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1998 Chronology

1998 January - .
  • Zarya FGB delivered to Baikonur - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: ISS, ISS Zarya. The U.S.-funded and Russian-built Zarya was a U.S. component of the International Space Station..

1998 January 1 - .
  • International Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Slovakia. Related Persons: Babiak. Slovak astronaut trained for flights to the Mir space station..

1998 January 2 - .
  • Mir News 401: MIR-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-26, STS-86 Mir NASA-5.

    In the period after the last MirNEWS the situation on board Mir was far from easy. After the freon leak the A.C. (BKV-3) remained switched off and the dehumidification of Mir's atmosphere was not sufficient. To gather at least 2.5 litres of the normal 4 litres of condensation the condensation regenerator in the Life Compartment of Soyuz-TM26 was activated.

    In cold areas of the complex there is an enormous condensation. This condensation is almost reaching dangerous levels. To obtain sufficient water from condensation the Life Compartment of Soyuz-TM26 had to be cooled down. In this period the Elektrons did not work due to repair work and so Lithium Perchlorate cartridges had to be burnt for oxygen production. The cosmonauts accomplished the repair of the Vozdukh (CO2 scrubber) in the Base Block and as of 2.1.98 this system works and helps a little bit to remove water-vapour to open space.

    There is also a lot of condensation in the cold Progress-M37 and the crew deployed an air-hose to blow cool air from there into the Base Block. In the period between 27 and 30.12.97 Mir remained continuously in full sunlight and the temperatures in the Base Block reached values above 30 dgs C. The cosmonauts did not complain about these inconvenience and David Wolf even stated that he likes high temperatures which give him more energy.

    Failing Main Computer and Movements control system:

    In the night from 1 to 2.01.1998 the SUD (movements control) gave an alarm and the Ts.V.M.-1 switched itself off. The cause was still unclear at deadline of this report. TsUP even thought that a virus played a part in that. After a virus scan TsUP said there had not been a virus. The cosmonauts recently had checked the Ts.V.M.-1 with an anti-virus program of Nov. 97 and they did not find anything. During passes in the morning of 2.1.98 TsUP asked the cosmonauts to suspend all activities and wait for further instructions. TsUP tried to use Telemetry for analysis, but they only got incomprehensible data. The solar batteries do not get the full sunshine and the cosmonauts had to switch the lights out and use electric torches. For today the repair work on the Elektrons has been cancelled.

    Spacewalks (EVA-s):

    The first EVA (Solovyov and Vinogradov) is scheduled for 8.01.98 from 2320 UTC (opening hatch between Scientific and instrument compartment and Airlock of Module-D). This EVA will last appr. 5 hrs 30 mins. If Solovyov and Vinogradov during that EVA accomplished the repair of the hatch of the air-lock the second EVA (Solovyov and Wolf) might take place on 14.01.98 from 2040 UTC (opening hatch of air-lock of module-D.) Duration appr. 2 hrs.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 January 4 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Rothera. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • TPS01 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 January 5 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Rothera. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • TPS02 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 January 7 - . 02:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. Launch Pad: SLC46. LV Family: Athena. Launch Vehicle: Athena-2.
  • Lunar Prospector - . Payload: Discovery 3. Mass: 295 kg (650 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Discovery series. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: LM-100. Spacecraft: Lunar Prospector. Decay Date: 1999-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 25131 . COSPAR: 1998-001A.

    The Lunar Prospector was designed for a low polar orbit investigation of the Moon, including mapping of surface composition and possible polar ice deposits, measurements of magnetic and gravity fields, and study of lunar outgassing events. Data from the 1 to 3 year mission will allow construction of a detailed map of the surface composition of the Moon, and will improve understanding of the origin, evolution, current state, and resources of the Moon. After launch, the Lunar Prospector had a 105 hour cruise to the Moon, followed by insertion into a near-circular 100 km altitude lunar polar orbit with a period of 118 minutes. The nominal mission duration was one year.


1998 January 8 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1998 January 9 - . 23:08 GMT - .
1998 January 10 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5.
  • Skynet 4D - . Mass: 1,490 kg (3,280 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Manufacturer: Martin. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 25134 . COSPAR: 1998-002A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 3.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary at 52.8 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1998-1999; moving As of 4 September 2001 located at 34.00 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 34.33W drifting at 0.016W degrees per day..

1998 January 13 - .
1998 January 14 - . 21:12 GMT - .
1998 January 16 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • MSLS IFT-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Apogee: 1,600 km (900 mi). The same decoy set used in IFT-1A was also used in IFT-2. The target cluster consisted of 10 objects: one mock warhead, the bus (the stage of the missile which releases the warhead and decoys), and eight decoys..

1998 January 16 - . 03:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2 PLV.
  • IFT-2 EKV ABM test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SSDC. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

    Non-intercept fly-by to assess the performance of the Raytheon-built EKV seeker, collect target phenomenological data, and evaluate (post-test) target-modeling and discrimination algorithms. Raytheon was chosen as the NMD EKV contractor, partly as a result of its system's performance on this test.


1998 January 19 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Rothera. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • TPS08 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 January 21 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 99 km (61 mi).

1998 January 22 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Shaviyt 1. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed during second stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ofeq-4 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Ofeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. Fell in Mediterranean Sea..

1998 January 23 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: It's Not Unusual - . Flight: STS-89. "It's Not Unusual" by Tom Jones CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 23 - . 02:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-89 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Anderson, Dunbar, Edwards, Joe, Reilly, Sharipov, Thomas, Andrew, Wilcutt. Payload: Endeavour F12 / Spacehab Double Module. Mass: 116,277 kg (256,346 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Anderson, Dunbar, Edwards, Joe, Reilly, Sharipov, Thomas, Andrew, Wilcutt. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: Soyuz TM-26, STS-86 Mir NASA-5, STS-89, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 8.82 days. Decay Date: 1998-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 25143 . COSPAR: 1998-003A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.

    Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir. Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as the resident NASA astronaut. Endeavour docked with the SO module on Mir at 20:14 GMT on January 24, 1998.

    Payloads included:

    • Orbiter middeck: CEBAS (German/US biological module with fish and snails); dinosaur skull (part of a museum educational program)
    • Bay 1: Tunnel Adapter
    • Bay 3: Orbiter Docking System/External Airlock
    • Bay 4-7: Transfer Tunnel
    • Bay 8-12: Spacehab Double Module (payloads included supplies for Mir, X-ray crystallography detector planned for the International Space Station)
    • Bay 13P: Getaway Special GABA carrier with G-141, G-145 (German materials processing experiments)
    • Bay 13S: Getaway Special GABA carrier with G-093 (University of Michigan fluid dynamics experiment), G-432 (Chinese materials processing experiment)

    Despite fits problems with his Sokol emergency spacesuit, Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as a Mir crew member on January 25. Endeavour undocked from Mir on January 29 at 16:57 GMT and made one flyaround of the station before departing and landing at Kennedy Space Center's runway 15 at 22:35 GMT on January 31.

  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EAL/ODS. Decay Date: 1998-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 25143 . COSPAR: 1998-003xx. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.
  • Spacehab Double Module - . Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. COSPAR: 1998-003xx.

