile was launched from Green River, Utah, to the White Sands Missile Range. Although the upper stages were inert, over 90 percent of the planned flight test objectives were achieved. .

1971 April 4 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 404 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1971-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 5113 . COSPAR: 1971-027A. Apogee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Perigee: 802 km (498 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 103.10 min.

    ASAT interceptor. Conducted an extended test flight to shake out homing system and engine function. Tested new redundant ranging systems. Tested effectiveness of new approach trajectory to target, whereby target was approached from above rather than below. Following completion of tests and verification of system functions via telemetry, spacecraft was commanded to a destructive reentry over the Pacific Ocean.


1971 April 5 - .
  • Salyut preparations - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    When DOS#1 was cleared for flight, it still had 182 discrepancies, of which only 10 were duplicates and 20 were purely cosmetic. Preparations for launch of Soyuz 10 were complicated by problems with the logic of the abort system. This was supposed to put the spacecraft in a purely ballistic re-entry mode. Additional Details: here....


1971 April 5 - .
  • Plans for launch of DOS#1. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Mishin says they are right on schedule..

1971 April 5 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • ABRES LAR-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1971 April 5 - . 23:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Small-scale structure Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi).

1971 April 6 - .
1971 April 6 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi).

1971 April 7 - .
  • DOS crew commanders inspect completed DOS#1 station. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Leonov, Shatalov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Shatalov, Leonov, and Dobrovolsky are all working hard on final preparations for DOS-7K. The station is fully complete. Only small defects have been noted. This is the first look by the crews at their future home in space in its fully completed version. On the bus back to the hotel the cosmonauts discuss the poor quality and inedibility of 'space food'.


1971 April 7 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1971 April 7 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 405 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 5117 . COSPAR: 1971-028A. Apogee: 603 km (374 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

1971 April 8 - .
  • Soyuz 10 crew preparations. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. The DOS cosmonauts are working on their flight plans/logs at Area 17. Kamanin discusses the physical training of crews for long missions with Stepanov. They must do thirty minutes of vigorous exercise per day..

1971 April 8 - .
  • Death of Fritz von Opel - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Opel. German automobile manufacturer and rocketry enthusiast. Grandson of founder of Opel, after graduation, put in charge of testing and publicity. Funded Valier's tests of rocket engines in ground and air vehicles..

1971 April 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 April 9 - .
  • State Commission meets at new MIK. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1.

    DOS-7K#1 will be ready on 19 April. The first crew is completely trained. During the day the engineers of the second and third crews train aboard the station. Afterwards the technicians fix the defects they have noted. The evening film is 'Beginning'. There are many high-level guests at Area 2. After the film the brass try out the training machines that will be used aboard the station - they tire quickly.


1971 April 10 - .
  • Old Comrades toast Gagarin's memory. - . Nation: Russia. -6 deg C at Baiknur, 5 m/s wind. A party of the 'old comrades' is held in Leninsk to commemorate the tenth anniversary of Gagarin's launch..

1971 April 11 - .
1971 April 12 - .
  • Tenth Anniverary of Yuri Gagarin's launch. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov, Shatalov, Shonin.

    More than 1,000 people gather at Area 2 of Baikonur to commemorate the day. Kamanin muses that of the dozens of cosmonauts present, only one - Feoktistov - was there on the day the first man went into space. Now there were men on the moon, and the first space station was being prepared for flight. Kamanin believes the crew can survive a thirty-day flight, now that Shatalov has replaced Shonin on the crew.


1971 April 13 - .
  • Cosmodrome jammed for series of historic launches. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Volynov. Program: Salyut, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Nikolayev and others are flying to the cosmodrome. All of the cosmonauts except Volynov will be present for the historic launch of the first space station., the first crew to the station, and the N1 launch planned for 1 May. Kamanin has an argument with the cosmonauts on the necessity of working out on the KTF trainer during the mission.


1971 April 14 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 threatened again - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Babakin, Keldysh, Mishin, Ustinov. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: LK, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    An expert commission met to consider the N1-L3. Keldysh made several categorical demands:

    • the laser-based Kontakt rendezvous and docking system had to either be backed up with redundancy throughout, or an independent back-up system had to be developed
    • the L3 had to be designed with an internal transfer compartment, as was being done for the DOS/7K-T space station system
    • each stage of the N1 had to undergo flammability tests
    • the mission scenario had to be reformulated to provide support by more than one cosmonaut on the moon at a time, and use of automated landers and rovers from Babakin at Lavochkin
    • landings of the capsule in the equatorial oceans of the world had to be eliminated. The capsules had to land on the territory of the USSR
    Additional Details: here....

1971 April 14 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Zarya renamed Salyut - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3, Salyut. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Shuguang 1.

    All of the pressure on the N1 project was going on simultaneously with the launch preparations for DOS#1. The Central Committee had approved the name 'Zarya' (Dawn) for the station, but it was felt that this name might offend the Chinese, who's secret new manned spacecraft was also called 'Dawn' (it is interesting that Chertok and the Soviet space community was aware of this in 1970 - the existence of the nascent Chinese manned space project of that name was not revealed publicly in the West until 2002!). After some hurried consultations, it was decided to give the station the public name 'Salyut' (although the vehicle rolled out to the pad still had 'Zarya' emblazoned on the payload shroud -- but these pictures were not revealed until the 1990's).


1971 April 14 - .
  • Salyut 1 cleared for roll-out. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Chelomei, Grechko, Andrei, Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Marshal Grechko has sent a telegram to Kamanin, informing him that the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre has received the Order of Lenin. The UR-500K booster is mated to space station DOS-7K#1. Chelomei is ill. Mishin takes the opportunity to insult him by replacing Chelomei with Mishin's man on the commission that will judge the UR-500's readiness for launch. Nevertheless, the commission clears the booster to be moved out to the pad on 15 April, with launch set for 19 April at 06:40. In the evening Beregovoi's 50th birthday is celebrated.


1971 April 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 406 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5124 . COSPAR: 1971-029A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 April 14 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Particles Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1971 April 15 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Salyut preparations - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Mishin. Program: Lunar L3, Salyut, Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, MKBS, Salyut 1.

    The Salyut station was prepared in a huge two story bunker built for launch vehicle / payload processing. The contrast between the money lavished by the military on this facility for Chelomei's projects and the limited funds available for a proper N1 preparation and test facilities was enormous. Here funds were available without limit. The air was controlled by a self-contained environmental control system with its own independent electrical-diesel generators. The facility was a miracle. It was shocking that this was made available for Almaz, while the military told Mishin that he would have to prepare the immense MKBS station in the uncontrolled environment, subject to frequent power blackouts, of the N1 facility. At Chelomei's facility, everything was completely checked out on earth prior to launch.


1971 April 15 - .
  • Anokhin injured - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anokhin. Anokhin injured in the crash of a Tu-16 into the Aral Sea. The bomber was flying parabolas for zero-G tests of the engine of the Block L stage of Mishin's bureau, to study why the stage was continually failing to restart in earth orbit..

1971 April 15 - .
  • Salyut 1 erected on pad. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The Proton booster is erected on the pad. The decision is made to proceed despite a prediction of 15 m/s winds -- the prediction turns out to be wrong. All of the big brass are present for the rollout. Afterwards Mishin visits the cosmonauts. He says all is ready for the first space station mission, and promises them the N1-L3 will be available soon for lunar missions.


1971 April 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Safeguard M1-7 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 April 15 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Winds / E field Aurora mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1971 April 15 - . 09:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou Diamant. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant B.
  • Tournesol - . Payload: D-2A. Mass: 96 kg (211 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: D. Decay Date: 1980-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 5128 . COSPAR: 1971-030A. Apogee: 696 km (432 mi). Perigee: 457 km (283 mi). Inclination: 46.3000 deg. Period: 96.20 min.

1971 April 16 - .
  • Soyuz 10 closed out. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10.

    Soyuz s/n 31 is completed. The crew are given a final look at it in the afternoon. They spend four hours in the powered-down spacecraft. Kamanin notes that Nikolayev and Sevastyanov do not look out after their physical condition even on the ground -- no wonder they were so sick after their flight! Afterwards all three crews go to the sauna together.


1971 April 16 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • VLF waves Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1971 April 17 - .
  • Soyuz 10 crew preparations. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10.

    The day dawns warm at Baikonur (7 deg C at 7 am). The cosmonauts' morning is spent in a review of the space station's guidance and control systems. In the afternoon there is a briefing by officers of IAKM-VVS on use of the vacuum facility 'Polinom' during the flight. The cosmonauts are against use of the device.


1971 April 17 - . 11:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-08 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 8. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1991-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5142 . COSPAR: 1971-031A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 April 18 - .
  • More brass arrive at Baikonur to view the launch of Salyut 1. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. All is on schedule at Area 81..

1971 April 19 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 1 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 121. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Duration: 179.93 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5160 . COSPAR: 1971-032A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    First manned space station. Salyut 1 included a number of military experiments, including the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterising rocket plumes, and the highly classified Svinets radiometer. Primary objectives included photography of the earth, spectrographs of the earth's horizon, experiments with intense gamma rays, and studying manual methods for station orientation.

    At 05:20 the State Commission and their guests arrive at the Area 95 observation point to view the launch. The booster takes off on schedule at 06:40 in light rain and 60 km/hr wind. The tracking station reports good orbital insertion, separation from the third stage, and antennae and solar panel deployment. But the cover of the scientific equipment bay does not separate. This will mean that many experiments cannot be accomplished. It is decided to launch the crew to the station anyway, since the station is otherwise functioning normally. The cosmonauts go to the baths in the evening. Additional Details: here....


1971 April 19 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 April 19 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.41 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1971 April 19 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 April 20 - .
  • DOS State Commission. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Six of eight fans in the ECS have failed. There are only two back-ups, which are not enough for the 90-day active mission life planed. But it is decided the problem could actually be failed sensors, and in any case the first crew can easily repair the fans. At 17:00 the State Commission meets publicly (radio and television coverage) to approve the launch of Soyuz 10. Launch is set for 22 April at 03:30.


1971 April 21 - .
  • Rain at the cosmodrome jeopardises Soyuz 10 launch. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10.

1971 April 21 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SSME Protest - . Nation: USA. Pratt and Whitney filed a protest against NASA's award to Rocketdyne of the SSME contract. This action prevented further work on Rocketdyne's contract until the issue was adjudicated..

1971 April 21 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • Safeguard M1-7A Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 April 21 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • E field Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 April 21 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Winds / E field Aurora mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1971 April 21 - . 23:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • E field Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 April 22 - .
1971 April 22 - .
  • Birth of Daisuke 'Dice-K' Enomoto - . Nation: Japan. Related Persons: Enomoto. Japanese businessman cosmonaut, 2004-2006..

1971 April 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 April 22 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 April 22 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 7899 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 31 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1971-05-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5171 . COSPAR: 1971-033A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 132 km (82 mi). Inclination: 110.6000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.

    Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.


1971 April 23 - .
  • Soyuz 10 docking failure. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it was said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land. Additional Details: here....


1971 April 23 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 April 23 - . 01:48 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1971 April 23 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 06F demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 April 23 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 407 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 5174 . COSPAR: 1971-035A. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 773 km (480 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min.

1971 April 24 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz 10 - . Return Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chertok, Mishin, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Only a night landing on Soviet territory was possible, which meant the spacecraft could not be oriented for retrofire. The landing commission started planning for an emergency landing in South America, Africa, or Australia. But Shatalov reported the gyroscopes and orientation sensors were functioning well. He proposed that he orient on the dayside, spin up the gyro platform, and let the gyros orient the spacecraft on the nightside for retrofire. The plan is followed and the spacecraft was targeted for a landing area 80-100 km southwest of Karaganda.

    PVO radars pick up the capsule as it soars over the Caspian Sea, and a Mi-4 helicopter sights the parachute even before it thumps down, upright, on the steppes. During the landing, the Soyuz air supply became toxic, and Rukavishnikov was overcome and became unconscious. Nevertheless the crew safely landed at 23:40 GMT, 120 km NW of Karaganda. At the cosmodrome, Chertok is assigned to head a special commission to find the cause of the docking failure and correct it before the next mission can be launched. The VVS aircraft leaves at 07:00 for Moscow. Mishin was to accompany the VPK on their aircraft back, but he is drunk and has to go separately at 15:00. The Soyuz 10 crew reaches Chkalovsky Air Base at 14:00 on 26 April and proceed to Star City for further debriefings. Film and photos indicated that the docking system on the Salyut was not damaged, setting the stage for the Soyuz 11 mission.


1971 April 24 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • San Marco 3 - . Payload: San Marco C. Mass: 164 kg (361 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: San Marco satellite. Decay Date: 1971-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5176 . COSPAR: 1971-036A. Apogee: 707 km (439 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 93.80 min. Atmospheric research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 April 24 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 408 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 37. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1971-12-22 . Decay Date: 1971-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5177 . COSPAR: 1971-037A. Apogee: 1,488 km (924 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.8000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 April 24 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • E field Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1971 April 25 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.40 Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 April 25 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.39 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 April 26 - .
  • Quarantine for crew members who would go to the moon on future Apollo flights was discontinued - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 15.

    Acting NASA Administrator George M. Low discontinued the quarantine for future Apollo flights to the moon beginning with the Apollo 15 mission. The decision was based on a recommendation of the Interagency Committee on Back Contamination (ICBC). The ICBC would continue as an active body, however, at least until the results of the last Apollo lunar mission were reviewed. Biomedical characterization of returned lunar samples would also be continued.


1971 April 26 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 April 26 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT93B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 April 26 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 April 26 - . 19:34 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 April 26 - . 19:34 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • INTA C-7101 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1971 April 26 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • INTA NC-7101 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1971 April 27 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • James C Fletcher sworn in as NASA Administrator - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fletcher, Low, George, Nixon, Paine. Program: Apollo.

    James C. Fletcher was sworn in as NASA Administrator at a White House ceremony. Fletcher decided to push for Congressional approval of the stalled space shuttle program, but found that would only be forthcoming if the US Air Force agreed to participate. In order for that to happen, NASA would have to incorporate the USAF requirements for the shuttle that it had so far ignored (greater payload, higher cross-range). In another attempt to share the cost of the shuttle with other nations, previous NASA Administrator Thomas Paine had already tried to obtain international partners. But the only remnants of that effort were the Canadian robotic arm for the shuttle, and the European Space Agency Spacelab module. Neither represented a significant amount of the total program cost.

    President Nixon had nominated Fletcher for the position on March 1, and the Senate had confirmed the nomination on March 11. George M. Low, NASA Deputy Administrator, had been Acting Administrator since the resignation of Paine on September 15, 1970.


1971 April 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL71-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 April 28 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 409 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 5180 . COSPAR: 1971-038A. Apogee: 1,211 km (752 mi). Perigee: 1,176 km (730 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1971 April 29 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1971 April 30 - . 06:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.42 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1971 May - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1F Sr.
  • Block Sr Lox/LH2 stage development begins - . Nation: Russia. The final version of the N1M replaced the fourth and fifth stages of the N1 with the single liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen Block Sr stage..

1971 May 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • NASA budget constraints - . Nation: USA.

    Nixon's Office of Management of the Budget (OMB) tells NASA to expect no budget increases in the next five years (e.g. $ 3.2 billion per year, meaning no more than $1 billion per year could be spent on the shuttle). Since the peak funding to develop a two-stage-to-orbit shuttle as defined in Phase B studies would be $2 billion, this meant that development of a fully reusable shuttle would not be possible.