1998 January 24 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Calypso - . Flight: STS-89. "Calypso" by John Denver CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 25 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Friends, We Are Migrant Birds - . Flight: STS-89. "Friends, We Are Migrant Birds" An old Russian pilots' song CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 25 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • SEEK Ozone Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1998 January 26 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Singer From Down Under - . Flight: STS-89. "Singer From Down Under" by Slim Dusty CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 26 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • SSC MERMAID Microgravity / education mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: DLR, SSC. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1998 January 27 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Clap For the Wolfman - . Flight: STS-89. "Clap For the Wolfman" by Burton Cummings in honor of astronaut David Wolf who joined the crew after 120 days aboard Mir. CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 28 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Hide Away - . Flight: STS-89. "Hide Away" by Stanley Clarke. For Mike Anderson. CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 28 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Rothera. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • TPS12 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 January 29 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Here We Go Loopty-Loo - . Flight: STS-89. "Here We Go Loopty-Loo" ("Lupe de Lue") by Little Richard and The Disney Kids CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 29 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-27 - . Call Sign: Kristall. Crew: Budarin, Eyharts, Musabayev. Backup Crew: Afanasyev, Haignere, Treshchev. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 76. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Budarin, Eyharts, Haignere, Musabayev, Treshchev. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-26, Soyuz TM-27, Soyuz TM-27 Mir Pegase, STS-86 Mir NASA-5, STS-89, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 207.53 days. Decay Date: 1998-08-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 25146 . COSPAR: 1998-004A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    Soyuz TM-27 carried the Mir EO-25 crew and French astronaut Leopold Eyharts. NASA and the Russian Space Agency had hoped Soyuz TM-27 could dock with Mir while Endeavour was still there, resulting in an on-board crew of 13, a record which would have stood for years or decades. But the French vetoed this, saying the commotion and time wasted would ruin Eyharts Pegase experimental programme. Soyuz TM-27 docked at the Kvant module port at 17:54 GMT on January 31, 1998, less than five hours before Endeavour landed in Florida.

    Solovyov handed over command of Mir to EO-25 commander Musabayev, and the Mir EO-24 crew and Eyharts undocked from the forward port of Mir at 05:52 GMT on February 19 aboard the Soyuz TM-26 for their return home. On February 20, the EO-25 crew and Andy Thomas of the NASA-7 mission boarded Soyuz TM-27 and undocked from the Kvant port at 08:48 GMT. They redocked with the forward port on Mir at 09:32 GMT. This freed up the Kvant port for a test redocking of the Progress M-37 cargo ship, parked in a following orbit with Mir during the crew transfer.


1998 January 29 - . 18:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • USA 137 - . Payload: CAPRICORN?. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Quasar. USAF Sat Cat: 25148 . COSPAR: 1998-005A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,440.00 min.

    Classified satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office. It was likely that it was a technology test satellite combining equipment for several future projects, including a prototype COBRA BRASS infrared early warning satellite sensor. The project seemed to have been several years behind schedule (based on the launch vehicle serial number.


1998 January 30 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Bad To the Bone - . Flight: STS-89. "Bad To the Bone" by George Thorogood and the Destroyers CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 30 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Rothera. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • TPS13 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 January 31 - .
  • STS-89 - Wakeup Song: Breakfast Blues - . Flight: STS-89. "Breakfast Blues" by Trout Fishing in America CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 January 31 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • SOLAR-B XDT Solar x-ray / ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1998 January 31 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-30.
  • DLR AL-VS30-229 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, INPE. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1998 January 31 - .
1998 February 1 - .
  • Kelly demonstrates towing. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: LB-X. Kelly Space & Technology (San Bernardino, CA, USA) successfully demonstrates vehicle towing..

1998 February 4 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Brasilsat B3 - . Payload: HS 376W. Mass: 1,770 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: Embratel. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Brasilsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25152 . COSPAR: 1998-006A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 84.0 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 84 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 84.03 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 84.07W drifting at 0.013W degrees per day..
  • Inmarsat 3 F5 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: RCA. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 25153 . COSPAR: 1998-006B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 25.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 24 July 2001 located at 25.09 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 25.07E drifting at 0.017W degrees per day..

1998 February 5 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. LV Family: S-520. Launch Vehicle: SS-520.
  • ENA / EPS / LAP Test / plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 750 km (460 mi).

1998 February 6 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Rothera. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • TPS16 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 February 7 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 36 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi).

1998 February 9 - .
  • Mir News 406: Failure attitude control system - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-26, Soyuz TM-27, Soyuz TM-27 Mir Pegase, STS-89 Mir NASA-6.

    On 4.02.1998 during Mir's pass in orbit 68334, 1848-1856 UTC, Solovyov reported that at 1831 UTC he had got the warning: Check the SUD and that the complex was now in the so called 'Indikatornyy Rezhim' meaning that Mir was flying in the 'free drift'. Due to the fact that time was running out he asked for advice from TsUP. TsUP asked for 'format' and 'regime'. S. gave Format 1, Indicated regime, operation rotation. The gyrodynes were still spinning and the Ts.V.M.-1 (Main computer) remained operational.

    They shifted to the regime of 'reduced power consumption' and among the systems which had to be switched off were both Elektron oxygen generators. During the radio traffic about this SUD failure Solovyov also mentioned the VDU. The VDU is the external thruster in the Sofora boom. Possibly the failure had been caused by a wrong command in which the VDU was involved. For the last time the VDU was used to control attitude during the beginning of the combined flight of Mir and Endeavour. The VDU almost ran out of fuel and will be replaced in the near future.

    Due to the fact that the Ts.V.M.-1 remained operational and the gyrodynes did not stop spinning the problem with the SUD could be solved already in the evening of 4.02.98 and did not have a negative effect on the present mission. On 5.02.1998 Altair-2 could be used for communications. Normally a serious attitude problem makes the use of that facility impossible. Leopold Eyharts gave a long TV-interview in which he reported with enthusiasm about his mission. Also the following days Altair-2 was regularly in use for communications and TV-sessions, for instance with the press, family and friends.

    In one of the sessions Vinogradov showed a lot of systems and explained their functions. The mood among the 4 cosmonauts, 1 astronaut and 1 spationaute is excellent. There is a lot of joy and they do not complain about their modest housing. A good example of international co-operation. Thus far Solovyov is still in command and he and Vinogradov are responsible for a number of repairs and for a good functioning of the life support systems. Now and then Andy Thomas can be heard when he is in contact with his lead at TsUP in English. I did not yet hear him speaking Russian.

    Soyuz-TM26:

    The return of this ship with the crew of the 24th Main Expedition (Solovyov and Vinogradov) and the CNES spationaute is scheduled for 19.02.1998. That day the hatch between the departing men will be closed between 0240 and 0252 UTC. Soyuz-TM26 will separate from Mir between 0553 and 0604 UTC. The landing is planned for 0917 UTC. Data and times of the operations with Soyuz-TM27 (redocking) and the Progress-M37 (return to the complex after the autonomous flight and docking at the aft port) still have to be determined.

    . Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 February 10 - .
1998 February 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 733. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 February 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 733. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 February 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 733. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 February 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 733. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 February 10 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 2210.
  • GFO - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Manufacturer: Ball. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: BCP-600. Spacecraft: GFO. USAF Sat Cat: 25157 . COSPAR: 1998-007A. Apogee: 788 km (489 mi). Perigee: 786 km (488 mi). Inclination: 108.1000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Altimeter..
  • Orbcomm G2 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM4. Mass: 43 kg (94 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25159 . COSPAR: 1998-007C. Apogee: 871 km (541 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 107.9900 deg. Period: 101.45 min. Plane G. Ascending node 298.1 degrees..
  • Celestis-02 - . Payload: Celestis-02/Orion 38. Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Celestis. Class: Burial . Type: Burial satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Pegasus-3. Spacecraft: Celestis. USAF Sat Cat: 25160 . COSPAR: 1998-007D. Apogee: 876 km (544 mi). Perigee: 780 km (480 mi). Inclination: 108.0000 deg. Period: 101.50 min.
  • Orbcomm G1 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM3. Mass: 43 kg (94 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25158 . COSPAR: 1998-007B. Apogee: 874 km (543 mi). Perigee: 781 km (485 mi). Inclination: 107.9900 deg. Period: 101.46 min. Plane G. Ascending node 297.9 degrees..

1998 February 11 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • Mini-Texus 5 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1998 February 13 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Rothera. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • TPS20 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 February 14 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7420-10C.
  • Globalstar FM1 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM1. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25162 . COSPAR: 1998-008A. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 43.9 degrees..
  • Globalstar FM2 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM2. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25163 . COSPAR: 1998-008B. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0100 deg. Period: 114.08 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 43.8 degrees..
  • Globalstar FM3 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM3. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25164 . COSPAR: 1998-008C. Apogee: 1,520 km (940 mi). Perigee: 1,509 km (937 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 116.30 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 42.4 degrees..
  • Globalstar FM4 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM4. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25165 . COSPAR: 1998-008D. Apogee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 43.6 degrees..

1998 February 15 - .
  • Cosmonaut Valentin Gavriyilovich Yershov dies at age of 69 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yershov. Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1974..

1998 February 17 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2349 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT s/n 19. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Kozlov bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 1998-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 25167 . COSPAR: 1998-009A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Topographic mapping for the Army General Staff. Landed in Kazakhstan April 2 1998..

1998 February 18 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10C.
  • Iridium 52 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV052. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25169 . COSPAR: 1998-010A. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294.1 degrees..
  • Iridium 56 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV056. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25170 . COSPAR: 1998-010B. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294 degrees..
  • Iridium 53 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV053. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25173 . COSPAR: 1998-010E. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294.2 degrees..
  • Iridium 54 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV054. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25171 . COSPAR: 1998-010C. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294.2 degrees..
  • Iridium 50 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV050. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25172 . COSPAR: 1998-010D. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294.2 degrees..

1998 February 19 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: DELTA4. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 February 19 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: DELTA4. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 February 19 - .
1998 February 20 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Coqui Dos SAL Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1998 February 20 - . 00:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere / release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1998 February 20 - . 08:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • FOT GT166GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1998 February 21 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-II.
  • Kakehashi - . Payload: COMETS. Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Manufacturer: NEC, Toshiba. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Kakehashi. USAF Sat Cat: 25175 . COSPAR: 1998-011A. Apogee: 17,727 km (11,015 mi). Perigee: 1,033 km (641 mi). Inclination: 30.1000 deg. Period: 328.10 min.

    Kakehashi, meaning 'Bridge', was called Communuications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite (COMETS) before launch. It contained Ka-band communications and inter-satellite data relay payloads. Premature shutdown 44 seconds into the H-II second stage second burn put the satellite into a much lower than planned orbit. The on-board Unified Propulsion System was used to raise it to a more useful orbit.


1998 February 23 - .
  • Mir News 409: Progress-M37 redocked at Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6.

    The docking took place on 23.02.1998 at 09.42.27 UTC (in my Progress-M37 message I wrote 09.43.27, sorry, slip of the finger!). Approach and docking were executed in the automatic mode with the system Kurs. During the final phase of the operation Musabayev was ready to take over the control manually with the system TORU. The window for traffic via Altair-2 was in use from 0857 UTC until the docking. Musabayev reported about what they did in relation to the approach operation. At 0858 UTC Musabayev reported that he could see the lights of the Progress-M37. Later on he reported what he could see via monitors of the Kurs and TORU systems. At 0859 UTC M. started a test of TORU. The system worked well and reacted faultlessly on all commands. When he switched off TORU at 0905 UTC he reported that the test results were positive. Hereafter he continued to follow the movements of Progress-M37 and he reported the distances and approach speeds.

    At 0910 UTC audio communications via Altair-2 stopped and from that moment Altair-2 transmitted images of the Mir-complex seen via a camera in the Progress. At that moment the distance was 220 meters and the approach speed 0.8 M/sec. At 0930 UTC, Mir still could be seen via Altair-2, communications continued via VHF. Also the transmitters of Progress-M37 on 922.755 and in the 166 and 165 mc bands could be heard. TCA for my position was 09.30.40 UTC. During this VHF-window the crew got permission for the docking and at LOS at 0937 UTC the distance between Mir and Progress-M37 was 162 meters with an approach speed of 0.94 M/sec. Fortunately it was reported that the docking had been successful.

    During the next window of Altair-2 the transponders were switched on at 1023 UTC and Musabayev tried to get in touch with TsUP. He repeatedly called TsUP, but did not get any reaction. Just before Altair-2 switched off there was a short link at 1047 UTC.

    Smell: After the opening of the hatch of Progress-M37 some orbits later a strong terrible smell came out the freighter. Possibly a bag or container with garbage had gone open. The crew decided to set the hatch to the Progress ajar.

    . Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 February 24 - .
1998 February 25 - . 03:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere / release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1998 February 25 - . 07:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1998 February 25 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Improved Orion.
  • EDDY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1998 February 26 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • SNOE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Colorado. Program: STEDI. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: SNOE. Decay Date: 2003-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 25233 . COSPAR: 1998-012A. Apogee: 581 km (361 mi). Perigee: 529 km (328 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

    SNOE, the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer. Small satellite built by the University of Colorado to measure the Nitric Oxide density as a function of altitude. First satellite in the STEDI (Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative) program. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.

  • Teledesic 1 - . Payload: BATSAT. Nation: USA. Agency: Teledesic. Manufacturer: Germantown. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Teledesic. Decay Date: 2000-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 25234 . COSPAR: 1998-012B. Apogee: 577 km (358 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Communications Technology Demonstrator. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1998 February 27 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P.
  • Hot Bird 4 - . Payload: Eurostar 2000+. Mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25237 . COSPAR: 1998-013A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary at 13.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 2 June 2001 located at 14.35 deg E drifting at 0.065 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 7.18W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1998 February 28 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. Launch Pad: SLC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Intelsat 806 - . Payload: NSS 806. Mass: 3,415 kg (7,528 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Manufacturer: RCA. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 7000. USAF Sat Cat: 25239 . COSPAR: 1998-014A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Initially positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 40 deg W in 1998-2001. 36 C-band and 6 Ku-band transponders. Later assigned to Intelsat spin-off New Skies, redesignated NSS-806, and moved to 319.5º East, giving it an optimum view of Latin American markets while also reaching the Iberian peninsula, the Canary Islands, Western Europe and much of Eastern Europe. Its tailored, high-powered hemispheric beam provided simultaneous coverage of both Europe and the Americas, with virtually complete coverage of North, Central and South America, therefore ensuring the maximum reach throughout Spanish and Portuguese speaking markets. Expected end of life July 2016. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 40.47W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.


1998 March - .
  • Clark satellite cancelled - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Clark satellite. Clark was to have demonstrated advanced spacecraft technologies. Contract was cancelled by NASA in March 1998 when overruns had reached 20% of original contract price and no end to development was in site..