1971 May 1 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 May 1 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 May 1 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 May 1 - . 23:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • E field Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1971 May 3 - .
  • EVA to Salyut discussed. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The Soyuz 10 crew receive awards at the Kremlin. Rukavishnikov is made a Hero of the Soviet Union, which means he will receive 5,000 roubles, a Volga automobile, and other privileges. Kamanin calls Mishin later in the day. Mishin wants to send up a two-man crew in Soyuz 11, in space suits. One of them will make a spacewalk to examine the docking collar on the Salyut station prior to docking and remove the cover from the scientific sensor bay. Kamanin is infuriated. Seven to eight months ago the VVS had asked Mishin about the possibility of carrying at least one spacesuit aboard the Soyuz or Salyut and the possibility of making an EVA. He categorically rejected the idea. At that time he said it was practically impossible. There are insufficient oxygen reserves aboard the station for a full depressurisation. It would reduce the oxygen to a 75-day supply, and 45 to 50 days worth of reserves are required by mission rules. A cosmonaut meeting is called to discuss the matter. This reveals that DOS#2 is planned to have spacesuits and all of the equipment necessary for an EVA. But an EVA on Soyuz 11 is not possible. There EVA equipment and have not been manufactured. Two to three months would be required to fabricate the suits and equipment and to train for the EVA. Salyut 1 can only last 60 to 70 days. A Soyuz 12 mission in the first part of June could not be ready for an EVA. All in all it would be better to incorporate the EVA hardware into the first mission to a new DOS#2 station.


1971 May 4 - .
  • Soyuz 11 EVA pushed. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    At 10:00 the Soyuz 10 crew has the traditional post-flight meeting with the Central Committee, followed by speeches at 15:00 before the workers and engineers at TsKBEM. The truth about the flight is not revealed. Mishin is still pushing for an EVA on Soyuz 11; Kamanin tells him the idea is absurd. Kamanin fumes that Mishin still hasn't reliable solved the problem of automated space docking, on which he began work in 1962.


1971 May 5 - . 07:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • IMEWS 2 - . Payload: DSP Phase 1 s/n 2 / OPS 3811. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. Completed Operations Date: 1983-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5204 . COSPAR: 1971-039A. Apogee: 36,527 km (22,696 mi). Perigee: 36,156 km (22,466 mi). Inclination: 10.5000 deg. Period: 1,464.60 min.

    First generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite. First completely sucessful operational satellite, remained in service for nearly 12 years. Positioned over the Indian Ocean at 75 deg E in 1979-1982. As of 1983 May 11 located at 73.28W drifting at 7.684W degrees per day.


1971 May 5 - . 07:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Vehicle: R-UNK.
  • DSP 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF.

1971 May 6 - .
  • Almaz simulator delays. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut, Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS.

    The Soyuz 10 cosmonauts hold a press conference. The truth behind the mission is concealed. Afterwards a simulator program review is held. Progress is being made, but all of the equipment needed for the simulators is not being funded. MAP is to deliver the Almaz simulator on 1 December 1971, but they can't guarantee it will include equipment that has to be delivered by a range of other ministries. Later a meeting is held on plans by the Moscow Soviet for a space museum. MOM, MAP, and VVS have to contribute to the final exposition plan.


1971 May 6 - . 01:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 May 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 410 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5207 . COSPAR: 1971-040A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-05-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5228 . COSPAR: 1971-040C. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.02 min.

1971 May 7 - . LV Family: N1.
  • The planning on MKBS has progressed to the point where there will be an MKBS-1 with a DOS core (AKA DOS-A, later Mir); while MKBS-2 will use the MOK N1-launched core. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: Soyuz, MKBS, Mir. At the Soviet of the State Chief Designers (17K)- About DOS number 3 and number 4 and DOS-A (MKBS-1)"..

1971 May 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Safeguard M1-8 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 May 7 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 411 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 9. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5210 . COSPAR: 1971-041A. Apogee: 1,490 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,316 km (817 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 113.90 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 414 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 12. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5213 . COSPAR: 1971-041D. Apogee: 1,494 km (928 mi). Perigee: 1,427 km (886 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 418 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 16. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5217 . COSPAR: 1971-041H. Apogee: 1,493 km (927 mi). Perigee: 1,399 km (869 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 417 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 15. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5216 . COSPAR: 1971-041G. Apogee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Perigee: 1,343 km (834 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 415 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 13. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5214 . COSPAR: 1971-041E. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi). Perigee: 1,451 km (901 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.40 min.
  • Cosmos 413 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 11. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5212 . COSPAR: 1971-041C. Apogee: 1,508 km (937 mi). Perigee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.80 min.
  • Cosmos 412 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 10. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5211 . COSPAR: 1971-041B. Apogee: 1,535 km (953 mi). Perigee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.20 min.
  • Cosmos 416 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 14. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5215 . COSPAR: 1971-041F. Apogee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Perigee: 1,371 km (851 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.50 min.

1971 May 8 - .
  • Soyuz 11 / Soyuz 12 plans. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Frolov reports to Kamanin on a meeting of the general designers. Mishin has planned the Soyuz 11 launch for June, to be followed by Soyuz 12 in July. The reworked docking mechanism will be ready for installation on Soyuz 11 by 18 May. Mishin recommends a full automated docking for the next mission.


1971 May 8 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1971 May 9 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur. FAILURE: Inadvertent Centaur electronic signal shut down stage early.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Mariner H - . Payload: Mariner 71H. Mass: 996 kg (2,195 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mariner. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Mariner. Spacecraft: Mariner 8-9. Decay Date: 1971-05-08 . Intended Mars flyby..

1971 May 10 - .
  • Cause of Soyuz 10's failure to dock. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chertok. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    A sunny day in Moscow. Chertok's investigative commission has found that the likely cause of Soyuz 10's failure to dock was a dented sleeve on the active part of the docking mechanism. In repeated tests the sleeve bent at 130 kg force 60% of the time. The real force of docking was estimated at 160 to 200 kg. Therefore for Soyuz 11 and subsequent models the sleeve will be reinforced by a factor of two. The crew will also be given the capability of steering the docking probe and of operating the orientation engine to improve the chances of docking when difficulties do occur.


1971 May 10 - . 12:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • X-ray Survey X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi).

1971 May 10 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. FAILURE: No Block D ignition due wrong timer setting.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 419 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 170. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. Decay Date: 1971-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5221 . COSPAR: 1971-042A. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 87.70 min.

    Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. Rocket block failed to reignite in Earth Orbit. It is widely believed this spacecraft was launched with the primary purpose of overtaking Mariner 8, which had been launched (unsuccessfully, as it turned out) two days earlier, and becoming the first Mars orbiter. The Proton booster successfully put the spacecraft into low (174 km x 159 km) Earth parking orbit with an inclination of 51.4 degrees, but the Block D stage 4 failed to function due to a bad ignition timer setting (the timer, which was supposed to start ignition 1.5 hours after orbit was erroneously set for 1.5 years.) The orbit decayed and the spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere 2 days later on 12 May 1971. The mission was designated Cosmos 419.


1971 May 11 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 631. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 May 11 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 631. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 May 12 - .
  • X-24 Flight 26 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1477 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21610 m. Flight Time - 423 sec..

1971 May 12 - .
  • VPK Meeting on Soyuz 11/12. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kutakhov, Mishin, Smirnov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Mishin guarantees to Smirnov that Soyuz 11 will be able to dock to Salyut 1. He also promises thirty-day missions for both Soyuz 11 and Soyuz 12. But there is a problem with this last promise -- Soyuz 12 won't launch until 15-18 July, which will be after the guaranteed life of the Salyut 1 station. Kamanin protests the decision. Smirnov points out that they must fulfil the resolutions of the Communist Party without question. But he reassures Kamanin that they will take everything one step at a time, keeping the safety of the crew in mind. Kutakhov also does not support the decision, but orders must be followed.


1971 May 12 - . 04:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 May 13 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 May 14 - .
  • Soyuz 11 launch considerations argued. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov, Mishin, Ustinov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The crews are continuing training for Soyuz 11. Mishin expects launch on 6 June. He is not opposed to limiting the flight duration to 25 days, necessary in order to make a landing in daytime at the end of the mission. Kamanin doesn't trust this change of heart - he asks the VVS ballistics section to confirm Mishin's calculations. Feoktistov visits Kamanin. He wants to be on the fourth crew to fly to DOS#2. VVS ballistics calls back. A launch as late as 11-12 June would still allow a daytime landing after 25 days. However from day 6 to 24 of the flight retrofire would be on the night side, and could only be accomplished using the technique of Soyuz 10 - aligning the spacecraft on the day side, spinning up the gyro platform, and using the gyros for night-side orientation during retrofire. At a meeting of the Central Committee, Kamanin fights with Ustinov for the safety of the crew. After a three-hour debate the majority of those present are still worried about the reliability of the docking system. But nevertheless the decision is made to proceed with Soyuz 11.


1971 May 14 - .
  • Birth of Nikos 'Nik' Halik - . Nation: Australia. Related Persons: Halik. Australian. Australian millionaire businessman who was the back-up to Richard Garriott for the space tourist seat on Soyuz TMA-13..

1971 May 14 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S56B / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 May 15 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1M.
  • Go-ahead to develop LH2/LOX stage for N1M - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3.

    Decision made to proceed with development of the multi-engined stage Block Sr with a propellant mass of 66.4 tonnes. This single stage would be used in place of the previously-planned Blocks S and R to insert the modernized Lunar Expeditionary Complex (LEK) into low lunar orbit. It was also to be used to insert heavy spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit and on interplanetary trajectories.


1971 May 15 - .
  • Party line on Soviet space program. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Popovich, Sevastyanov, Shatalov. Program: Salyut, Lunar L3, Luna. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11.

    Shatalov is actively pushing his candidacy for the position of Kamanin's deputy. Popovich and Sevastyanov prepare for a trip to the Paris Air how on 2 June. They need 'correct' replies to inevitable questions about the moon race, the Salyut 1 station, and Soyuz 10's failure to dock. The line they are to follow is that the Soviet Union is fulfilling its safe and systematic exploration of space. The robots Luna-16 and Lunokhod 1 safely surveyed the moon. After the Soyuz 9 long-duration flight, Salyut 1 was launched and Soyuz 10 tested the rendezvous equipment. The line is that the USSR is not behind the USA, but is exploring space in a safe and responsible way.


1971 May 15 - .
  • The submission of a development concept paper (DCP) for a Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) system to be developed by SAMSO was halted at Headquarters USAF. - . Spacecraft: FLTSATCOM.

    Seamans, Under Secretary John L. McLucas, and Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard. It was agreed that the Navy's proposed tactical satellite communications system, the Fleet Satellite Communications Satellite (FLTSATCOM), would be developed with some channels set aside for Air Force use.


1971 May 16 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1971 May 17 - .
  • Feoktistov pushed for flight to DOS#2. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov, Tregub. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Tregub calls Kamanin to promote Feoktistov's plan to participate in a flight to a Salyut station..

1971 May 17 - .
  • MOK, MKBS, nuclear power supply reviewed. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Okhapkin, Bezverby, Melnikov. Spacecraft: , MKBS, Mir.

    Bezerby VK and Melnikov MV - Materials on the experimental base for EYaRD. Okhapkin SO - About the acceleration of work on blocks R and Sr. Call Karpov AG - On specifications for MKBS-1. The development of the MOK should be conducted in full swing, but testing of individual systems should be conducted on the MKBS-1 (DOS). The main question - how long can a man live in space, and what can he do better than automatic systems? (Mishin Diaries 2-330)


1971 May 17 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Eridan.
  • FU-203 recovery test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1971 May 17 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • LYNN Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1971 May 17 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • KAY Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1971 May 18 - .
  • Bushuyev KD and Bezverbo VK: Justify the need for the MKBS-1 based in DOS. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Bushuyev, Bezverby, . Spacecraft: , MKBS, Mir.

1971 May 18 - . 00:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 01:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 02:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 03:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 420 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5230 . COSPAR: 1971-043A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 May 18 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 May 18 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1971 May 19 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 May 19 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF24. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT105F Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 May 19 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 May 19 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 421 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 48. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1971-11-05 . Decay Date: 1971-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 5232 . COSPAR: 1971-044A. Apogee: 443 km (275 mi). Perigee: 292 km (181 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 May 19 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Mars 2 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 171. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. USAF Sat Cat: 5234 . COSPAR: 1971-045A. Apogee: 25,000 km (15,000 mi). Perigee: 1,380 km (850 mi). Inclination: 48.9000 deg. Period: 1,080.00 min.

    Mars probe intended to conduct of a series of scientific investigations of the planet Mars and the space around it. Parameters are for Mars orbit. Mid-course corrections were made on 17 June and 20 November. Mars 2 released the descent module (1971-045D) 4.5 hours before reaching Mars on 27 November 1971. The descent system malfunctioned and the lander crashed at 45 deg S, 302 deg W, delivering the Soviet Union coat of arms to the surface. Meanwhile, the orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a 1380 x 24,940 km, 18 hour orbit about Mars with an inclination of 48.9 degrees. Scientific instruments were generally turned on for about 30 minutes near periapsis. Data was sent back for many months. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972. On-orbit dry mass: 2265 kg. Had the lander survived, data would have been relayed to the earth via the orbiter.


1971 May 20 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
1971 May 20 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1971 May 21 - .
  • Soyuz 11 crews arrive at Tyuratam. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The Salyut crews arrive at Tyuratam and see the new reinforced docking system for the first time. Then they go to Area 2 to prepare their flight plans. Aferwards they train from 20:00 to 24:00 aboard Soyuz 11. But due to the parallel work on revising the Igla system, the systems are not all updated yet. The cosmonauts have no confidence in the new system, and can only say they 'probably' have a better chance of success in docking than before.


1971 May 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT83M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 May 21 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 May 22 - .
  • Kamanin's position in jeopardy. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. The weather dawns at Tyuratam 22 deg C, and has already risen to 30 deg C by 09:30. Kamanin flies back to Moscow, where the weather is rain, and he learns of new moves to try to put him aside..

1971 May 22 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 422 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 5238 . COSPAR: 1971-046A. Apogee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Perigee: 982 km (610 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1971 May 23 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1971 May 24 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF22. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT103F Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 May 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 27 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. 3 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1265 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19903 m. Flight Time - 548 sec..

1971 May 25 - .
  • Crews of Apollo 14 and Soyuz 9 to meet in Paris. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Sevastyanov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Sevastyanov is given further preparation for his visit to the Paris Air Show. He will meet with the crew of Apollo 14 on television. Kamanin informs him that he is earmarked for the fourth crew of DOS#2..

1971 May 25 - .
  • Death of Charles P Cabell at Arlington, VA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabell. American officer. USAF intelligence, Deputy Director, CIA 1953-1962. Promoted U-2 and Corona spy satellite. Forced to resign after Bay of Pigs debacle..

1971 May 25 - . 09:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC10. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • LRL ACS-1D X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1971 May 26 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The final flight of the 740th Strategic Missile Squadron, the second Force Modernization squadron of Minuteman III missiles to be completed at Wing III, was turned over to the 91st SMW. - .

1971 May 26 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • LRL ACS-4B X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 May 26 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • LEINAX I X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1971 May 26 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • INTA C-7102 Aeronomy /ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1971 May 26 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 May 27 - .
  • Still no centrifuge for cosmonaut training centre. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    Rebrov is working on a book on Salyut 1, and the Soyuz 10 and 11 missions. Despite three trips to Sweden and France, there has still been no vendor selection for the TsF-18 centrifuge. In any case there is still not enough money (12 million roubles needed, 3 million roubles available).


1971 May 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT03GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). A Minuteman III fired for a SAC Phase I Operational Test was the 350th Minuteman missile launched from Vandenberg AFB since September 1962. .

1971 May 27 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1971 May 27 - . 04:36 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • INTA C-7103 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1971 May 27 - . 06:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT02GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). A Minuteman III fired for a SAC Phase I Operational Test was the 350th Minuteman missile launched from Vandenberg AFB since September 1962. .

1971 May 27 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 423 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 47. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1971-11-20 . Decay Date: 1971-11-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 5246 . COSPAR: 1971-047A. Apogee: 487 km (302 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 May 27 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • INTA C-7104 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1971 May 28 - .
1971 May 28 - . 02:52 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 May 28 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1971 May 28 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150 MI.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1971 May 28 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 424 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5248 . COSPAR: 1971-048A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 May 28 - . 15:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Mars 3 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 172. Mass: 4,643 kg (10,236 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. USAF Sat Cat: 5252 . COSPAR: 1971-049A. Apogee: 214,500 km (133,200 mi). Perigee: 1,528 km (949 mi). Inclination: 60.0000 deg. Period: 18,243.00 min.

    Mars probe intended to conduct of a series of scientific investigations of the planet Mars and the space around it. Parameters are for Mars orbit. The Mars 3 orbiter also carried a French-built experiment which was not carried on Mars 2. Called Spectrum 1, the instrument measured solar radiation at metric wavelengths in conjunction with Earth-based receivers to study the cause of solar outbursts. The Spectrum 1 antenna was mounted on one of the solar panels. A mid-course correction was made on 8 June. The descent module (COSPAR 1971-049F) was released at 09:14 GMT on 2 December 1971 about 4.5 hours before reaching Mars. Through aerodynamic braking, parachutes, and retro-rockets, the lander achieved a soft landing at 45 S, 158 W and began operations. However, after 20 sec the instruments stopped working for unknown reasons. Meanwhile, the orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a long 11-day period orbit about Mars with an inclination thought to be similar to that of Mars 2 (48.9 degrees). Data was sent back for many months. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972.


1971 May 29 - .
  • No improvements at cosmodrome for cosmonauts. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Kamanin notes with disgust that the cosmodrome has been updated for 15 years but not one kopeck has been spent to provide training facilities for the cosmonauts. Leonov's 37th birthday is celebrated..

1971 May 29 - . 03:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 425 - . Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1979-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 5253 . COSPAR: 1971-050A. Apogee: 553 km (343 mi). Perigee: 506 km (314 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Possible ELINT satellite..

1971 May 29 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Platform: S611. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 May 29 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1971 May 30 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
  • Mariner 9 - . Payload: Mariner 71J. Mass: 974 kg (2,147 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Program: Mariner. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: Mariner. Spacecraft: Mariner 8-9. USAF Sat Cat: 5261 . COSPAR: 1971-051A.

    The first spacecraft to orbit another planet. The Mariner Mars 71 mission was planned to consist of two spacecraft on complementary missions. Mariner 8 was to map 70 % of the Martian surface and Mariner 9 was to study temporal changes in the Martian atmosphere and on the Martian surface. The launch failure of Mariner 8 forced Mariner 9 to combine the mission objectives of both. For the survey portion of the mission, the planetary surface was to be mapped with the same resolution as planned for the original mission, although the resolution of pictures of the polar regions would be decreased due to the increased slant range. The variable features experiments were changed from studies of six given areas every 5 days to studies of smaller regions every 17 days. Mariner 9 was launched on a direct trajectory to Mars. Separation from the booster occurred at 22:36 GMT. The four solar panels were deployed at 22:40 GMT. The sensors locked onto the Sun at 23:16, shortly after the spacecraft left the Earth's shadow and Canopus acquisition was achieved at 02:26 GMT 31 May. A planned midcourse maneuver was executed on 5 June. Mariner 9 arrived at Mars on 14 November 1971 after a 167 day flight. A 15 minute 23 second rocket burn put the spacecraft into Mars orbit. The insertion orbit had a periapsis of 1398 km and a period of 12 hr, 34 min. Two days later a 6 second rocket burn changed the orbital period to just under 12 hours with a periapsis of 1387 km. A correction trim maneuver was made on 30 December on the 94th orbit which raised the periapsis to 1650 km and changed the orbital period to 11:59:28 so that synchronous data transmissions could be made to the Goldstone 64-m DSN antenna.

    Imaging of the surface of Mars by Mariner 9 was delayed by a dust storm which started on 22 September 1971 in the Noachis region. The storm quickly grew into one of the largest global storms ever observed on Mars. By the time the spacecraft arrived at Mars no surface details could be seen except the summits of Olympus Mons and the three Tharsis volcanoes. The storm abated through November and December and normal mapping operations began. The spacecraft gathered data on the atmospheric composition, density, pressure, and temperature and also the surface composition, temperature, gravity, and topography of Mars. A total of 54 billion bits of scientific data were returned, including 7329 images covering the entire planet. After depleting its supply of attitude control gas, the spacecraft was turned off on 27 October 1972. Mariner 9 was left in an orbit which should not decay for at least 50 years, after which the spacecraft will enter the Martian atmosphere.

    The Mariner 9 mission resulted in a global mapping of the surface of Mars, including the first detailed views of the martian volcanoes, Valles Marineris, the polar caps, and the satellites Phobos and Deimos. It also provided information on global dust storms, the gravity field as well as evidence for surface aeolian activity.


1971 May 31 - .
  • Problems with Salyut station atmosphere. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Feoktistov, Kolodin, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Kamanin is advised that the atmosphere aboard Salyut 1 is now all right. He finds the news disturbing, since he was not informed until then that there was a problem! Feoktistov outlines the modifications made to Soyuz 11 compared to Soyuz 10 to the cosmonauts. The reinforcement of the docking ring system has added 10 kg to the spacecraft. Consumables are carried that increase the time for autonomous flight from three to four days.


1971 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3M.
  • MOL 2 - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: MOL. The second unmanned Gemini-B/Titan 3M qualification flight would have taken place in 1971 and set the stage for the first manned mission in 1971..

1971 June 1 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1-6L launch commission - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Isayev, Mishin, Pilyugin. Program: Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, LK, MKBS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    The review of launch preparations veers off into a discussion of what the booster was now for. Pilyugin questioned the seriousness of intent of the TsKBEM staff. The digital control system priorities within the bureau were with DOS and Almaz -- why wasn't the N1-L3 the priority? Mishin had never been told that the N1-L3 development was lagging. It had no priority with the leadership. Top priority at TsKBEM was Nadiradze's solid propellant ICBM's, followed by the DOS Salyut station, and now Soyuz-Apollo preparations. Meanwhile it was finally recognised that a single-launch scenario was simply impossible, and two N1 launches would be needed to accomplish the lunar landing. But there was no political will to tell the Politburo the bad news -- that two N1's would be needed to be launched to accomplish the landing. The final conclusion was that the bureau needed a new direction, a project with national priority, like the DOS station. Strategic rocket work could be ruled out, as there were already too many players in that field. Additional Details: here....


1971 June 1 - .
1971 June 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle design decision - . Nation: USA.

    Based on funding constraints defined in May, NASA decides its shuttle configuration will have to be a partially reusable orbiter, with an external liquid hydrogen tank. Grumman had been the main advocate of this approach, but it was the same conclusion reached in the USAF ILRV studies in 1968. The in-house design reflecting this change was MSC-020, with a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen tank housing all propellants outside of the orbiter.


1971 June 1 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • The Martin Marietta Corporation was given the go ahead to build two Titan Ill/Centaur launch vehicles. - . This included authority to design, build, and install required aerospace ground equipment (AGE) to activate Eastern Test Range Launch Complex 41 in support of NASA Titan Ill/Centaur missions..

1971 June 2 - .
  • Contingency planning for Soyuz 11. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    From 09:00 to 13:00 the Soyuz 11 cosmonauts and engineers discuss the best approaches for docking, contingency plans, and so on. A concrete solution is provided for every possible problem they might encounter aboard the station - bad air, water contaminated, stuck exit hatch, and so on.


1971 June 3 - .
  • Kubasov found not fit to fly aboard Soyuz 11. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Leonov, Mishin, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1.

    The cosmonauts play tennis in the morning. There are two dysentery cases in the staff at Area 2. Contact between the officers and workers at the centre is minimised. The Soyuz 11 crew undergoes their final medical checkups. A spot is found on Kubasov's lung in the x-ray. The doctors say it is the beginning of tuberculosis, and prohibit him from flying in space! Mishin, backed by Moscow, says that under mission rules, this means the Dobrovolsky back-up crew will have to fly in place of Leonov's crew. Kamanin feels uncomfortable with the decision, but can make no good argument for his preference - just replacing Kubasov on Leonov's crew with Volkov. The Launch Commission decides that Soyuz 11 is to be rolled out to the pad at 06:00 on 4 June, with launch at 07:39 on 6 June, with Dobrovolsky's crew aboard.


1971 June 3 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 June 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1971 June 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 28 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Final X-24A flight. Maximum Speed - 867 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16581 m. Flight Time - 517 sec..

1971 June 4 - .
  • Backup crew named to fly Soyuz 11 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Leonov, Mishin, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1.

    Soyuz 11 is on the launch pad, and which crew will fly is still being argued. Kamanin wants to simply have Volkov replace Kubasov on Leonov's crew. Mishin wants the complete backup crew to replace Leonov's crew. Others on the launch commission support Mishin. At 15:30 a team of physicians arrive from Moscow to verify the diagnosis of Kubasov. At 18:00 the final state commission meeting confirms the Dobrovolsky crew. At 19:00 a press conference is held - Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, and Volkov are publicly presented as the crew of Soyuz 11.


1971 June 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT81M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 June 4 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 426 - . Payload: DS-U2-K s/n 1. Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-K. Completed Operations Date: 1972-01-12 . Decay Date: 2002-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5281 . COSPAR: 1971-052A. Apogee: 1,108 km (688 mi). Perigee: 354 km (219 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.40 min. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic radiation..

1971 June 5 - .
  • Leonov crew fights to be put back aboard Soyuz 11. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Krylov, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1.

    Leonov and his crew meet with Kamanin at 10:00 and argue against flying the back-up crew. Kamanin tells him that they are not reacting in a correct manner to the decision. Afterwards Kamanin meets with Krylov at Area 17 to discuss the planned new three-story hotel, which will finally include some sports training facilities for the cosmonauts. By the evening ten VVS generals have arrived to see the launch -- no more than 2 or 3 really need to be there.


1971 June 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 11 - . Call Sign: Yantar (Amber ). Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 32. Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov, Patsayev, Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 23.77 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5283 . COSPAR: 1971-053A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    First space station flight, two years before the American Skylab. The Soyuz 11 launch proceeds without any difficulties. The first orbital correction in the set of rendezvous manoeuvres to head for Salyut 1 is made on the fourth revolution. At 15:00 Kamanin and other critical staff board a plane for the mission control centre at Yevpatoriya. The aircraft takes 4 hours 30 minutes to get there.

    Equipment aboard Salyut 1 included a telescope, spectrometer, electrophotometer, and television. The crew checked improved on-board spacecraft systems in different conditions of flight and conducted medico-biological research. The main instrument, a large solar telescope, was inoperative because its cover failed to jettison. A small fire and difficult working conditions will lead to a decision to return crew before planned full duration of 30 days.


1971 June 7 - .
  • Soyuz 11 docks with Salyut 1. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    A joint meeting of the Soyuz 11 State Commission and Soviet of Chief Designers takes place at Yevpaptoriya at 07:00. Aboard Soyuz 11, the Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system is switched on when the spacecrafft is 7 km from Salyut 1. There is no manual intervention in the process; Dobrovolsky simply makes reports to the ground of the rendezvous and docking system's progress. Docking itself takes place out of tracking range. There is considerable suspense in mission control during the 90-minute wait until reacquisition. Before leaving radio contact, telemetry showed a signal that the docking mechanism had depressurised, which would have prevented the cosmonauts from opening the hatch and entering the space station. But when the station comes back in view, it turns out that all went normally and the crew has already entered the station. Patsayev entered first, turned on the air regenerator, and replaced two failed fans. The crew report that the station atmosphere is unpleasant, with a strong burned smell. It will take 20 hours for all of the air in the station to cycle through the ECS scrubbers, so the crew is told to spend the first night aboard their Soyuz.


1971 June 7 - . 16:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 June 7 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • VLF Propagation Ionosphere VLF mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1971 June 8 - .
  • Decree authorising design of 11B97 nuclear electric rocket stage - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: TMK. Spacecraft: Mars 1986.

    Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On work on nuclear rocket engines' was issued. Prior work, mainly on propulsion for manned Mars expeditions, was now concentrated on development of the NEP rocket stage 11B97. This stage would have an electric capacity of 500-600 kW and would use specialised plasma-ion electric engines using standing plasma waves and anodes.


1971 June 8 - .
  • Soyuz 11 powered down and crew begins long-duration mission aboard Salyut 1. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    When the crew awakes, the station air is all right, and all eight fans and filters of the ECS are operating. Soyuz 11 is powered down and put in storage mode. The crew begins the DOS work program. But they have not yet put on their Penguin training suits and are not yet following the exercise program. Clearly, they are not taking the necessary steps to adapt to zero-G and preserve their health for their return. They take control of the station for the first time, making an orbital correction manoeuvre, and then orienting the station and its solar panels fully toward the sun. The world press is full of the great news of a new Soviet victory - the first station in space.


1971 June 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Final launch of the Thor/Burner II - . Nation: USA. Final launch of the Thor/Burner II from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 15 September 1966)..

1971 June 8 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2.
  • SESP 70-1 - . Payload: P70-1 / Burner II No. 12 / OPS 3850. Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Technology. Type: Military technology satellite. Spacecraft: SESP. Decay Date: 1982-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 5285 . COSPAR: 1971-054A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 544 km (338 mi). Inclination: 90.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1971 June 8 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique 61M.
  • GESAIR Biological/Geophysics mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). FU194 GESAIR, Ionosphere + Biology mission..

1971 June 9 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 4 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1.

    All continues normal aboard the station. Television sessions are held with the crew. They have now put on their training suits, and are urged to do regular physical training as required by the program. There are enough ECS consumables, fuel, water, and food aboard for the station to continue in manned operation until 20 August. The return of he Soyuz 11 crew is planned for 30 June, with launch of Soyuz 12 on 20 July. The first of the daily landing commission meetings is held. Emergency landing sites and procedures for the following day are discussed and set.


1971 June 10 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 5 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    All normal aboard Salyut 1. It is established that Soyuz 11 has enough propellant remaining for 57 hours of autonomous flight, including orientation and retrofire. It is decided to ask the crew to conduct a couple of experiments with the 'globus' instrument on the station to determine the accuracy of its landing point prediction.


1971 June 10 - .
  • Death of Aleksei Mikhailovich Isayev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Isayev. Soviet Chief Designer at OKB-2, 1947-1971. Developed storable rocket engines for missiles, supplying innovative engines for Scuds, SLBM's. Leading designer of restartable space engines for satellites, manned spacecraft, and space stations..

1971 June 10 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 350.
  • JHU Airglow 11 / S169 Aeronomy / test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi).

1971 June 11 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 6 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Mishin, Nikolayev, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. All is normal aboard the station. Mishin, Kamanin, and most of the high-ranking military officers return to Moscow. Nikolayev will lead the cosmonaut contingent at Yevpatoriya for five days. Then Kamanin will return..

1971 June 11 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 June 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 427 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 5289 . COSPAR: 1971-055A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 June 11 - . 14:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 June 12 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 7 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Filipchenko, Lazarev, Patsayev, Volkov, Vorobyov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    Launch, docking, and the first five days of work by the Soyuz 11 crew aboard the Salyut 1 station proceeded with virtually no failures whatsoever. Cosmonauts Filipchenko, Lavarev, and Vorobyov will fly with Kamanin to Yevpatoriya to act as capcoms and cosmonaut centre liaisons for the rest of the mission.


1971 June 12 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique 61M.
  • GESAIR Biological/Geophysics mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). FU194 GESAIR, Ionosphere + Biology mission..