1998 March 1 - .
  • Death of George W Hoover - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover, George. American naval officer and early space enthusiast, who, at ONR, became a driving force behind the Skyhook, D-558-1, and a supporter of von Braun's Project Orbiter..

1998 March 2 - .
  • International Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Slovakia. Related Persons: Bella, Fulier. Slovak astronauts trained for flights to the Mir space station..

1998 March 3 - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-1 - . Crew: Budarin, Musabayev. EVA Duration: 0.0658 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Budarin, Musabayev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft: Mir. Internal Vehicular Activity. Inner and outer airlocks of Kvant-2 module were depressurised for EVA. However the crew could not open the outer hatch, repaired on 2 January 1998 by Solovyov and Vinogradov. The planned EVA was cancelled..

1998 March 3 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • SSC NLTE-1 Atomic 2A Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi).

1998 March 4 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1998 March 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1998 March 6 - . 21:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • SSC NLTE-2 Atomic 2B Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi).

1998 March 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 736. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • 78? - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 March 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 736. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Trident D-5 78? operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 March 7 - . 01:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere/Release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1998 March 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 736. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • 80? - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 March 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 736. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Trident D-5 80? operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 March 11 - . 23:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Coqui Dos LaTuR Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi).

1998 March 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • X-38 V-131 Flight 1 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Spacecraft Bus: Rescue. Spacecraft: X-38. After dropping away from its B-52 mothership, the X-38 deployed a ram-air parafoil, and maneuvered to a precise landing on the Edwards Air Force Base bombing range..

1998 March 14 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-38 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 240. Mass: 7,007 kg (15,447 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 61.05 days. Decay Date: 1998-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 25256 . COSPAR: 1998-015A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 372 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.

    Progress M-38 was specially modified to carry the second VDU (Vynosnaya Dvigatel'naya Ustanovka, External Engine Unit) propulsion unit. The VDU was mounted externally on a special structure between the cargo module and the service module, replacing the OKD fuel section present on normal Progress vehicles. The crew spacewalks to extract the VDU from Progress and place it on the end of the Sofora boom extending from the Kvant module. The VDU was used to provide attitude control capability for the station. By 03:20 GMT on March 15 1998 Progress M-38 had successfully completed its first two orbital manoeuvres. It replaced Progress M-37 at the docking port on the Kvant module, with a successful docking on March 16 1998 at 22:45 GMT. Undocked May 15 at 1844 UTC, freeing up the docking port on the Kvant module for Progress M-39. Deorbited over Pacific May 15, 1998.


1998 March 15 - .
  • Mir News 412: Progress-M38 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6.

    The launch of this freighter from Baykonur took place on 14.03.1998 at 22.45.55 UTC (for Moscow already 15.03.1998 01.45.55 DMV -Moscow Decree Time). During the pass in the 3rd orbit I monitored the Telemetry transmitters of this ship between 0321-0324 UTC. During the pass in the 4th orbit the Telemetry transmitters (166 and 165 mc) and the beacon on 922.755mc could be heard between 0450 and 0458 UTC. TCA for me was at 0453 UTC.

    The most important cargo is the VDU. This is the external thruster which has to be installed in the Sofora mast on Kvant-1 during one of the EVA's in the future. The new VDU will replace the old one which almost run out of fuel. Under the cargo is a new lock for the EVA hatch of Module-D, the necessary tools for the repair of that hatch and of course the normal cargo: food, post and some other convenient items for the crew. Progress-M38 has to dock at the Kvant-1 aft docking port (+X-axis) on 17.03.1998 at about 0027 UTC. In principle approach and docking will be executed in the automatic mode with the system Kurs.

    Progress-M37:

    Today (15.03) Progress-M37 will separate from Mir to be put on a destruction course for burning up in the atmosphere over a designated area East of New-Zealand.

    Mir-routine:

    Last week the cosmonauts worked on the installation of the new BKV-3, the a.c. From 10.03 the BKV-3 is regularly operational and this resulted in decreasing of the almost unbearable high temperatures in the Base Block. The temperature of approx. 35 dgs C. decreased to 28 dgs C. The good functioning of the a.c. makes it possible to use this installation for the filtering of the surplus of condensation secreted by the Vozdukh CO2 scrubber. Thus this condensation can be used for water regeneration purposes and has no longer to be blown into open space.

    To make this possible the Vozdukh in the Base Block had to be modified by a so called 'dehumidifier'. This device is now installed in the neighbourhood of the Vozdukh but it was difficult to find a place for it. Meanwhile something went wrong with he thermal control in the module Priroda, which had a negative effect on some experiments of Andy. After the repair or replacement of a pump the temperatures in Priroda could be controlled again.

    The work was far from easy and they could not always find the necessary parts and equipment for the mounting. This often debauched into discussions with experts on earth. Musabayev normally being in a good mood now and then got upset. He stated that already from the first week the burden of work was too high. There was a great difference between planning and the reality of time schedules for their work in space. On 4.03.1998 he stated that this was the first day they got enough sleep. He emphasised that if you force the crew too much there will be a risk of fatal mistakes. (And indeed during this mission a number of mistakes have been reported. )

    Not only the Russians, but also Andy Thomas complained about matters he did not appreciate. He had no problems with his direct 'leads', but with some organisations. Regularly Andy repeated his complaint that he did not receive his personal E-mails. Last week this resulted in the despatch of a stream E-mails, reaching him by uplink Packet Radio transmissions, also via Altair-2.

    Andy reported problems with the American experiment COCULT. The flow of liquids to feed cells of this experiment was full of air-bubbles. He tried to solve this problem but did not succeed. In conversations with his consultative group he emphasised that he does all what is possible to fulfil the American experimental program, but that he attaches great value to the execution of his physical exercises.

    The forthcoming launch of Progress-M38 and the departure on 15.03.1998 of the old Progress-M37 were mentioned now and then. The crew tried to load as much as possible waste and equipment which was no longer needed in the Progress-M37. Musabayev reported that it was not possible to load the old BKV-3 in that freighter. He gave a higher priority to the dismissal of waste containers, lots of old rags, biological- and domestic garbage.

    More or less the lot of work on the life support systems superseded the attention for the forthcoming departure of the Progress-M38. Only yesterday (14.03) they spoke about the TORU (remote controlled steering of Progress-M from inside Mir), which has to be operational in case the automatic system Kurs should fail.

    On 9.03.1998 a planned communication session of Mir with TsUP via Altair-2 did not take place. Something went wrong with the uplink from Russia to Altair-2. Musabayev who was calling continuously was almost desperate. He needed an urgent advice about immunisation. For me it was interesting to hear how a cosmonaut feels when he thinks that he has been abandoned by earth. During the first communication session via VHF he said that they almost 'suffered an infarct'.

    .

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 March 16 - . 21:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II.
  • USA 138 - . Payload: UHF F/O F8-EHF. Mass: 3,206 kg (7,068 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25258 . COSPAR: 1998-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 3.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    UHF Follow-On F8 was the first Block III UHF Follow-On satellite, replacing the old FLTSATCOM satellites. It carried UHF, EHF and Ka-band transponders, including a video broadcast payload. This was the last Atlas II launch; future Atlas launches would use the Atlas IIA, IIAS and III models. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 172 deg E in 1998-1999.