1971 June 13 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1971 June 14 - . 17:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 June 15 - .
1971 June 15 - .
  • Death of Vasili Vasilyevich Parin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Parin. Russian physician. Director of IMBP 1965-1969. A leading space medicine specialist..

1971 June 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIID.
  • Initial launch of a Titan IIID space booster - . Nation: USA. Initial launch of a Titan IIID space booster from Vandenberg AFB..

1971 June 15 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIID.
  • KH-9 no. 01 (Big Bird) - . Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-9. Decay Date: 1971-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5297 . COSPAR: 1971-056A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. The 6595th Space Test Group at Vandenberg AFB launched the first Titan HID space booster (Vehicle D-l). KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1971 June 16 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 11 - fire aboard the station. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky, Chelomei, Dobrovolsky, Khrunov, Mishin, Nikolayev, Patsayev, Popovich, Sevastyanov, Shatalov, Volkov, Volynov. Program: Salyut, Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK, Soyuz OB-VI, Soyuz VI.

    Kamanin is to fly back to Yevpatoriya in the afternoon. Chelomei is often ill lately -- Mishin is using the opportunity to lobby Ustinov and Smirnov to kill Almaz, and increase the DOS-7K order from four to ten. Mishin killed Kozlov's Soyuz VI in a similar manner. Prior to his departure, the cosmonauts brief Kamanin on the results of the visits of Popovich and Sevastyanov to France, and Khrunov to the USA. Kamanin is having trouble with the leadership in allowing Volynov to be assigned to another crew.

    As Kamanin is on the way to the airport, a serious situation develops aboard the station. At 13:00 the cosmonauts report a strong burning smell, and smoke in the station. The crew evacuates the station and retreat to the Soyuz lifeboat. Forty minutes later, just as Kamanin is boarding the Tu-104, Shatalov reports that the mission will continue, but the situation aboard the station is not comfortable. The crew has turned off the primary oxygen regenerator and exchanged the filters of the oxygen supply and reserve regenerator. At 14:05 Kamanin finally boards the aircraft, which takes off and sets course for the Crimea. At 14:30 they are ordered to turn around and land at Chkalovksy Airfield outside Moscow. The whole thing turns out to be a banal mistake by one of the officers at an air traffic control station! They lose two hours in the process. No information is available when the Tu-104 finally lands at Saki, since Nikolayev and the other cosmonauts who attended the emergency meetings had taken off to return to Moscow three hours earlier. Kamanin finally arrives at Yevpatoriya at 23:00, in time for a comms session with Dobrovolsky and Patsayev (Volkov is sleeping). The Soyuz 11 crew reports that the training suits are very tiring. Dobrovolsky reports all is now normal otherwise. He requests permission to continue the flight. Bykovsky reports that the situation on the station is now stable. There is no more smoke or burning smell, but the crew has been overloaded in the last six hours. They have done a lot of work with no food or rest. The situation was so bad at one point that preparations had been made for undocking the Soyuz for an emergency return to earth.


1971 June 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100U.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 June 16 - . Launch Site: Bershet. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 June 17 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 12 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Mishin, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    At the 08:00 comms session Volkov is on duty, while Dobrovolsky and Patsayev sleep. Kamanin notes that to Volkov everything in his account of the previous day's emergency is 'I' - 'I' decided, 'I' did, etc. Mishin expresses his opinion that the flight commander must make all the decisions; to which Volkov answers 'the whole crew decides things together'. The tracking team, however, considers him too independent and emotional, a person who won't recognise or acknowledge his errors. The State Commission meets at 11:00 and decides there is nothing to prevent the mission continuing. However it is decided to shut down all scientific equipment. They will be turned back on one by one in an attempt to find the origin of the burning.


1971 June 18 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 13 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Mishin, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The crew makes a five minute television transmission. The telescope in the background produces dissonance in the image. Kamanin calls Mishin at Tyuratam, where the N1 is being prepared for launch. There are delays, and the launch must be moved back two days to 22 June. Kamanin tells the crews that this means there will be no good opportunity for them to observe the launch from the station with the Svinets apparatus, as was planned. Meanwhile the electrical specialists and Chertok in Moscow cannot localise the electrical problem. All of the equipment aboard has been turned off and on, and the burning simply does not occur again. Meanwhile there are concerns that Soyuz 11 may be able to reach the desired mission length, but that Soyuz 12 may not be safe to fly by its launch date. The mission is still planned for the full 30 days, but the physical training program has not been followed due to the problems and breakdowns aboard the station, requiring the cosmonauts to spend a lot of time in unplanned repair activities. The physicians are not in favour of prolonging the flight.


1971 June 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT94B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 June 20 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 15 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Gorbatko, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    The Soyuz 11 crew completes their 1000th revolution of the earth. Gorbatko jokes that they are 'go for 2000' but the crew is not enthusiastic. Kamanin does not believe they have more than 10 or 11 days endurance left in them. Clear problems exist: the Penguin training suits do not adequately replace gravitational effects (they have suffered torn elastic bands); the measured lung capacity of the crews has declined from 300 on the first day of the flight to 200 now; use of the treadmill caused the whole station to vibrate alarmingly and was discontinued (the solar panels flapped, the propellants sloshed in the tanks, and the noise of the track couldn't be kept out of the rest areas). The weather is very poor in the prime recovery area for the last two days - 20-25 m/s wind - dangerous for landing.


1971 June 20 - . 19:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • PAET re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 377 km (234 mi).

1971 June 20 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-C. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Operational Test M1-17 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). SSTTP M1-17 Target mission.

1971 June 21 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 16 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. The State Commission decides that the flight of Soyuz 11 can continue to 27 to 30 June. Kamanin wanted to bring the crew down earlier, but his position is rejected. He has become so tired of some of his unsupportive higher-ups..

1971 June 22 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 17 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    Thirty years since the start of World War II, Kamanin muses. He thinks of the weight of those years - of Stalinist repression, war, loss of his oldest son, evacuation to Ashkabad and Tashkent, death of Komarov, and finally the heaviest loss of all - the death of Gagarin. Kamanin will be 63 in October, and the war memories still engulf him. He is so tired. Time to retire, make way for the younger men. There are some good men in the first cosmonaut team. Meanwhile, all is normal aboard Salyut 1 on the 17th day of Soyuz 11's mission.


1971 June 22 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 June 23 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 18 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    The weather is bad, and Kamanin is depressed. Over the last three days various 'stars' of space medicine have come to the command point to pontificate. They are convinced this crew will be in better shape on their return than the Soyuz 9 crew due to the KTF trainer, Polinom vacuum device, Penguin prophylactic suits, and so on. Kamanin is not convinced. He thinks the readaptation period will be very difficult. Volkov will be the worst off. In flight he often complains of problems with the physical training equipment, doesn't drink enough water, and often makes mistakes. But the doctors say all will be quite OK. The landing commission meets. The touchdown of the crew is set for 30 June, 150-200 km south-west of Karaganda.


1971 June 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT84M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 June 24 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Soyuz 11 Day 19 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Karas, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    Dobrovolsky and Patsayev successfully complete the Svinets experiment, fixing the position of a rocket launched at night. The N1 launch has been delayed again. Karas reports that telemetry shows many problems with the rocket, even just sitting on the pad. Kamanin sees this lousy rocket as a heavy cross for Soviet cosmonautics to bear. As for Soyuz 11, the Landing Commission discusses moving the landing from the 3rd to 2nd revolution on 30 July. But then the crew will land in the dark, while for the 3rd revolution landing they will touch down 24 minutes before sunrise. It is decided to continue planning for the third revolution, in case the crew needs immediate medical assistance.


1971 June 24 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 June 24 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 350.
  • LPARL XRT X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 June 24 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 428 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5305 . COSPAR: 1971-057A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed electron and gamma ray science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5315 . COSPAR: 1971-057G. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.88 min.

1971 June 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 111 km (68 mi).

1971 June 24 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1971 June 25 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 20 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The crew sets a new world endurance record in space. Overnight they conduct another successful Svinets experiment, this time observing the launch of a solid propellant missile. The crew seems alert and in good shape. The Landing Commission confirms landing for 30 June, but now 200 to 250 km south-west of Karaganda. The medical teams will be prepared for all possible situations. There are bitter arguments within the commission as to the current and likely condition of the crew.


1971 June 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4M - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Photo surveillance mission..

1971 June 25 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 660 km (410 mi).

1971 June 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D / E regions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 June 26 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 21 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The crew has completed all scientific and technical experiments aboard the Salyut station. They will spend the last two to three days concentrating on physical training, medical observations, and preparation for landing. They will turn off all station equipment not required for autonomous flight, prepare the Soyuz for landing, and measure the water and consumable reserves available for the next crew. The experiments have produced many film cartridges, experiment samples, and so on that should be returned to earth. However there is not enough space or mass reserves in the Soyuz capsule for them all so they are only to return those specifically listed by ground control.


1971 June 26 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Platform: S611. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 June 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 June 26 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Solar La / X / ne Ionosphere / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 June 26 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N-1 11A52. FAILURE: First stage failed.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 6L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-LOK / LK Mockups. Mass: 9,850 kg (21,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Decay Date: 1971-07-21 . Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

    Superbooster failure of N1 serial number 6L. This was a substantially improved vehicle, incorporating filters in the propellant lines to prevent any foreign objects from getting into the pumps. The shape of the tail of the booster was modified, and ventilation and refrigeration systems were added to keep the engine compartment cool. It was painted white overall to reduce temperatures while sitting on the pad. After liftoff and ascent, an axial rotation was introduced by gas dynamics interactions of the thirty engines with the air slipstream. The launch vehicle developed a roll beyond the capability of the control system to compensate. and began to break up as it went through Max Q. Control was lost at 50.2 seconds into the flight and it was destroyed by range safety a second later. The engines functioned well and did not shut down up to the point of vehicle destruction. No functional payload was carried. It has been stated that this launch did not have a working launch escape system. Additional Details: here....


1971 June 27 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Soyuz 11 Day 22 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Isayev, Keldysh, Mishin, Patsayev, Smirnov, Ustinov, Volkov. Program: Salyut, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The shocking news of rocket engine designer Isayev's premature death is received at the Soyuz 11 control point at Yevpatoriya. This is followed by the news that the third N1 failed 57 seconds into its flight. A total of 13 N1's were built, and all three launched so far have exploded. Kamanin agreed to cancellation of the entire project three years ago, but Ustinov, Smirnov, Keldysh, and Mishin continued in their grandiose charade, wasting billions of roubles in the process. Meanwhile on the 22nd day of Soyuz 11's flight, the crew is up and about. Volkov is especially active, which should improve his readaptation when he returns to earth.


1971 June 27 - . 03:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-14 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 June 27 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1971 June 28 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 23 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Dobrovolsky, Karas, Keldysh, Mishin, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The cosmonauts have to be extremely careful in putting Salyut in storage mode. They go through the checklist together with the ground to make sure no errors are made. The Salyut station is much more comfortable than the Soyuz, but the mission has revealed it needs many improvements, including: a unit for ejecting liquids from the station; solar panels, and scientific instruments, that can be automatically pointed at the sun or their target and stabilised; an improved control section; better crew rest provisions. Only with such improvements will it be possible to make flights of two months or longer. And such flights will take ten years to work up to, not by the end of the year, as Mishin claims. Kamanin thinks it will be possible to prolong flights to 40 to 60 days in 1972, but that this will then be a long-standing record. Any longer would be equivalent to running 100 km but then collapsing and dying - the Soviet Union doesn't need those kind of records!

    The bigwigs arrive from Moscow to be in on the landing. But Afanasyev, Keldysh, Mishin, and Karas all remain at the cosmodrome for the investigation into the N1 failure.


1971 June 28 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Solar La / X / ne Ionosphere / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 June 29 - .
  • Soyuz 11 day 24 - final preparations for landing. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Mishin, Patsayev, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Big dramas are being played out at the cosmodrome over the N1 failure, but Mishin seems protected by someone very high up and is untouchable in the blame game. This is the last full day aloft of the Soyuz 11 crew. At 19:30 the State Commission at the command point authorises the Soyuz 11 crew to undock from the Salyut space station. A communications session begins on the 15th orbit of the day at 19:45. Dobrovolsky and Volkov confirmed that the station was completely mothballed, all material to be returned was stowed in the Soyuz capsule, the crew was wearing their anti-G suits, and had completed shut-down of the station. Yeliseyev advised the crew that ground telemetry showed that they had not turned on the noxious gas filters in the station. Volkov argues that this must be a ground control error, but after checking admits the crew made a mistake.

    After the crew has left the station, taken their seats in the capsule, and closed the hatch between the Soyuz BO orbital module and SA re-entry capsule, the strained voice of Volkov comes from space: 'Hatch not hermetically sealed? What's happening? What's going on?'. All this response to the fact that the caution and warning panel 'Hatch open' light has not gone out. Yeliseyev calmly advises the crew, 'Don't panic. Open the hatch, and move the wheel to the left to open. Close the hatch, and then move the wheel to the right six turns with full force'. The crew does this several times, but the light still won't go out. On a final attempt, with 6.5 turns of the wheel, the light goes out. On the second half of he 15th orbit, the crew lowers the pressure in the BO to 160 mm, and the hatch proves to be air-tight.

    On the 16th orbit the crew separates their Soyuz from the Salyut station. At 21:35 they report normal separation and that they 'can see how the station moves away from the spacecraft'. They have enough propellant to stop the separation velocity, and take photographs of the station from 10 to 15 m away. They then back away to 30-40 m, and Patsayev takes another set of photographs documenting the condition of the station.


1971 June 29 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg.
  • The Space and Missile Test Center (SAMTEC) equalled its previous record by supporting four missile launches from Vandenberg in a single day. - .

1971 June 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL71-03 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 June 29 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • HISTAR 2 Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1971 June 29 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg PLC-C. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • CHASER 1 ABM infrared sensor technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1971 June 29 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/Trident.
  • ABRES RVTO-2A-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1971 June 29 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz 11 - . Return Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    The re-entry capsule was recovered June 29, 1971 23:17 GMT, but when the hatch was opened it was found that the crew had perished due to a loss of cabin atmosphere. A pressure equalization valve was jerked loose at the jettison of the Soyuz Orbital Module. The valve was not supposed to open until an altitude of 4 km was reached. The three-man crew did not have space suits. The Soyuz was thereafter redesigned to accomodate only two crew, but in spacesuits. The actual Soyuz 11 Prime Crew was Leonov, Kubasov, and Kolodin. Dobrovolskiy, Volkov, Patsayev were their backups (and support crew to Soyuz 10). Kubasov was grounded by physicians few days before launch, and the back-up crew ended up going instead.


1971 June 30 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz 11 and death of crew. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Goreglyad, Patsayev, Smirnov, Ustinov, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Kamanin account: The next communications session with Soyuz 11 comes at 00:16. Kamanin reads up to the crew the conditions at the primary and secondary landing zones (10 km visibility, 2-3 m/s wind, 16 deg temperature, 720 mm pressure). The crew is to told to report on HF and UHF using all antennae and to call out parachute opening. They are ordered to wait in the capsule for the recovery crews, not to open the hatch themselves under any circumstances. It should take no more than 20 to 30 minutes until the recovery team can open the hatch from the outside. They are under no circumstances to try to get out of the capsule without the assistance of the doctors. Dobrovolsky confirms: "All received, landing sequence proceeding excellent, all OK, crew is excellent".

    Telemetry shows the Soyuz braking engine begins firing at 01:35:24 and makes a nominal 187 second retrofire burn. Ground control waits for verbal confirmation, but there are no voice communications received from the capsule. At 01:47:28 the crew should have reported successful BO and PAO module separations from the capsule, but still nothing heard. It is not clear to ground control at this point - is Soyuz 11 heading for a landing or staying in orbit? From 01:49:37 to 2:04:07 the capsule is in communications range but there is no reply to the ground's calls. It is now obvious that something is wrong aboard Soyuz 11, but it is not clear what.

    At 01:54 the VVS command point reports that radar has picked up the spacecraft at 2200 km uprange from the landing zone. It is on course, so the feeling is that the capsule's communications system has simply failed. The parachute deploy signal is received from within the landing zone, but still no transmissions from the crew as on earlier missions. At 02:05 an Il-14 search plane and Mi-8 helicopter spot Soyuz 11 descending under its parachute, within 200 km east of Dzhezkazgan. Soyuz 11 lands at 02:18 Moscow time. Four helicopters land simultaneously as the capsule thumps down on the steppe. The report from the recovery forces to the control centre is only one word: "Wait". There are no further tramsmissions from the recovery forces. It is clear the crew must be dead. Kamanin calls Goreglyad and tells him to set up a State Commission.

    Later it is learned that two minutes after landing the hatch was opened by the recovery group and the crew was seen to be without signs of life. At 06:00 by orders of Ustinov and Smirnov the designated members of the State Commission depart from the Crimea for the landing site aboard a Tu-104, then transfer to an An-10. But on arrival they find that Goreglyad has already left for Moscow with the corpses of the crew. At 16:00 the engineers and doctors meet with the State Commission. The spacecraft's cabin, seats, parachute, equipment, and instruments have been examined. They indicate no problems - the spacecraft made a good soft landing. A hard landing was not a factor. All switches on the instrument panel were in their correct positions. A vent in one of two air valves was open 10 mm. There were no other discrepancies, even though the doctors already report that they believe the crew died from decompression of the cabin. At 23:00 the State Commission members leave for Moscow. Additional Details: here....


1971 June 30 - .
  • Death of Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev. Killed in cabin depressurization of Soyuz 11. - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Related Persons: Patsayev. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Flew on Soyuz 11. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing. A street in Kaluga and Asteroid 1791 were named for him..

1971 June 30 - .
  • Death of Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov. Killed in cabin depressurization of Soyuz 11. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Volkov. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 7, Soyuz 11. Member of first space station crew, however perished during landing. From 1958 a civilian engineer, Korolev OKB, involved in the development of the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft..

1971 June 30 - .
  • Death of Georgi Timofeyevich Dobrovolsky. Killed in cabin depressurization of Soyuz 11. - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky. Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 11. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing..

1971 June 30 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 July 1 - .
  • Soyuz 11 capsule evaluated at landing site. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    At 05:00 specialists arrive from Moscow to the Soyuz 11 landing site to test the hermetic seal of the cabin. By 08:00 the pressure tests of the cabin show a slight loss, but it takes 1.5 hours for the cabin to fully depressurise. There are no cracks or holes in the cabin. Therefore the only cause could be the two air valves. The medical experts have already determined that the cosmonauts died from depressurisation of the spacecraft. The crew have haemorrhages in their brains, blood in their lungs, and nitrogen in their blood. The flight recorder shows that four seconds after the depressurisation began Dobrovolsky's breathing rate went to 48/minute (normally 16/minute), asphyxiation began, and 20 to 30 seconds later he was dead. By 19:30 Kamanin is in Moscow, and he sees the bodies laying in state at 21:40. They are cremated at 22:00.


1971 July 2 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S73 Solar X-ray/Zodiacal mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 633. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1971 July 3 - .
  • Soyuz 11 investigative commission. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    The Soyuz 11 crew is buried in the Kremlin Wall in a State Funeral at Red Square. This is followed by the first meeting of the State Commission on the Soyuz 11 disaster. Ten sub-committees were set up to concentrate on various technical aspects of the investigation. The initial finding is that the air valve in the 'Mir' apparatus opened in free space at 170 km altitude. Within 112 seconds the capsule fully depressurised. The valve was designed to let in fresh air after re-entry. It should have been impossible for this valve to open until the external barometric pressure had increased to a set level. The only crew instructions and training in relation to this valve were that it was to be closed by either the crew or the recovery forces in case of a landing in water.


1971 July 4 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Soyuz 11 failure investigation - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Severin, Tereshkova, Volkov. Program: Lunar L3, Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    This was a very difficult time for TsKBEM. All work at the bureaus came to a complete halt after the loss of Soyuz 11 and N1 6L. Simultaneous expert commissions investigated the loss of N1 6L and Soyuz 11. TsKBEM was seen as responsible for every failure. A virtually legal process ensued to fix guilt. Every design decision was examined and questioned. Additional Details: here....


1971 July 5 - .
  • Soyuz 11 crew deaths preventable. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Mishin, Patsayev, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11.

    So many kinds of failures were simulated during Soyuz training - but never the failure that killed the Soyuz 11 crew. Yet the deaths were preventable. The VVS and the cosmonauts had been writing letters for eight years on the necessity of wearing suits aboard the spacecraft. Mishin's reply: 'I don't want to fly cowards on my spacecraft'. It would have been possible to fly Soyuz with a crew of two, in suits, or at least adequate reserve oxygen tanks to flood the compartment and maintain pressure in the situation of a capsule leak. The VVS protested the decision not to fly with such measures, but Mishin simply rejected the protests.


1971 July 6 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1971 July 7 - .
  • Kamanin's last diary entry in service. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Brezhnev, Bushuyev, Dobrovolsky, Khrushchev, Mishin, Patsayev, Serbin, Smirnov, Ustinov, Volkov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    Kamanin is furious. Of 25 cosmonauts that have flown, five are buried in the Kremlin Wall, one in Novdevich cemetery, and 19 are still in service. These deaths are due to the incompetent management of Ustinov, Serbin, Smirnov, Mishin, Afanasyev, Bushuyev, and Serbin. Some people are trying to blame Kamanin or the cosmonauts, saying the vent could have been plugged with a finger if the crew was properly trained. Others blame the crew in other ways. But the main problem was already brought up early over and over and over by the VVS and Kutakhov - the crew should never have flown without spacesuits! This has been going on for seven years. Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Ustinov, Smirnov, all wrote of their fear of allowing dangerous spaceflights. But these were the same leaders who supported the categorical rejection of the need for the crew to fly in spacesuits. The need for the suits was rejected first by Korolev, then Mishin. They kept saying that hundreds of manned and unmanned spacecraft had flown without depressurisation ever occurring.

    The idea of plugging the vent with a finger is absurd. Had they done so, they would have had only 15 to 17 minutes to work the problem before the onset of G-forces. Imagine the real situation - retrofire was normal - the BO module jettisoned - suddenly the depress light on the caution warning panel is on! Dobrovolsky checks the hatch, but it's not the hatch -- and there are only 25 to 30 seconds until they all become unconscious. Volkov and Patsayev undo their straps and turn on the radio. The whistling of the air can only be heard at the commander's seat - where the vent valve is located. Kamanin discontinues diary entries for two years after this date.


1971 July 8 - .
  • Kamanin relieved as head of VVS space affairs and cosmonaut training. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shatalov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. In a letter signed by both men, citing a Ministry of Defence decree number 0777 dated 25 June 1971, Kamanin resigns his position as assistant to the VVS General Staff for training and direction of spaceflights, and hands over this position to Shatalov..

1971 July 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT04GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 July 8 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • Explorer 44 - . Payload: Solar Explorer C. Mass: 118 kg (260 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: Solrad. Decay Date: 1979-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 5317 . COSPAR: 1971-058A. Apogee: 632 km (392 mi). Perigee: 433 km (269 mi). Inclination: 51.1000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Solar radition data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 July 9 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170B.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 191 km (118 mi).

1971 July 12 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • FOT GT95B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1971 July 12 - . 15:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1971 July 12 - . 15:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1971 July 12 - . 16:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1971 July 13 - . 02:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 July 13 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 July 14 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Electron analyser Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 July 14 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Electron analyser Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1971 July 15 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL71-04 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 July 15 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Sphere - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1971 July 16 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-09 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 9. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1991-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5327 . COSPAR: 1971-059A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 342 km (212 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 July 16 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • OPS 8373 - . Payload: Ferret 16 / Agena D 2737?. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Ferret. Decay Date: 1978-08-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 5329 . COSPAR: 1971-060A. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi). Perigee: 450 km (270 mi). Inclination: 74.9000 deg. Period: 93.60 min.

1971 July 17 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 July 17 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 July 18 - . 01:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1971 July 19 - . 08:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 July 20 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 429 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5331 . COSPAR: 1971-061A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 July 21 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1971 July 21 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 July 21 - . 21:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1971 July 22 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1971 July 23 - .
  • M2 Flight 23 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 788 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18440 m. Flight Time - 353 sec..

1971 July 23 - . LV Family: N1.
  • Further meetings with Mishin's section leaders on 15 and 23 July leading up to a meeting of the N1-L3 Expert Commission with SA Afanasiev on 25 July where the N1-L3 is finally killed.. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Afanasyev, Sergei, . Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK, MKBS, Mars 5NM, LK.

    It is agreed that it could never have landed a cosmonaut on the moon:
    1. Agree that the N1-L3 could not land a cosmonaut.
    2. LOK, LK - cancelled.
    3. N-1 to be used for MKBS, Mars 75, 77, etc.
    4. Lunar Expedition - proceed. (but the solution is not clear. Machines may be better.)
    5. Costs for N1-L3 to 1 January 1971: 2.9 billion rubles. Required to complete - 3.0 billion.
    6. Unreliability must be solved through reliability testing.
    7. Extend the use of N1 (LKI, Mars-75, Mars-77, MKBS).
    8. What you need to alter under based on this testing.
    9. Proceed with development of hydrogen stages, but you need to use the existing stages for now. (Mishin Diaries 2-336) l


1971 July 23 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 430 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5340 . COSPAR: 1971-062A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 July 24 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1971 July 25 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1971 July 26 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: LUT3. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo 15 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. Backup Crew: Brand, Gordon, Schmitt. Payload: Apollo CSM 112/LM 10/ ALSEP/ LRV-1/PFS 1/S-IVB-510. Mass: 30,343 kg (66,894 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand, Gordon, Irwin, Schmitt, Scott, Worden. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 12.30 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 5351 . COSPAR: 1971-063A. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 29.6800 deg. Period: 87.84 min.

    Apollo 15 (AS-510) with astronauts David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin aboard was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 9:34 a.m. EDT July 26. The spacecraft and S-IVB combination was placed in an earth parking orbit 11 minutes 44 seconds after liftoff. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection (insertion into the trajectory for the moon) were similar to those of previous lunar landing missions. Translunar injection was at about 12:30 p.m., with separation of the CSM from the LM/S-IVB/IU at 12:56 p.m. At 1:08 p.m., onboard color TV showed the docking of the CSM with the LM.

    S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system burns sent the S-IVB/IU stages toward the moon, where they impacted the lunar surface at 4:59 p.m. EDT July 29. The point of impact was 188 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 14 landing site and 355 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 12 site. The impact was detected by both the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 seismometers, left on the moon in November 1969 and February 1971.

    After the translunar coast, during which TV pictures of the CSM and LM interiors were shown and the LM communications and other systems were checked, Apollo 15 entered lunar orbit at 4:06 p.m. EDT July 29.

    The LM-10 Falcon, with astronauts Scott and Irwin aboard, undocked and separated from the Endeavor (CSM 112) with astronaut Worden aboard. At 6:16 p.m. EDT July 30, the Falcon landed in the Hadley-Apennine region of the moon 600 meters north-northwest of the proposed target. About two hours later, following cabin depressurization, Scott performed a 33-minute standup EVA in the upper hatch of the LM, during which he described and photographed the landing site.

    The first crew EVA on the lunar surface began at 9:04 a.m. July 31. The crew collected and stowed a contingency sample, unpacked the ALSEP and other experiments, and prepared the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) for operations. Some problems were encountered in the deployment and checkout of the LRV, used for the first time, but they were quickly resolved. The first EVA traverse was to the Apennine mountain front, after which the ALSEP was deployed and activated, and one probe of a Heat Flow experiment was emplaced. A second probe was not emplaced until EVA-2 because of drilling difficulties. The first EVA lasted 6 hours 33 minutes.

    At 7:49 a.m. EDT August 1, the second EVA began. The astronauts made a maintenance check on the LRV and then began the second planned traverse of the mission. On completion of the traverse, Scott and Irwin completed the placement of heat flow experiment probes, collected a core sample, and deployed the American flag. They then stowed the sample container and the film in the LM, completing a second EVA of 7 hours 12 minutes.

    The third EVA began at 4:52 a.m. August 2, included another traverse, and ended 4 hours 50 minutes later, for a total Apollo 15 lunar surface EVA time of 18 hours 35 minutes.

    While the lunar module was on the moon, astronaut Worden completed 34 lunar orbits in the CSM operating scientific instrument module experiments and cameras to obtain data concerning the lunar surface and environment. X-ray spectrometer data indicated richer abundance of aluminum in the highlands, especially on the far side, but greater concentrations of magnesium in the maria.

    Liftoff of the ascent stage of the LM, the first one to be televised, occurred at 1:11 p.m. EDT August 2. About two hours later the LM and CSM rendezvoused and docked, and film, equipment, and 77 kilograms of lunar samples were transferred from the LM to the CSM. The ascent stage was jettisoned and hit the lunar surface at 11:04 p.m. EDT August 2. Its impact was recorded by the Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 seismometers, left on the moon during those missions. Before leaving the lunar orbit, the spacecraft deployed a subsatellite, at 4:13 p.m. August 4, in an orbit of 141.3 by 102 kilometers. The satellite would measure interplanetary and earth magnetic fields near the moon. It also carried charged-particle sensors and equipment to detect variations in lunar gravity caused by mascons (mass concentrations).

    A transearth injection maneuver at 5:23 p.m. August 4 put the CSM on an earth trajectory. During the transearth coast, astronaut Worden performed an inflight EVA beginning at 11:32 a.m. August 5 and lasting for 38 minutes 12 seconds. He made three trips to the scientific instrument module (SIM) bay of the SM, twice to retrieve cassettes and once to observe the condition of the instruments in the SIM bay.

  • Apollo 15 LM - . Call Sign: Falcon. Payload: Apollo LM 10. Mass: 16,437 kg (36,237 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 12.30 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 5351 . COSPAR: 1971-063x. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 29.6800 deg. Period: 87.84 min.
  • Apollo 15 Subsatellite - . Payload: PFS 1. Mass: 36 kg (79 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: PFS. USAF Sat Cat: 5377 . COSPAR: 1971-063D. Released from Apollo 15 into 102 x 142 km lunar orbit on 4 August 1971 at 20:13:29 GMT; studied lunar particles and included fields experiments. Last telemetry from lunar orbit in 1984..

1971 July 27 - . 13:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 July 28 - . 03:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-18 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5367 . COSPAR: 1971-064A. Apogee: 39,877 km (24,778 mi). Perigee: 478 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 July 29 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1971 July 30 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 431 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5364 . COSPAR: 1971-065A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 July 30 - . 11:16 GMT - .
  • Apollo 15 lands near Hadley Rille - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 15.

    Apollo 15 entered lunar orbit at 4:06 p.m. EDT July 29.

    The LM-10 Falcon, with astronauts Scott and Irwin aboard, undocked and separated from the Endeavor (CSM 112) with astronaut Worden aboard. At 6:16 p.m. EDT July 30, the Falcon landed in the Hadley-Apennine region of the moon 600 meters north-northwest of the proposed target. Additional Details: here....


1971 July 31 - . 00:16 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 15-1 - . Crew: Scott. EVA Duration: 0.0229 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scott. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. Photographed lunar surface panorama from top hatch of LM..