1998 March 17 - .
  • Mir News 413: Progress-M38 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6.

    Successful docking at Mir; The docking took place on 17.03.1998 at 00.31.17 UTC. The last 20 Meters and the docking itself were manually executed by Musabayev with the system TORU. From 0000 UTC the operation could be monitored via Altair-2. Musabayev observed the manoeuvres of the Progress-M38. All went according to calculations. The system Kurs was in use, but Musabayev and Budarin were at the control panel of the TORU system ready to take over if necessary. The crew followed the operation via several systems: the monitor of the TORU, the LIV-camera, via a camera on board of the Progress-M38 and also visually.

    Andy Thomas made images with a video-camera. Musabayev reported all distances, approach speeds, deviations along the 3-axes and also that there were no 'emergency instructions' so Kurs was STILL functioning well. At 0015 UTC the link via Altair-2 ceased and a few minutes later the VHF window opened. At 0024 UTC just before LOS for my position the distance to Mir was still 150 Meters with an approach speed of 4 CM/sec. All went well until the distance of 40 Meters. Then Kurs showed fluctuations which might be an indication that the Kurs system was no longer reliable.

    Musabayev decided to switch over to the manual guidance by TORU and from 20 Meters he steered Progress-M38 to the aft docking port (+X-axis) and accomplished a perfect docking. During the pass in the next orbit the air seal checks were still going on. Via VHF-2 (130.165 mc) Andy Thomas spoke with his leads and he said that there had been no surprises. When Progress-M38 was docking he had felt a slight bump. At 0206 UTC the crew was opening the hatch.

    Progress-M37:

    This old freighter separated from Mir on 15.03.1998 at 19.16.01 UTC and burned up in the atmosphere east of New-Zealand at 23.03.46 UTC. 1st Spacewalk (EVA) crew 25th Main Expedition. For the time being on schedule for 1.04.1998. A final decision will be made soon.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 March 18 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1998 March 19 - .
  • Beijing Space Conference - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Shenzhou.

    Chinese papers at the meeting sketched details of future planned missions. China was likely to begin its manned flights with a single orbit around Earth, and later launch its lunar 'quest'. Existing Chinese launchers had the capability to send scientific devices, but not humans, to the moon -- it could take up to eight years to design a lunar spacecraft. Feasibility studies on trips to the moon and Mars had begun. Participants called for greater international cooperation in space and the lifting of an apparent freeze on China's participation in major joint projects. They resented China's exclusion from the International Space Station.


1998 March 20 - .
  • Starchaser 3 launch. - . Nation: UK. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Starchaser 5. Starchaser Industries (Hyde, England, UK) unsuccessfully launches Starchaser 3 vehicle..

1998 March 21 - .
  • China to Launch Lunar and Mars Probes - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Chinese Lunar Base.

    "China will actively participate in deep space exploration during the 21st century," said Mr Yuan Jiajun, vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Space Technology. China also planned to launch two astrophysical satellites into low earth orbit, one in equatorial orbit and another in polar orbit.


1998 March 21 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-40.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1998 March 22 - .
  • Death of Lloyd William Standley - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Standley. American engineer. Chief of Mechanical Design for the Atlas..

1998 March 24 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40.
  • SPOT 4 - . Mass: 2,755 kg (6,073 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: SPOT. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: SPOT-4. USAF Sat Cat: 25260 . COSPAR: 1998-017A. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 824 km (512 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.40 min.

    Developed by Matra Marconi Space/Toulouse for CNES, the satellite provided 10-m resolution images with a wide field of view. SPOT 4 also carried a wide field 'vegetation' imager and a laser communications experiment. Launch was by an Arianespace Ariane 40 rocket, the base Ariane 4 model with no strap-on boosters. The liquid hydrogen fuelled third stage of the Ariane 40 entered an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit together with SPOT 4.


1998 March 25 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere/Release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1998 March 25 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
  • Iridium 51 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV051. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25262 . COSPAR: 1998-018A. Apogee: 756 km (469 mi). Perigee: 751 km (466 mi). Inclination: 86.4500 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Plane 4. Ascending node 262.5 degrees. Not in service..
  • Iridium 61 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV061. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25263 . COSPAR: 1998-018B. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 4. Ascending node 262.5 degrees..

1998 March 26 - .
  • Apstar 1A Hit by Mysterious Signal from Ground - . Nation: China.

    A mysterious signal hit one of the transmitters aboard the Apstar-1 telecommunications satellite on March 14, disrupting more than 400 securities companies' communications, cutting off service to more than 10 million pager users in China, and affecting China's earthquake monitoring systems. Technicians ruled out a problem with the satellite and tests showed the interference was earth-based. Service was restored to most users of the satellite by switching them to other channels. Apstar-1, the first comsat of Hong Kong based APT Satellite Holdings, was launched in 1994 by a Long March 3.


1998 March 27 - .
  • Mir News 414: Mir-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6.

    Progress-M38 has been regularly used to support the attitude control of the Mir-complex. The crew had to cope with problems with the a.c. (BKV-3) and a cooling loop. The Elektron oxygen generator in the Kvant-1 module could not be used continuously due to a power supply problem. The crew accomplished the repair of the BMP (trace contaminants removal unit).

    The crew asked TsUP to reduce the number of communication sessions via VHF channels, for instance those via the tracking stations in the USA. They regularly had to interrupt their activities in other modules and had to go to the Central Post. They preferred to have not more than 1 session every 3 hours. The head of TsUP, Solovyov, who was about to go on leave, had another opinion. Possibly there is a compromise: the facilities in the USA (Wallops, White Sands and Dryden) might mainly be used by Andy Thomas.

    During a lot of long TV-sessions via Altair-2 much attention was dedicated to the 2nd anniversary of the permanent presence of an American astronaut on board Mir. There also was a session with Spain in which the crew congratulated BMW. Musabayev said that he would be very pleased to take a seat behind the steering wheel of one of their new models.

    There have been a lot of extensive medical checks, for instance E.C.G.-s during physical exercises. Musabayev told TsUP where he and Budarin use to sleep: Budarin near the porthole at the end of module Priroda, which also was the sleeping place of Vinogradov. M. himself sleeps in his cabin in the Base Block, but when it is too hot over there he moves to the SO (docking compartment) of module Kristall.

    Musabayev now and then presses TsUP to review the work planning. In a conversation with TsUP Budarin said the complex is used below its value. This is irritating for the crew: things have not been completed in time.

    Forthcoming spacewalks (EVA's):

    The first EVA will take place on 1.04.1998 between 1320 and 1910 UTC. To be sure that the hatch can be opened without problems Musabayev and Budarin will have to accomplish repair works on the locks of the hatch. If all went according to plan they did this today (Friday, 27.03.1998). The 2nd and 3rd EVA are provisionally planned for 6 and 11.04.1998.

    Some remarks:

    1. The present bad health of my wife might have a negative effect on my monitoring and reporting of Mir-operations in the near future.

    2. A number of my E-mail relations still use my old E-mail address. Thus far E-mails with the old address seem to reach me, but this will not last for ever. So please, if you still use that old address correct this in: cmvdberg@wxs.nl

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 March 29 - .
1998 March 30 - . 06:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10C.
  • Iridium 55 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV055. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25272 . COSPAR: 1998-019A. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 3. Ascending node 230.9 degrees..
  • Iridium 60 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV060. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25276 . COSPAR: 1998-019E. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 3. Ascending node 230.9 degrees..
  • Iridium 59 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV059. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25275 . COSPAR: 1998-019D. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 3. Ascending node 230.9 degrees..
  • Iridium 58 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV058. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25274 . COSPAR: 1998-019C. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 3. Ascending node 230.9 degrees..
  • Iridium 57 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV057. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25273 . COSPAR: 1998-019B. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 3. Ascending node 230.9 degrees..