1971 July 31 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2C.
  • ESRO C59/1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 July 31 - . 00:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • SSC NNA1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1971 July 31 - . 13:12 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 15-2 - . Crew: Irwin, Scott. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin, Scott. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Explored lunar surface near LM and deployed ALSEP unmanned scientific station equipment..

1971 July 31 - . 23:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • SSC NNA2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1971 August 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle delta wings - . Nation: USA. NASA Houston finally abandoned its straight wing design and studied a series of delta wing orbiters with external tanks through the summer of 1971 (MSC-020B, MSC-036, MSC-046, MSC-040)..

1971 August 1 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2C.
  • ESRO C59/2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1971 August 1 - . 11:48 GMT - .
1971 August 2 - .
  • EVA Apollo 15-5 - . Crew: Irwin, Scott. EVA Duration: 0.0014 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin, Scott. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Internal Vehicular Activity. Threw excess equipment out of LM before lift-off..

1971 August 2 - .
  • Apollo 15 departs lunar surface - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 15.

    Liftoff of the ascent stage of the LM, the first to be televised via the camera on the rover, occurred at 1:11 p.m. EDT. About two hours later the LM and CSM rendezvoused and docked, and film, equipment, and 77 kilograms of lunar samples were transferred from the LM to the CSM. The ascent stage was jettisoned and hit the lunar surface at 11:04 p.m. EDT. Its impact was recorded by the Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 seismometers, left on the moon during those missions. Additional Details: here....


1971 August 2 - .
  • Apollo 15 - Wakeup Song: Tijuana Taxi - . Flight: Apollo 15. "Tijuana Taxi" by Tijuana Brass.

1971 August 2 - . LV Family: N1.
  • Manned military space to have priority in N1 program - . Related Persons: Mishin, Afanasyev, Sergei, . Spacecraft: Soyuz, MKBS, Mir, Soyuz 7K-S. In a follow-up call to Afanasiev, Mishin notes: "On conclusion of the expert committee on the N1-L3 (and Comrade Tsarev VPK): 7KS - MKBS-1 - MKBS-2 - Continue; Enlarge the crew to six people for short stays.".

1971 August 2 - . 08:52 GMT - .
1971 August 3 - .
  • Death of Georgi Nikolayevich Babakin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Babakin. Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of Lavochkin design bureau, 1965-1971..

1971 August 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT96B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 August 3 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63. FAILURE: Second stage failed 204 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DS-P1-Yu s/n 33 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu. Mass: 330 kg (720 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 August 4 - .
  • Apollo 15 - Wakeup Song: Theme From 2001: A Space Odyssey - . Flight: Apollo 15. "Theme From 2001: A Space Odyssey" Spacecraft communicator Karl Henize.

1971 August 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT104F-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 August 5 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC.
  • Solar spectra Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi).

1971 August 5 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 432 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5379 . COSPAR: 1971-066A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 August 5 - . 15:31 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 15-6 - . Crew: Irwin, Worden. EVA Duration: 0.0264 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin, Worden. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. Deep space retrieval of film cartridges from Service Module..

1971 August 6 - .
  • Apollo 15 - Wakeup Song: Anchors Aweigh - . Flight: Apollo 15. "Anchors Aweigh" For Jim Irwin..

1971 August 6 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT85M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 August 7 - .
  • Landing of Apollo 15 - . Return Crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin, Scott, Worden. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 15.

    CM and SM separation, parachute deployment, and other reentry events went as planned, but one of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but safe landing. Splashdown - at 4:45 p.m. EDT (20:45 GMT), after 12 days 7 hours 12 minutes from launch - was 530 kilometers north of Hawaii and 10 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. Okinawa. The astronauts were carried to the ship by helicopter, and the CM was retrieved and placed on board. All primary mission objectives had been achieved.


1971 August 7 - .
  • Apollo 15 - Wakeup Song: Hawaiian War Chant - . Flight: Apollo 15. "Hawaiian War Chant" from record"Hawaii Calls". - Al Kealoha Perry.

1971 August 7 - . 00:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A2. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • OV1-20P - . Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OV1. Decay Date: 1971-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 5394 . COSPAR: 1971-067A. Apogee: 1,932 km (1,200 mi). Perigee: 136 km (84 mi). Inclination: 92.0000 deg. Period: 105.90 min.

    Atlas 76F, with two upper stage Orbital Vehicle propulsion modules, OV1-20 and 0V1-21, was launched from Vandenberg as part of SAMSO's Space Test Program (STP). This mission, STP 70-2, successfully placed six spacecraft with nine separate payloads into polar orbits. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

  • Gridsphere 1 - . Payload: AVL-802 Grid Sphere 7-1. Mass: 37 kg (81 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gridsphere. USAF Sat Cat: 5398 . COSPAR: 1971-067E. Apogee: 856 km (531 mi). Perigee: 756 km (469 mi). Inclination: 87.6000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Musketball 1 - . Payload: RTDS. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Musketball. Decay Date: 1971-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5383 . COSPAR: 1971-067D. Apogee: 859 km (533 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 87.6000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Cannonball 2 - . Payload: LOADS 2. Mass: 364 kg (802 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Cannonball. Decay Date: 1972-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 5382 . COSPAR: 1971-067C. Apogee: 1,970 km (1,220 mi). Perigee: 133 km (82 mi). Inclination: 92.0000 deg. Period: 106.30 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • OV1-21P - . Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OV1. USAF Sat Cat: 5397 . COSPAR: 1971-067B. Apogee: 896 km (556 mi). Perigee: 778 km (483 mi). Inclination: 87.6000 deg. Period: 101.70 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Gridsphere 2 - . Payload: AVL-802 Grid Sphere 7-2. Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gridsphere. Decay Date: 1979-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5401 . COSPAR: 1971-067G. Apogee: 915 km (568 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 87.6000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Rigidsphere - . Payload: AVL-802 Rigid Sphere. Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Rigidsphere. Decay Date: 1979-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5406 . COSPAR: 1971-067H. Apogee: 916 km (569 mi). Perigee: 781 km (485 mi). Inclination: 87.6000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Mylar Balloon - . Payload: AVL-802 Mylar Sphere. Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Mylar. Decay Date: 1981-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 5410 . COSPAR: 1971-067P. Apogee: 912 km (566 mi). Perigee: 791 km (491 mi). Inclination: 87.6000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • LCS 4 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: LCS. Decay Date: 1972-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5396 . COSPAR: 1971-067F. Apogee: 910 km (560 mi). Perigee: 779 km (484 mi). Inclination: 87.6000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1971 August 7 - .
  • Splashdown of Apollo 15 - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 15.

    Apollo 15 landed at 20:45 GMT. CM and SM separation, parachute deployment, and other reentry events went as planned, but one of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but safe landing. Splashdown - at 20:47 GMT, 12 days 7 hours 12 minutes from launch - was 530 kilometers north of Hawaii and 10 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. Okinawa. The astronauts were carried to the ship by helicopter, and the CM was retrieved and placed on board.


1971 August 8 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69M.
  • Cosmos 433 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1971-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5402 . COSPAR: 1971-068A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 112 km (69 mi). Inclination: 49.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1971 August 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 24 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1035 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18898 m. Flight Time - 415 sec..

1971 August 9 - .
  • Birth of Roman Yuriyevich Romanenko - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Romanenko, Roman. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Son of cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1992 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19. 1999..

1971 August 10 - .
  • The MKBS is seen in the context of its military application and a unified program with DOS and Almaz. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Ustinov. Spacecraft: , MKBS, Almaz, Mir. "Meeting of the Central Committee Comrade DF Ustinov (The main directions of development of space weapons for 1971-80 biennium). ... DOS - Almaz - MKBS-I - MKBS-II: Philosophy: Continuity"..

1971 August 10 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 139 km (86 mi).

1971 August 10 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • NRL NB4.243 Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 August 10 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 August 11 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1971 August 12 - .
  • Staff meetings to emphasize a modular approach to MKBS.. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Bezverby, . Spacecraft: , MKBS.

    Meeting with Bezverby VK on MKBS (philosophy of design). Yurasova IE - philosophy of building block control systems for MKBS. MKBS = Integrated module consisting of blocks. Modules = integrated function blocks. Function blocks: General Purpose, Specialized, Service. General purpose units: (control systems, power, habitation, etc.).


1971 August 12 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 434 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 3. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,296.77 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5407 . COSPAR: 1971-069A. Apogee: 1,253 km (778 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 99.30 min.

    Final LK moon lander test using the T2K version.
    Maneuver Summary:
    188km X 267km orbit to 190km X 1261km orbit. Delta V: 266 m/s
    188km X 1262km orbit to 180km X 11384km orbit. Delta V: 1333 m/s
    Total Delta V: 1599 m/s. Ten years later the spacecraft was due to re-enter over Australia soon after the Skylab scare. The Soviet Union told the people of Australia not to worry, it was only an experimental lunar cabin - the first inadvertent admission that their manned lunar project even existed!


1971 August 12 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 24B.
  • OPS 8607 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 32 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1971-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 5409 . COSPAR: 1971-070A. Apogee: 424 km (263 mi). Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Inclination: 111.0000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1971 August 12 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • NRL NE4.251 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 August 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT87M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 August 13 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Green River. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena H.
  • ADE-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). An Athena H rocket test vehicle, the second launched and the first with all three stages operating, successfully completed a flight over the Inland Range from Green River, Utah, to the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. .

1971 August 14 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Greely. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1971 August 16 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL71-05 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 August 16 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 633. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 August 16 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B-1.
  • Eole 1 - . Mass: 84 kg (185 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Eole satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 5435 . COSPAR: 1971-071A. Apogee: 836 km (519 mi). Perigee: 651 km (404 mi). Inclination: 50.2000 deg. Period: 99.70 min. Experimental weather satellite; received meteorological data from balloon network. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 August 17 - . 21:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1971 August 18 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi).

1971 August 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4M - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1971 August 19 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper-Dart.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1971 August 19 - . 20:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1971 August 20 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 4SC. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • TVC test - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-2 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 09:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 09:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 10.
  • Optical astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 19:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1971 August 21 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1971 August 22 - . 02:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Denmark. Agency: DMI. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1971 August 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 August 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 August 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 August 24 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Denmark. Agency: DMI. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1971 August 24 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 August 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 25 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. First M2-F3 supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1163 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20513 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

1971 August 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL71-06 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 August 25 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1971 August 26 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Cs / Ba Release Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1971 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • Safeguard M2-1 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1971 August 27 - . 10:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 435 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 41. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1972-01-28 . Decay Date: 1972-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 5441 . COSPAR: 1971-072A. Apogee: 478 km (297 mi). Perigee: 271 km (168 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 August 28 - . 02:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-C. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • SSTTP M2-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 August 30 - .
  • Study on Skylab payload shroud jettison. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    A study was conducted at MSFC on the effects of various pitch attitudes at the time of the Skylab payload shroud jettison on the possibility that the shroud would collide with the Skylab at a later date. Based on the study, a 10-degree attitude error constraint on a 90-degree-pitch (nose down) shroud separation attitude was recommended to preclude such a collision.


1971 August 30 - .
  • Birth of Katherine Megan McArthur - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McArthur, Megan. American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on..

1971 August 31 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1971 September 1 - .
  • Soviet-Indian collaboration to build a new satellite. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Bhaskara. Decree 'On co-operation to build an Indian satellite' was issued..

Fall 1971 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Delta wing selected for shuttle - . Nation: USA.

    NASA, taking note of the criticisms of the Faget straight-wing design by NASA Flight Research Center and the US Air Force, officially selected a delta wing configuration as the most stable and the one best able to meet the USAF cross-range requirement. But NASA Houston stubbornly continued to push the configuration anyway - even after its own studies showed the orbiter would have a tendency to spin at hypersonic speeds and couldn't take the thermal environment on re-entry. Houston refused to give up, and continued to tinker with aspect ratio, wing sweep, and tail location, reaching the 43th design iteration - MSC-043 - at the end of 1971. One of the alternatives studied was the 'Blue Goose' design of 1970, perhaps the ugliest spacecraft ever conceived. The wing of the long-necked abomination shifted 3.7 m during flight to compensate for centre of gravity changes. The payload bay was forward, followed by the liquid oxygen, then the liquid hydrogen tank. The design was found to have *extreme* aerodynamic heating and structural problems!


1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • ABRES LAR-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1971 September 1 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 10.
  • Solar ultraviolet Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1971 September 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT29M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 September 2 - . 07:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • PCA particles Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1971 September 2 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Luna 18 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 407. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1971-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5448 . COSPAR: 1971-073A. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Perigee: 100 km (60 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 119.00 min.

    Attempted lunar soil return mission; crashed while attempting to soft land at Latitude 3.57 N, Longitude 50.50 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 18 used a new method of navigation in lunar orbit and for landing. The spacecraft's designer, Babakhin, had died at age 56 only the month before. Luna 18 successfully reached earth parking orbit before being put on a translunar trajectory. On September 7, 1971, it entered lunar orbit. The spacecraft completed 85 communications sessions and 54 lunar orbits before it was sent towards the lunar surface by use of braking rockets. It impacted the Moon on September 11, 1971, in a rugged mountainous terrain. Signals ceased at the moment of impact. Parameters are for lunar orbit.


1971 September 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT05GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 September 3 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 3H.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / x-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1,718 km (1,067 mi).

1971 September 4 - . 13:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Resolute Bay. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IIIB.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 September 5 - . 13:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Resolute Bay. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IIIB.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 September 6 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: STA. Launch Vehicle: S-B.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: STA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1971 September 7 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 436 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 5461 . COSPAR: 1971-074A. Apogee: 543 km (337 mi). Perigee: 510 km (310 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. Possible ELINT satellite..

1971 September 7 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 September 7 - . 23:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1971 September 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT97B-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 September 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 10 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Dong Feng 5.
  • Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Research and Development Suborbital Flight.

1971 September 10 - . 03:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 437 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5466 . COSPAR: 1971-075A. Apogee: 539 km (334 mi). Perigee: 517 km (321 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Replaced Cosmos 436. Possible ELINT satellite..

1971 September 10 - . 06:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. Launch Vehicle: LS-C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 September 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT89M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 September 10 - . 21:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • KH-4B 1115 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1115 / Agena D 1662 / OPS 5454. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1971-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5468 . COSPAR: 1971-076A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 157 km (97 mi). Inclination: 74.9000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. KH-4B. Overall image quality is good..
  • SRV 831 - . Payload: SRV 1115-1. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: P 11. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1976-02-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 5469 . COSPAR: 1971-076xx. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 75.0000 deg. Period: 88.30 min.
  • OPS 7681 - . Payload: EHH B21. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1976-02-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 5469 . COSPAR: 1971-076B. Apogee: 516 km (320 mi). Perigee: 489 km (303 mi). Inclination: 75.0000 deg. Period: 94.70 min. Radar monitoring..

1971 September 11 - .
  • Death of Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Khrushchev. Russian politician. Leader of the USSR from 1956 to 1964..

1971 September 11 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: STA. Launch Vehicle: S-B.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: STA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1971 September 12 - .
  • Death of Lin Bao - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Lin Bao and his entourage are killed when their aircraft crashes, purportedly while trying to leave the country. Wang Bingzhang was associated with the coup plotters, and sent to prison for several years..

1971 September 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Phase B-Prime - . Nation: USA.

    The Phase B contractors, plus Grumman/Boeing and Lockheed, are given further study contracts to produce shuttle designs based on the expendable external tank approach. Lockheed was asked to evaluate the NASA Houston design using an MSC-040 configuration orbiter, external tank, including the MSC040C using three high-performance engines. While the USAF was driving the shuttle design criteria, it had so far not committed to any significant funding for the shuttle. The USAF contribution was limited to allowing NASA use the government-owned Plant 42 at Palmdale, paying for any launch facilities at Vandenberg AFB needed for USAF launches, and providing flight test support at Edwards AFB.