1998 April 1 - . 13:35 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-2 - . Crew: Budarin, Musabayev. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Budarin, Musabayev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft: Mir. The Kvant-2 hatch had been fixed from within and was used for the EVA. Objective was to repair the damaged Spektr solar panel. Handrails were installed near the panel but the crew could not complete the work before the scheduled time ran out..

1998 April 2 - .
  • Death of Eberhard Friedrich Michael Rees - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Rees. German-American engineer, von Braun's right hand man, in charge of manufacturing 1940-1969 for V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and rockets stages for Saturn LVs that took America to the moon. Succeeded von Braun as Director at Huntsville 1970-1973..

1998 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • TRACE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: TRACE. USAF Sat Cat: 25280 . COSPAR: 1998-020A. Apogee: 652 km (405 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.10 min.

    NASA's third Small Explorer, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), was successfully launched by an Orbital Pegasus XL. The L-1011 carrier aircraft took off from Vandenberg and dropped the Pegasus over the Pacific Ocean. TRACE, a project led by Lockheed's solar physics group, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope which will study the Sun. The telescope mirrors were made by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. TRACE had an 8.5 arcmin field of view and 1 arcsecond resolution. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.


1998 April 5 - .
  • From the Earth to the Moon is released. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 17, Apollo 7, Apollo 8, Apollo 9.

    Based on the success of the film Apollo 13, Tom Hanks was able to raise $ 68 million to film a television mini-series covering the entire Apollo program. The Apollo 13 episode marked the third fictionalised telling of the tale, this time concentrating on the media handling of the flight and the changing nature of television news. Additional Details: here....


1998 April 6 - . Launch Site: Tilla. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Ghauri.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Pakistan. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1998 April 6 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-560/300 Mk II.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 464 km (288 mi).

1998 April 6 - . 13:35 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-3 - . Crew: Budarin, Musabayev. EVA Duration: 0.18 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Budarin, Musabayev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft: Mir.

    The crew succeeded in completing repair of the damaged Spektr solar panel. However the EVA was cut short when Mission Control in error commanded the Mir to drift. This was then misdiagnosed as a depletion of fuel of the VDU orientation engine, and the crew was ordered back into the station.


1998 April 7 - . 02:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/17S40.
  • Iridium 62 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV062. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25285 . COSPAR: 1998-021A. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.9 degrees..
  • Iridium 63 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV063. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25286 . COSPAR: 1998-021B. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees..
  • Iridium 64 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV064. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25287 . COSPAR: 1998-021C. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.6 degrees..
  • Iridium 65 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV065. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25288 . COSPAR: 1998-021D. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.9 degrees..
  • Iridium 66 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV066. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25289 . COSPAR: 1998-021E. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees..
  • Iridium 68 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV068. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25291 . COSPAR: 1998-021G. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

    The Proton launch vehicle placed the Iridium cluster and the Block DM2 stage into low parking orbit. The DM2 fired twice to enter the deployment orbit and dispensed the seven satellites, which used their own propulsion units to reach operational altitude. The DM2 stage then fired again to deorbit itself, to avoid creating space debris. SV068 placed in Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees.

  • Iridium 67 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV067. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25290 . COSPAR: 1998-021F. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees..

1998 April 8 - . 02:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1998 April 11 - . 09:55 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-4 - . Crew: Budarin, Musabayev. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Budarin, Musabayev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft: Mir. The cosmonauts began a series of three EVA's to install the new VDU station orientation engine (delivered by Progress M-38) into the Sofora boom. On this first spacewalk they disconnected the old engine (in use for six years) and pushed it into space..

1998 April 12 - .
  • Timetable for Chinese Manned Flight - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. A Guangzhou newspaper said that the first Chinese astronaut would fly by 2001. It also mentioned lunar and space station plans. This was the one of a series of reports about Chinese space plans of the period..

1998 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Dnepr Demo test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 April 16 - .
  • US Congress Investgates Space Technology Exports to China - . Nation: China.

    Several US Congressional committees investigated the Clinton administration's policy of exporting space satellite technology to China, asserting it had helped China and other countries to develop and use nuclear missiles. Two US companies were being investegated by the Justice Department as well. Beijing denied that it had gotten any sensitive technology from US.


1998 April 17 - . 07:40 GMT - .
1998 April 17 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Talos Castor.
  • Red Crow Flight Experiment Technology test - . Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO, Sandia. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 April 17 - . 18:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-90 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Altman, Buckey, Hire, Linnehan, Pawelczyk, Searfoss, Williams, Dave. Backup Crew: Dunlap, Mukai. Payload: Columbia F25 / Spacelab LM Eurolab. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Altman, Buckey, Dunlap, Hire, Linnehan, Mukai, Pawelczyk, Searfoss, Williams, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-90. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.91 days. Decay Date: 1998-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 25297 . COSPAR: 1998-022A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

    Columbia rolled out to pad 39B on March 23. Payloads:

    • Spacelab transfer tunnel
    • Spacelab Long Module, with Neurolab experiments for the following life science studies:

      • Chronic Recording of Otolith Nerves in Microgravity
      • Development of the Aortic Baroreflex under Conditions of Microgravity
      • Neural-Thyroid Interaction on Skeletal Isomyosin Expression in OG
      • Spatial Orientation of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Velocity Storage
      • Autonomic Neuroplasticity in Weightlessness

    • Extended Duration Orbiter pallet
    • Two Get Away Special beams with canisters G-197, G-467, G-772 (Colorado's COLLIDE experiment, which collided small particles into each other to simulate the formation of planets and rings).

    The Neurolab mission was managed by NASA-Johnson at Houston, unlike earlier Spacelab flights which were NASA-Marshall/Huntsville's responsibility. Landed at Kennedy Space Center May 3 1998.

  • Neurolab - . Payload: Spacelab. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1998-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 25297 . COSPAR: 1998-022xx. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1998 April 18 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Think - . Flight: STS-90. "Think" by Aretha Franklin CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 April 18 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SCARI 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 April 18 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 April 19 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Take Me Out to the Ball Game - . Flight: STS-90. "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" sung by Harry Carey CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 April 19 - . 13:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-560/300 Mk II.
  • DEOS F05 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: DLR, ISRO. Apogee: 433 km (269 mi).

1998 April 20 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Doctor My Eyes - . Flight: STS-90. "Doctor My Eyes" by Jackson Browne CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 April 21 - .
  • China Completed New Wind Tunnels For Space Development - . Nation: China.

    Two special wind tunnels in southwest China's Sichuan Province were nearing completion. The new tunnels would be used for testing China's future space shuttle, launch vehicles, and strategic missiles. A high-frequency plasma wind tunnel and a supersonic flow wind tunnel were being built by China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center and would be the most advanced in Asia.


1998 April 21 - .
  • Chinese Manned Spacecraft Launch Set for 1999 - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Shenzhou.

    Preparations for the first test launch of China's first manned spacecraft were underway at the launch site, a Shanghai newspaper reported. It said the first flight would be launched in late 1999. The space cabin, telemetry system and power system had been developed in Shanghai.