1971 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • CNES C133 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 September 13 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1971 September 14 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Dauphin.
  • PHARE (FU-196) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1971 September 14 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 438 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5475 . COSPAR: 1971-077A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 14 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 14 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 15 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 15 - . 19:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 16 - .
  • Death of Petr Petrovich Chechulin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chechulin. Russian officer. Director of Nll-4 1951-1955 during early research on satellites..

1971 September 16 - . 09:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1971 September 17 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). The final Standard Athena rocket was launched from Green River, Utah. .

1971 September 17 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. Launch Vehicle: JCR.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 September 18 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1971 September 19 - . 21:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1971 September 19 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • CNES C132 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 September 19 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • CNES C146 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 September 20 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • BIC Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 31,479 km (19,560 mi).

1971 September 21 - . LV Family: N1.
  • The issues of the crew shuttle to be used with MKBS (evidently choices are the existing Soyuz, 7KS, Chelomei's spaceplane, or the new high L/D spacecraft) - . Related Persons: Mishin, Chelomei, Bezverby, . Spacecraft: Soyuz, MKBS, Soyuz 7K-S, Mir, LKS. Bezverby VK MKBS-1 on N-1 and variants of crew transport spacecraft (Mishin Diaries 2-362).

1971 September 21 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 04:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 09:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Density Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 439 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5478 . COSPAR: 1971-078A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 September 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1971 September 22 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 September 22 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Solar La / X / ne Ionosphere-solar mission Ionosphere-solar mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1971 September 22 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 September 23 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1971 September 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 26 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 772 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12802 m. Flight Time - 210 sec..

1971 September 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 440 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 10. Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1972-01-20 . Decay Date: 1972-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5480 . COSPAR: 1971-079A. Apogee: 788 km (489 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1971 September 24 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 17:26 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Solar La / X / ne Ionosphere-solar mission Ionosphere-solar mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1971 September 24 - . 21:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1971 September 25 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 25 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1971 September 26 - . LV Family: N1.
  • About MKBS-1 product number 10, 11 - N-1. (Which LV will deliver crew - 7K-T) - Consider options". - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: Soyuz, MKBS.

1971 September 27 - .
  • Deputy Defense Secretary David Packard approved the development concept paper (DCP) for the acquisition of the Navy's proposed Fleet Satellite Communications (FLTSATCOM) system. - . Spacecraft: FLTSATCOM.

    The spaceborne segment of this global (less polar) ultra-high frequency (UHF) communications system would be developed for the Navy by SAMSO's Deputy for Space Communications Systems. In addition, the DCP approved the acquisition of UHF airborne and ground terminals for Air Force use with the FLTSATCOM and other selected satellite systems. Upon completion, this program, the Air Force Satellite Communications System (AFSATCOM), would provide the Air Force with a communications system for high priority Air Force requirements.


1971 September 27 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC.
  • GX3+1 Lunar Occultation X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1971 September 27 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Density Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1971 September 27 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 September 28 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Nikolaevich Ovchinin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ovchinin. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, 70th Seregina Special Flight Test Regiment RGNIITsPK.

1971 September 28 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S.
  • SS-01 Shinsei - . Payload: MS-F2. Mass: 65 kg (143 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. USAF Sat Cat: 5485 . COSPAR: 1971-080A. Apogee: 1,866 km (1,159 mi). Perigee: 872 km (541 mi). Inclination: 32.0000 deg. Period: 113.10 min. Scientific observations in outer space. Injection point 29 deg 7 min N, 145 deg 8 min E. .

1971 September 28 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 441 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5486 . COSPAR: 1971-081A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Luna 19 - . Payload: Ye-8-LS s/n 202. Mass: 5,810 kg (12,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-LS. USAF Sat Cat: 5488 . COSPAR: 1971-082A. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 40.6000 deg. Period: 121.75 min.

    Heavy lunar Orbiter; conducted lunar surface mapping. Luna 19 entered an intermediate earth parking orbit and was then put on a translunar trajectory by the Proton Block D stage. It entered lunar orbit on October 3, 1971. Luna 19 extended the systematic study of lunar gravitational fields and location of mascons (mass concentrations). It also studied the lunar radiation environment, the gamma-active lunar surface, and the solar wind. Photographic coverage via a television system was also obtained. Parameters are for lunar orbit.


1971 September 28 - . 11:48 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Winter Anomaly / Stratosphere Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1971 September 29 - .
  • MKBS details are being analyzed. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Chertok, Afanasyev, Sergei, Bezverby, . Spacecraft: , MKBS.

    Chertok, Bezverby VK - Discussed the docking systems for heavy modules (MKBS). The draft decree for the station, however, is stuck in reviews by the leadership: "Called Afanasyev- Status of the draft decree on MKBS (lies with Rabinovich). The draft decree on development of greater power (the letter is with Slavsky EP). (Mishin Diaries 2-346)


1971 September 29 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N.
  • OSO 7 - . Payload: OSO H. Mass: 635 kg (1,399 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: OSO. Decay Date: 1974-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5491 . COSPAR: 1971-083A. Apogee: 572 km (355 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 33.1000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Orbiting Solar Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • TETR 3 - . Payload: TETR D. Mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Tracking network technology satellite. Spacecraft: TETR. Decay Date: 1978-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5492 . COSPAR: 1971-083B. Apogee: 570 km (350 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 33.0000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Test satellite for NASA's Manned Space Flight Network. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 September 29 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 442 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5493 . COSPAR: 1971-084A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S47 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 September 30 - .
  • Apollo telescope mount results from thermal/vacuum test performed September-December 1971. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Skylab. Spacecraft: Apollo ATM.

    Corrective measures were being incorporated into the Apollo telescope mount as a result of the prototype thermal/vacuum test being performed in the MSC Space Environmental Simulation Laboratory September-December 1971. A number of anomalies unidentified in previous component system or subsystem tests were identified. Unlocated, the anomalies could have had serious impacts on ATM orbital operations.


1971 October 1 - .
  • Taifun-2 development approved. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decree 'On the Development of an Adjustment Complex with the Taifun-2' Artificial Satellite--approval of work on the Taifun-2 system' was issued..

1971 October 1 - .
  • TGR satellite development approved. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: TGR. Decree 'On the Development of a System of Global Television Reconnaissance (TGR) 'Taifun' Artificial Satellite--approval of work on the Taifun reconnaissance satellite' was issued..

1971 October 1 - .
  • Podsadka is considered again: "Think about podsadka approach to providing crew using 7K-S. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: Soyuz, MKBS. "Think about podsadka approach to providing crew using 7K-S...MOK (MKBS, transport systems, specialized satellites)". (Mishin Diaries 2-347).

1971 October 1 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 1 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 1 - . 12:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 1 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1971 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 October 2 - . 03:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 3 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1971 October 4 - .
  • Death of KGB Dwarf. Reportedly died on a suicide mission to the lunar surface; drove the Lunokhod lunar rover. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: KGB Dwarf. Russian phantom cosmonaut. Moscow urban legend of 1970: diminutive robot Lunokhod crawler was actually driven by a midget KGB agent on a one-way suicide mission to the lunar surface..

1971 October 4 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1971 October 5 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Photometers Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi).

1971 October 6-18 - .
  • Training mockups of several components of Skylab delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    Training mockups of several components of the Skylab spacecraft arrived at MSC. The Orbital Workshop and the Apollo telescope mount arrived aboard the NASA barge Orion. The shipment also included the multiple docking adapter exterior shell and a portion of the airlock module mockup. The AM one-g trainer had arrived previously at MSC on a contingent of six trucks. The trainers and hardware were scheduled for use by MSC in training prospective Skylab crewmen for missions.


1971 October 6 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT86F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Density Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 00:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Neutral Atmosphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 00:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 01:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Neutral Atmosphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass Spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass Spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magnetic mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 12:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass Spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass Spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1971 October 6 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 03:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magneticmission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6.
  • X-ray RMC X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 7 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 443 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5536 . COSPAR: 1971-085A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 5562 . COSPAR: 1971-085F. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.36 min.

1971 October 7 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 01:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M2-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Far ultraviolet Stellar photometer Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 8 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 October 9 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-125.
  • Range test - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 11 km (6 mi).

1971 October 9 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 9 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Magnetic mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 10 - .
  • Salyut 1 deorbited - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Salyut 1 was kept aloft to study how the systems behaved over an extended period, in order to identify fixes to improve their reliability on later flights. The station was originally designed to last three months. During the extended period fuel consumption and the ballistic and drag characteristics of the station were determined. Use of the reaction control system became difficult after an electrical failure in early October. Georgiy Degytyarenko recommended to Mishin that the station be deorbited safely into the Pacific Ocean without delay before complete control was lost. Mishin agreed and the signal was transmitted from Yevpatoriya on 10 October. The same procedure was followed for all subsequent stations except Salyut 7 (where control was completely lost).


1971 October 10 - . LV Family: N1.
  • A detailed list of project phases for the integrated MKBS-Lunar program are laid out. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: Soyuz, MKBS, Mir, Soyuz 7K-S, L3M.

    Complex number 1
    1. Improving N-1 (Increase thrust, increase reliability and survivability, operational testing).
    2. Improving upper stages G, D (performance, reliability and survivability, operational testing).
    3. Development of DM with operational testing.
    4. Development of standardized units of Stage S (Sr, Sr-L3M et al.).
    5. Development of block N.
    Complex number 2
    1. DOS 7KT - series production.
    2. MKBS-I
    3. 7KS
    4. L3M - (SA, LPU, PAO)
    5. SA reentry vehicle reusable. (Mishin Diaries 2-348)


1971 October 12 - .
  • Birth of Oleg Viktorovich Novitskiy - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Novitskiy. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Lieutenant Colonel, VVS and PVO 4th Army.

1971 October 12 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S81 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 13 - . 13:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 444 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 17. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5547 . COSPAR: 1971-086A. Apogee: 1,508 km (937 mi). Perigee: 1,321 km (820 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 445 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 18. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5548 . COSPAR: 1971-086B. Apogee: 1,512 km (939 mi). Perigee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.50 min.
  • Cosmos 451 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 24. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5554 . COSPAR: 1971-086H. Apogee: 1,573 km (977 mi). Perigee: 1,490 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.70 min.
  • Cosmos 450 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 23. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5553 . COSPAR: 1971-086G. Apogee: 1,529 km (950 mi). Perigee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.
  • Cosmos 449 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 22. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5552 . COSPAR: 1971-086F. Apogee: 1,542 km (958 mi). Perigee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.30 min.
  • Cosmos 448 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 21. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5551 . COSPAR: 1971-086E. Apogee: 1,517 km (942 mi). Perigee: 1,440 km (890 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 447 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 20. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5550 . COSPAR: 1971-086D. Apogee: 1,514 km (940 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.20 min.
  • Cosmos 446 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 19. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 5549 . COSPAR: 1971-086C. Apogee: 1,512 km (939 mi). Perigee: 1,381 km (858 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.

1971 October 14 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • The first of eight Thor/Burner IIA launches - . Nation: USA. The first of eight Thor/Burner IIA launches from Vandenberg AFB..

1971 October 14 - . 07:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2A.
  • DMSP-Block-5B F1 - . Payload: DMSP 4527 / OPS 4311. Mass: 195 kg (429 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 4/5 satellites. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5B. USAF Sat Cat: 5557 . COSPAR: 1971-087A. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi). Perigee: 772 km (479 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 101.10 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1971 October 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 452 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5558 . COSPAR: 1971-088A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 October 14 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 635. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 October 15 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT06GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 October 16 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Eridan.
  • ATLAS / CM16 / Gemini Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi).

1971 October 16 - . 02:31 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Infrared Airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1971 October 17 - . 13:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • ASTEX - . Payload: P71-2 / Agena D. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ASTEX. USAF Sat Cat: 5560 . COSPAR: 1971-089A. Apogee: 761 km (472 mi). Perigee: 738 km (458 mi). Inclination: 92.7000 deg. Period: 99.80 min.

    Space Test Program Flight 71-2 (STP 71-2), a Thorad/Agena launch vehicle, inserted four payloads into orbit from Vandenberg. Space Test Program; technology experiments. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).


1971 October 18 - .
  • Kamanin retires from the military on his 63rd birthday. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut.

1971 October 18 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 470 km (290 mi).

1971 October 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT98B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 October 18 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 October 18 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • CNES C154 / ISRO 5.13? Recovery test - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 19 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 467 km (290 mi).

1971 October 19 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 453 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 44. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1972-03-19 . Decay Date: 1972-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5563 . COSPAR: 1971-090A. Apogee: 497 km (308 mi). Perigee: 267 km (165 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 October 19 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • MSFC RR-2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • ESRO S89 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 October 21 - . 11:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6. FAILURE: Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • ITOS B - . Payload: ITOS B. Mass: 308 kg (679 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. Decay Date: 1972-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 5565 . COSPAR: 1971-091A. Apogee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Perigee: 293 km (182 mi). Inclination: 102.5000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Unusable orbit..

1971 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-2 Silo tests test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 October 22 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • ERCS GT40L Communications mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 October 23 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 October 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC19. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • LRL ACS-4C X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi).

1971 October 23 - . 17:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 24B.
  • OPS 7616 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 33 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1971-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5575 . COSPAR: 1971-092A. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi). Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Inclination: 110.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • SRV-2 - . Payload: SRV-2 / OPS 7616 DEB. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1971-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5606 . COSPAR: 1971-092B. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 93 km (57 mi). Inclination: 110.9000 deg. Period: 88.73 min.

1971 October 24 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • CANUTO-A Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi).

1971 October 24 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6.
  • GX3+1 Lunar Occultation X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

1971 October 25 - .
  • Death of Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yangel. Soviet Chief Designer 1954-1971 of OKB-586. Preeminent designer of ballistic missiles and light satellites. His Ukraine bureau designed the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's; the heavy R-16, R-36, and R-36M ICBM's; and the Zenit space launcher,.

1971 October 25 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • Starute,Datasonde Meteorological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1971 October 26 - . 16:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1971 October 27 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 October 28 - . 04:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA5B. Launch Vehicle: Black Arrow.
  • Prospero - . Payload: X 3. Mass: 66 kg (145 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Royal Aerospace Establishment. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: Prospero. USAF Sat Cat: 5580 . COSPAR: 1971-093A. Apogee: 1,403 km (871 mi). Perigee: 531 km (329 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 104.40 min. To test in space equipment for future satellites and to conduct a scientific experiment to measure the incidence of micro-meteoroids. Launch time 0409 GMT, injection point 13.7 deg S, 137.9 deg E. Anticipated life 100 years. .

1971 October 29 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • HISTAR 3 Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1971 October 30 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Phase C/D Request for Proposal - . Nation: USA.

    Request for Proposals were sent to Grumman/Boeing, McDonnell-Douglas/Martin Marrietta, and North American Rockwell for final proposals for Shuttle full-scale development. However the NASA specifications kept shifting. In December 1971 NASA decided to require parallel burn of the shuttle orbiter and booster stages, so the bid due date was shifted from 15 December 1971 to 1 June 1972.


1971 October 30 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Rocket EMP Test 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi).

1971 November 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Phase B Double Prime - . Nation: USA.

    In yet another iteration of shuttle design studies, $ 2.8 million contracts were given to Grumman/Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas/Martin Marrietta, and North American Rockewell. The development costs for the Phase B Prime contracts had still been over the Nixon administration's budget cap, and still further ways to reduce development cost had to be found. The studies were to run through 15 March 1972 and study lower cost booster concepts: a fully recoverable stage but with a new pressure-fed engine; a Saturn V first stage modified to serve as a flyback booster; and solid rocket motors. The staging velocity was to be under 6600 kph (e.g. lower than in earlier studies). The studies assumed a series burn, with the shuttle orbiter igniting at altitude.

    The studies indicated :

    • The Saturn S-IC flyback booster would use expendable engines, considered a drawback.
    • The new-design pressure fed liquid propellant booster would cost $4.2 billion to develop, plus a recurring cost of $275/kg to orbit.
    • Solid boosters would stage at 5800 kph. A solid booster shuttle would have a 2,221,000 gross lift-off weight equipped with 2 x 156 inch diameter solid rocket motors, loaded with 1.25 million kg of propellant and having a 130 second burn time. Lift-off thrust would be 1,332,000 kgf. Development cost would be $ 3.7 billion, and recurring shuttle cost to orbit would be $ 500/kg.

1971 Nov? - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Strypi.
  • BIRDSEED II BUITRE Plasma gun - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 November 2 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 454 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5585 . COSPAR: 1971-094A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 3 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Airborne Minuteman.
  • The Airborne Minuteman concept - Minuteman missiles carried by a 747-type wide-bodied jumbo jet - was presented as a possible alternative to the Navy's Undersea Long-Range Missile Systems (ULMS). - .

1971 November 3 - . 03:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • DSCS II-01 - . Payload: DSCS II F-1 / OPS 9431. Mass: 520 kg (1,140 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS II. Completed Operations Date: 1979-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 5587 . COSPAR: 1971-095A. Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 13.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    A Titan IIIC, launched from Cape Canaveral, placed into synchronous orbits the first pair of 1,200-pound advanced communications satellites of the Defense Satellite Communication System Phase II (DSCS II). After some initial difficulties with the satellites, telemetry and command links were established with both satellites by 5 November. Under SAMSO program management, TRW Systems Group manufactured these second generation communications satellites that were intended as replacements for the 26-satellite Initial Defense Satellite Communication Systems (IDSCS). Each of the DSCS II (Program 777) satellites would be able to handle voice, teletype, computerized digital data, and video transmissions. Defense Satellite Communications System. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 106 deg W in 1972-?; over the Americas at 81 deg W in 1977-1979; over the Americas at 100-110 deg W in drift 1979-1998 As of 1 September 2001 located at 103.05 deg W drifting at 0.044 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 110.10W drifting at 0.035W degrees per day.

  • DSCS II-02 - . Payload: DSCS II F-2 / OPS 9432. Mass: 520 kg (1,140 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS II. Completed Operations Date: 1972-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 5588 . COSPAR: 1971-095B. Apogee: 35,824 km (22,259 mi). Perigee: 35,819 km (22,256 mi). Inclination: 13.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.90 min.

    Defense Satellite Communications System. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 112 deg W in 1972. As of 30 August 2001 located at 146.34 deg E drifting at 0.101 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 36.33W drifting at 0.201E degrees per day.


1971 November 3 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 November 3 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • OH / Radiance Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi).

1971 November 4 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 636. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations surface launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 November 5 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. Launch Pad: CECLES. LV Family: Blue Streak. Launch Vehicle: Europa II. FAILURE: Structural failure of third stage. Guidance signals were reversed.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Europa F-11 / STV 4 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: STV 4. Decay Date: 1971-11-05 . Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).

1971 November 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Safeguard M2-5 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 November 7 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1971 November 8 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • DARDABASI-A Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1971 November 8 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 November 9 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • XUV Solar ultraviolet / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi).

1971 November 9 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • XUV Solar ultraviolet / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1971 November 10 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1971 November 11 - .
  • Birth of Konstantin Anatolyevich Valkov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Valkov. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Graduated from Barnaul Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1994 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19, 1999..

1971 November 11 - . LV Family: N1.
  • A technical meeting considers "the work plan for L3M and the use of the N-1 LV for other tasks of space exploration (MKBS, stationary satellite, Mars-75). - . Related Persons: Mishin, Afanasyev, Sergei, . Spacecraft: , MKBS, Mars 5NM, L3M.

    " There is a meeting with SA Afanasiev the next day on the draft decision of the VPK on MOK ("MKBS, not MOK", corrects Tyulin!). And on the following day the extent of the work ahead is laid out:
    Organize a group for the study of systems specifications for MOK.
    a) For the transport system Earth - Orbit - Earth.
    b) For the interorbital tug - stationary orbit and others.
    c) For the control systems for MKBS and future systems.
    g) For the new reentry vehicle with L/D = 0.6.
    d) For the coolant systems.
    e) For the SEP (need in stages).
    g) For the micrometeorite protection.
    h) For the radiation protection.
    i) For the pressurization systems, etc.


1971 November 11 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 November 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Safeguard M2-8 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 November 14 - .
1971 November 15 - .
  • M2 Flight 27 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Glide flight. Maximum Speed - 784 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 215 sec..

1971 November 15 - .
  • Detailed work on test stands for block Sr and MKBS is begun on 15 November. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: , MKBS.

1971 November 15 - . Launch Site: Jianshui. LV Family: DF-3. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • Long range test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 November 15 - . 05:52 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • Explorer 45 - . Payload: SSS A. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SSS. Decay Date: 1992-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5598 . COSPAR: 1971-096A. Apogee: 18,149 km (11,277 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 322.80 min. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 November 16 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S44 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1971 November 16 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 November 16 - . 23:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Ute Tomahawk.
  • Release Aeronomy / test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1971 November 17 - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 November 17 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 455 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 54. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1972-04-05 . Decay Date: 1972-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5608 . COSPAR: 1971-097A. Apogee: 491 km (305 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 November 18 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Lithium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 November 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT07GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 November 18 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 27.4 N x 125.0 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Hydra Sandhawk.
  • LRL BOX-17 Test / x-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN NMC. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Launched at Pacific Ocean Launch Site 7 LP1 - - Latitude: 27.38 N - Longitude: 125.00 W..

1971 November 19 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 456 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5611 . COSPAR: 1971-098A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 20 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 November 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 November 20 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 457 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 5614 . COSPAR: 1971-099A. Apogee: 1,218 km (756 mi). Perigee: 1,183 km (735 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 109.40 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1971 November 22 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C78 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1971 November 23 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT08GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 November 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • DS-P1-I - . Payload: DS-P1-I. Nation: Russia. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Operational radar target for the ABM forces. Launch vehicle launch scrubbed - unknown cause..

1971 November 24 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg PLC-C. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • CHASER 2 ABM infrared sensor technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 November 24 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT09GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 November 24 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-01 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1976-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5620 . COSPAR: 1971-100A. Apogee: 39,553 km (24,577 mi). Perigee: 516 km (320 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1971 November 24 - . 12:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 November 24 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 635. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 November 25 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Lithium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 November 25 - . 17:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S70/2 Ionosphere/VLF Radio mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1971 November 26 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • MSFC awarded Chrysler's Space Division a contract modification for additional work on Saturn IB launch vehicle booster stages. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab.

    The contract extension would run through 31 January 1974. The additional work was to refurbish four S-IB booster stages that would be used in the Skylab Program in 1973. The fourth vehicle (SA-209) would be assigned as a backup. All four stages had been in storage for several years. The major portion of the work would be removing the stages from storage, preparing them for delivery to KSC, and providing launch support to them throughout the Skylab launch readiness period, which would end in early 1974. Most of the work would be done at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, but some work would be done at MSFC.


1971 November 29 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 458 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 53. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1972-04-20 . Decay Date: 1972-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 5623 . COSPAR: 1971-101A. Apogee: 497 km (308 mi). Perigee: 271 km (168 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 November 29 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 459 - . Payload: DS-P1-M s/n 5. Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. Completed Operations Date: 1971-12-27 . Decay Date: 1971-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5625 . COSPAR: 1971-102A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. ASAT target for Cosmos 462 interceptor..

1971 November 30 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • HRCS / X-ray imager Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1971 November 30 - . 16:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 460 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5628 . COSPAR: 1971-103A. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi). Perigee: 517 km (321 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Possible ELINT satellite..

1971 December - .
  • Meteor-Priroda authorised - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Soviet development of remote sensing systems in support of the national economy began with a decree 'On development work for research on earth resources using space technology'..

1971 December 1 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Study of reusable space shuttle authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Buran. Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On Carrying out Work on Reusable Space Systems-response to NASA's Space Shuttle' was issued..

1971 December 1 - .
  • M2 Flight 28 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1356 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21580 m. Flight Time - 391 sec..

1971 December 1 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 1 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D-region Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1971 December 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • OS state trials flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 December 2 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Intercosmos 5 - . Payload: DS-U2-IK s/n 2. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-IK. Decay Date: 1972-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 5641 . COSPAR: 1971-104A. Apogee: 1,181 km (733 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 98.50 min.

    Carried Czech and Soviet instruments that investigated the effects of solar activity on near-Earth radiation. Studied the radiation levels in near-Earth space, investigated dipole corpuscular streams in near space in connexion with solar activity and investigation of the nature and spectrum of low-frequency electromagnetic oscillations in natural plasma.


1971 December 2 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 461 - . Payload: DS-U2-MT s/n 1. Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Astronomy. Type: Gamma ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-MT. Completed Operations Date: 1972-12-14 . Decay Date: 1979-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 5643 . COSPAR: 1971-105A. Apogee: 510 km (310 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 69.0000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Measured micrometeoroid impacts and gamma rays..

1971 December 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-2M - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1971 December 3 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT100B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 December 3 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1971 December 3 - . 12:58 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D-region Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 December 3 - . 13:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 462 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1975-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 5646 . COSPAR: 1971-106A. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi). Perigee: 229 km (142 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 105.40 min.

    ASAT interceptor. Successfully intercepted and destroyed Cosmos 459 target. This completed state trials test series and in 1972 the Istrebitel Sputnik was adopted as armament for the Soviet Army. Cosmos 462 produced the lowest number of fragments (27) of any of the ASAT's tested.


1971 December 4 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3A Agena D. FAILURE: First stage failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • AFP-827 / Canyon 4 - . Payload: Canyon 4 / Agena D. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Canyon. Decay Date: 1971-12-04 .

1971 December 5 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou Diamant. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant B. FAILURE: Second stage failed.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • D-2A Polaire - . Payload: D-2A Polaire. Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: D.

1971 December 6 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 03:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 463 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5661 . COSPAR: 1971-107A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 6 - . 10:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D-region Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 634. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 December 7 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D-region Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 December 8 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • Safeguard M2-3 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1971 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Safeguard M2-3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 December 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Chaff - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1971 December 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1971 December 10 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT99B-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 December 10 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • X-ray BCS Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1971 December 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 464 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5670 . COSPAR: 1971-108A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 10 - . 12:22 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Electron temp Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 December 10 - . 14:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • 7-in Density Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1971 December 10 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • 7-in Density Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi).

1971 December 10 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • 7-in Density Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi).

1971 December 11 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1971 December 11 - . 20:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B-1.
  • Ariel 4 - . Payload: UK 4. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Ariel. Decay Date: 1978-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5675 . COSPAR: 1971-109A. Apogee: 592 km (367 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Ionospheric studies. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 December 13 - . Launch Site: Minot AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The last flight of 10 Minuteman III missiles was turned over to the 742d Strategic Missile Squadron of SAC's 91st Strategic Missile Wing at Minot AFB, North Dakota. - . This completed Force Modernization at Minot and deployment of the first 150-missile Minuteman III (LGM-30G) strategic missile wing to SAC..

1971 December 13 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1971 December 14 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S82/2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1971 December 14 - . 12:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • OPS 7898 P/L 1 - . Payload: NRL PL171 / OPS 7898 / Poppy 7A (Poppy multifacete. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Poppy. USAF Sat Cat: 5678 . COSPAR: 1971-110A. Apogee: 999 km (620 mi). Perigee: 983 km (610 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Launch of a quadruplet of Poppy naval signals intelligence satellites. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • OPS 7898 P/L 2 - . Payload: NRL PL172 / OPS 7898 / Poppy 7B (Poppy multifacete. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Poppy. USAF Sat Cat: 5680 . COSPAR: 1971-110C. Apogee: 999 km (620 mi). Perigee: 983 km (610 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Poppy naval signals intelligence satellite. Official and secondary mission: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • OPS 7898 P/L 3 - . Payload: NRL PL173 / OPS 7898 / Poppy 7C (Poppy multifacete. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Poppy. USAF Sat Cat: 5681 . COSPAR: 1971-110D. Apogee: 997 km (619 mi). Perigee: 982 km (610 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Poppy naval signals intelligence satellite. Official and secondary mission: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • OPS 7898 P/L 4 - . Payload: NRL PL174 / OPS 7898 / Poppy 7D (Poppy multifacete. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Poppy. USAF Sat Cat: 5682 . COSPAR: 1971-110E. Apogee: 997 km (619 mi). Perigee: 981 km (609 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Poppy naval signals intelligence satellite. Official and secondary mission: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..

1971 December 14 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1971 December 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 December 15 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 465 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 5683 . COSPAR: 1971-111A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 965 km (599 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite..

1971 December 15 - . 10:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 16 - .
  • M2 Flight 29 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 861 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14265 m. Flight Time - 451 sec..

1971 December 16 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 December 16 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1971 December 16 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 466 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5687 . COSPAR: 1971-112A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 16 - . 19:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique 61M.
  • FU-208 CISASPE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). FU208 CISASPE, Ionosphere (active sounding) mission..

1971 December 17 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT10GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 December 17 - . 10:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 467 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 45. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1972-04-18 . Decay Date: 1972-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5704 . COSPAR: 1971-113A. Apogee: 466 km (289 mi). Perigee: 266 km (165 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 December 17 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 468 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 5705 . COSPAR: 1971-114A. Apogee: 789 km (490 mi). Perigee: 768 km (477 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

1971 December 17 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 636. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 December 19 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-19 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5712 . COSPAR: 1971-115A. Apogee: 39,126 km (24,311 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 703.50 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 December 19 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1971 December 20 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
  • Intelsat 4 F-3 - . Mass: 1,410 kg (3,100 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 312 / HS 351 / HS 353. Spacecraft: Intelsat 4. Completed Operations Date: 1984-02-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 5709 . COSPAR: 1971-116A. Apogee: 36,009 km (22,374 mi). Perigee: 35,930 km (22,320 mi). Inclination: 11.1000 deg. Period: 1,445.50 min.

    Over Atlantic. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 20-25 deg W in 1972-1976; over the Atlantic Ocean 34 deg W in 1976-1977; over the Atlantic Ocean 18-22 deg W in 1977-1980; over the Atlantic Ocean 53 deg W in 1981-1982; over the Atlantic Ocean 38-44 deg W in 1982-1983 As of 4 September 2001 located at 90.58 deg E drifting at 2.365 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 54.69E drifting at 2.365W degrees per day.


1971 December 21 - .
  • Meteor-Priroda satellite authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Decree 'On expansion of Work on Research of the Earth's Natural Resources by Space Systems' was issued..

1971 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 December 22 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1971 December 23 - . 21:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1971 December 24 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • Starute,Datasonde Meteorological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1971 December 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 469 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1972-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5737 . COSPAR: 1971-117B. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 948 km (589 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered. First RORSAT flight confirmed by Russian source to have had BES-5 nuclear reactor..

1971 December 26 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1971 December 26 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 26 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1971 December 26 - . 17:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1971 December 27 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 470 - . Payload: Zenit-4MT no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5727 . COSPAR: 1971-118A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..

1971 December 27 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Oreol - . Payload: DS-U2-GKA s/n 1. Mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb). Nation: France. Agency: MO. Program: Aureole. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DS-U2-GKA. Completed Operations Date: 1972-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 5729 . COSPAR: 1971-119A. Apogee: 1,779 km (1,105 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 106.90 min. Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. .

1971 December 28 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1971 December 29 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-10 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 10. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 5731 . COSPAR: 1971-120A. Apogee: 912 km (566 mi). Perigee: 838 km (520 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.50 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 December 30 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 21:57 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1971 December 31 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).


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