1998 April 21 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Bad To the Bone - . Flight: STS-90. "Bad To the Bone" by George Thorogood and the Destroyers CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 April 22 - .
  • Chinese Astronauts Shown in Training - . Nation: China. A Guangzhou newspaper released a photo showing two Chinese astronauts wearing space suits in a vacum chamber. This was the first such photo released since the 1980's..

1998 April 22 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Bad Case of Loving You - . Flight: STS-90. "Bad Case of Loving You" by Robert Palmer CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 April 22 - . 05:34 GMT - .
1998 April 23 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: I Got You (I Feel Good) - . Flight: STS-90. "I Got You (I Feel Good)" by James Brown CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 April 23 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: This Land Is Your Land - . Flight: STS-90. "This Land Is Your Land" by Rod Taylor CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 April 24 - .
  • Cosmonaut Mikhail Fedorovich Rebrov dies at age of 66 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Rebrov. Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1974..

1998 April 24 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: She Drives Me Crazy - . Flight: STS-90. "She Drives Me Crazy" by The Fine Young Cannibals CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 April 24 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7420-10C.
  • Globalstar FM6 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM6. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25306 . COSPAR: 1998-023A. Apogee: 1,523 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,503 km (933 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 116.30 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 90.4 degrees..
  • Globalstar FM8 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM8. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25307 . COSPAR: 1998-023B. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 88.9 degrees..
  • Globalstar FM14 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM14. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25308 . COSPAR: 1998-023C. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 90.2 degrees..
  • Globalstar FM15 - . Payload: Globalstar s/n FM15. Mass: 222 kg (489 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Alenia, Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25309 . COSPAR: 1998-023D. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 88.0 degrees..

1998 April 25 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Every Breath You Take - . Flight: STS-90. "Every Breath You Take" by The Police CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 April 26 - .
  • Cassini Venus Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Cassini.

1998 April 26 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Fight On, State - . Flight: STS-90. "Fight On, State" Fight Song for Penn State University CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 April 27 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Turn, Turn, Turn - . Flight: STS-90. "Turn, Turn, Turn" by The Byrds CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 April 28 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Take a Chance on Me - . Flight: STS-90. "Take a Chance on Me" by Abba CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 April 28 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IXB.
  • ACTIVE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CSA. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi).

1998 April 28 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P.
  • Nilesat 1 - . Payload: Nilesat 101. Mass: 1,827 kg (4,027 lb). Nation: Egypt. Agency: Nilesat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Nilesat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25311 . COSPAR: 1998-024A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Egypt's first satellite. Geostationary at 7.0 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 7 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 6.95 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 7.00W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

  • BSAT 1B - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25312 . COSPAR: 1998-024B. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geostationary at 109.9 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.63 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.75E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

1998 April 29 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Round and Round - . Flight: STS-90. "Round and Round" by Ratt CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 April 29 - . 04:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2350 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 4. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1998-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 25315 . COSPAR: 1998-025A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 2.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Geostationary at 73.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 72.67 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 70.07E drifting at 0.036W degrees per day..

1998 April 30 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Cruise Control - . Flight: STS-90. "Cruise Control" by Bruce Hornsby CAPCOM: Bill McArthur.

1998 May 1 - .
  • Discovery of Dar al Gani 476 (Mars Meteorite) - . Nation: Libya.

1998 May 1 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: If I Only Had a Brain - . Flight: STS-90. "If I Only Had a Brain" from"The Wizard of Oz" CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 May 2 - .
  • STS-90 - Wakeup Song: Stir It Up - . Flight: STS-90. "Stir It Up" by Bob Marley and the Wailers CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 May 2 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
  • Iridium 69 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV069. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25319 . COSPAR: 1998-026A. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 777 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.46 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 199.4 degrees. Not in service..
  • Iridium 71 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV071. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25320 . COSPAR: 1998-026B. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 775 km (481 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 199.3 degrees. Not in service..

1998 May 3 - .
1998 May 5 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1998 May 6 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion sounding rocket.
  • Education mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1998 May 7 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2351 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 25327 . COSPAR: 1998-027A. Apogee: 37,513 km (23,309 mi). Perigee: 2,806 km (1,743 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.10 min.

1998 May 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • 8 RVs operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 May 7 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Echostar 4 - . Payload: A2100AX. Mass: 3,478 kg (7,667 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Echostar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 25331 . COSPAR: 1998-028A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geostationary at 148.0 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg W in 1998; 148 deg W in 1998-1999; 110 deg W in 1999; 119 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 118.91 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 77.02W drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.


1998 May 9 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 401B/Centaur.
  • USA 139 - . Payload: Orion 4. Mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, NSA. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft: Advanced Orion. USAF Sat Cat: 25336 . COSPAR: 1998-029A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,440.00 min.

1998 May 11 - .
  • India conducts three atomic tests despite worldwide disapproval - . Nation: India.

1998 May 12 - . 11:22 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC94. Launch Pad: FIX. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Hera.
  • BRV/THAAD Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 May 12 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: THAAD. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ABM test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1998 May 13 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV.
  • NOAA 15 - . Payload: NOAA K. Mass: 3,775 kg (8,322 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: RCA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N . USAF Sat Cat: 25338 . COSPAR: 1998-030A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 807 km (501 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.20 min.

    NOAA K carried a new microwave sensor in addition to the standard optical/near-infrared radiometers and imagers and the SARSAT search and rescue package. It was the first NOAA launch to use the Titan 23G launch vehicle, a refurbished ICBM. Titan 23G-12 placed NOAA K into a suborbital trajectory 6 minutes after launch. A Star 37XFP solid motor on the satellite fired at apogee to put NOAA K in orbit.


1998 May 14 - . 22:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-39 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 238. Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 167.08 days. Decay Date: 1998-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 25340 . COSPAR: 1998-031A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 360 km (220 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Docked with Mir at the Kvant port at 23:51 GMT on May 16 1998, bringing supplies and scientific experiments to the station. Undocked 09:28 GMT on August 12 1998 in order to clear the port for Soyuz TM-28. Deorbited over Pacific Ocean on October 29, 1998..

1998 May 15 - .
  • Ascender radio controlled development model. - . Nation: UK. Program: X-Prize. Bristol Spaceplanes (Bristol, England, UK) successfully flight tests radio controlled development model..

1998 May 15 - .
  • Death of Yuri Aleksandrovich Mozzhorin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mozzhorin. Russian officer. Director of Nll-88 1961-1990. Oversaw Soviet space policy..

1998 May 17 - . 21:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10C.
  • Iridium 70 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV070. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25342 . COSPAR: 1998-032A. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees..
  • Iridium 74 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV074. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25345 . COSPAR: 1998-032D. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees..
  • Iridium 73 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV073. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25344 . COSPAR: 1998-032C. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees..
  • Iridium 75 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV075. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25346 . COSPAR: 1998-032E. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.7 degrees. Not in service..
  • Iridium 72 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV072. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25343 . COSPAR: 1998-032B. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 1. Ascending node 167.8 degrees..

1998 May 20 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1998 May 22 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NITE Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi).

1998 May 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1998 May 29 - .
  • Pakistan stages five nuclear tests in response to India's - . Nation: Pakistan.

1998 May 29 - .
  • Air Force Space Command transferred control of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). - . Nation: USA.

1998 May 30 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3B.
  • Zhongwei 1 - . Payload: A2100A. Mass: 2,984 kg (6,578 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Chinastar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 25354 . COSPAR: 1998-033A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Also known as Chinastar 1; comsat to serve China, India, Korea and Southeast Asia with 18 C-band and 20 Ku-band transponders. Operated by the China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company, part of the Chinese telecommunications ministry. Zhongwei 1 and the CZ-3B's final liquid hydrogen upper stage were placed in an initial supersynchronous 216 x 85,035 km x 24.4 deg transfer orbit. Geostationary at 87.6 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 87 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 87.49 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 87.64E drifting at 0.010W degrees per day.


1998 May 31 - .
1998 June 1 - .
  • Beijing Space Technology Research and Test Center operational - . Nation: China.

    Phase I construction was completed of the new, large-scale Beijing Space Technology Research and Test Center, located in Tangjialing, northwest of Beijing. The center occupied 100 hectares and construction was begun in October 1994. The largest space center in China included spacecraft integration hangars, space environment and vibration test facilities, and a series of laboratories.


1998 June 2 - . 22:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-91 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Chang-Diaz, Gorie, Kavandi, Lawrence, Precourt, Ryumin. Payload: Discovery F24 / Spacehab. Mass: 116,884 kg (257,685 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Chang-Diaz, Gorie, Kavandi, Lawrence, Precourt, Ryumin. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6, STS-91. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.83 days. Decay Date: 1998-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25356 . COSPAR: 1998-034A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.

    The final shuttle-Mir mission, STS-91 recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from the Mir station and took Russian space chief and ex-cosmonaut Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour of the ageing station. This was the first test of the super lightweight Aluminium-Lithium alloy external tank, designed to increase shuttle payload to the Mir / International Space Station orbit by 4,000 kg. At 22:15 GMT Discovery entered an initial 74 x 324 km x 51.6 deg orbit, with the OMS-2 burn three quarters of an hour later circulising the chase orbit. Discovery docked with the SO module on Mir at 17:00 GMT on June 4. NASA equipment was retrieved from the station, and Discovery undocked at 16:01 GMT on June 8, and landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:00 GMT on June 12.

  • Spacehab - . Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1998-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25356 . COSPAR: 1998-034xx. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.
  • Spacehab - . Payload: Spacehab FU1. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. COSPAR: 1998-034xx.
  • External Airlock/ODS - . Payload: EAL/ODS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mir. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EAL/ODS. Decay Date: 1998-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25356 . COSPAR: 1998-034xx. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.

1998 June 3 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: Shake, Rattle, and Roll - . Flight: STS-91. "Shake, Rattle, and Roll" by Huey Lewis and the News in honor of the flawless liftoff CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 June 3 - . 19:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT167GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1998 June 4 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: Come Go With Me - . Flight: STS-91. "Come Go With Me" by the Del Vikings in honor of Andrew Thomas' return from Mir CAPCOM: Marc Garneau.

1998 June 5 - .
  • Mir News 426: Discovery docked at Mir on 4.06.1998 at 1658 UTC. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6, STS-91.

    P>Communications during the final stage of the approach and the docking itself went via Altair-2. The traffic started at 1628 UTC with phone between Mir and TsUP. The TV-transmissions started at 1633 UTC. Discovery could be seen through a camera on board Mir, but it was difficult to determine the progress of the approach. The image of the shuttle was partly covered by one of Mir's solar panels. The 2 portholes of Discovery's flight deck could be seen. The Ku-band antenna of Discovery was still out of order, so CNN could only give us the images which came from Mir. The VHF window was open between 1649 and 1657 UTC. The transmitters were switched on, but not in use for phone.

    During the pass in the next orbit (70211, 1823-1835 UTC) the airseal checks had been done. Communications went via 143.625 as well as 130.165 mc. Musabayev was sitting near the hatch to Discovery and he and Budarin tried to establish a TV-link with TsUP. Altair-2 was not active and from the commands (for instance Anna-86) could be derived that the TV-link went via a UHF-channel and a tracking station in Russia. It lasted a long time before the TV-link was ready and TsUP received images. At 1828 UTC the hatches were open and Musabayev and Precourt could meet each other. Andy Thomas tried to meet his Discovery colleagues as soon as possible and Musabayev warned him to be careful. Just before LOS a lot of enthusiasm and laughter could be heard. During the pass in orb. 70212/213, 1959-2010 UTC, there was only Telemetry and Packet. Phone and images could be monitored via Altair-2 during the next pass (70214, 2113 UTC). Both crews were having diner together. Musabayev had said that he and his crew did not eat for 15 hours. The Discovery crew did not have a meal for 12 hours.

    Radio-amateur traffic:

    R0Mir transmitted the following CQ Packet Radio message:

    QUOTE

    I AM ABUT TO END MY TIME ON Mir AND I WANT TO THANK ALL THE HAM OPERATORS AROUND THE WORLD WHO HAVE SENT MESSAGES. I HOPE IT IS UNDERSTOOD THAT THE VOLUME OF TRAFFIC HAS MADE INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES IMPOSSIBLE BUT WE REALLY ENJOY YOUR MAIL. VOICE HAS BEEN VERY DIFFICULT PARTICULARLY OVER THE US AND EUROPE. TOO MANY TALKING AT ONCE. IN THE SHORT TIME I HAVE LEFT I WILL TRY TO DO VOICE, BUT ASK THAT REPEAT CALLERS STAY OFF THE AIR SO THAT I CAN GIVE NEW CALLERS A CHANCE FOR A CONTACT.

    BEST WISHES TO ALL OF YOU. ANDY THOMAS

    UNQUOTE

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 June 5 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: South Australia - . Flight: STS-91. "South Australia" by The Sundowners CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 6 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: You Really Got Me - . Flight: STS-91. "You Really Got Me" by The Kinks CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 7 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: Travelin' Band - . Flight: STS-91. "Travelin' Band" by Creedence Clearwater Revival CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 8 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: Manic Monday - . Flight: STS-91. "Manic Monday" by The Bangles in honor of an historic Monday for the U.S. and Russian space programs ending the three year Shuttle/Mir program CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 9 - .
  • Mir News 427: Communications - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6, STS-91.

    The crew of Discovery was not able to restore the transmissions of TV images via the Ku-band. Nevertheless the Russians did not increase the use of their geostationary satellite. An American press release characterised the Russian Altair-2 system as a Spartan system. Unfortunately the Russians did not seize the opportunity to show the possibilities of that Spartan system by putting this system at the disposal of the STS-91 mission for public relation purposes, i.e. TV-live events, also from the Shuttle itself. Possibly there also have been problems with that system for on 6.06.1998 something was wrong with a TV-link between TsUP and a tracking station. During a press-conference only voice communications were possible.

    The TV-reports from Mir of which only a few reached us via CNN were relayed by tracking stations inside Russia via UHF-channels. This could be derived from the use of the command code Anna-86 during VHF communications. These video links lasted shorter than those via Altair-2 and the quality was not so good and sometimes only black and white images were possible. From the Russian segment of the combination Discovery-Mir the Russians communicated with TsUP via their own VHF-channels. Discovery used for voice communications with Houston the S-band channel via the TDRS-es. During one of the communication windows on 5.06.98 Musabayev tried to get in contact with TsUP for a long time. He asked Charlie Precourt to warn TsUP Moscow via one of the American channels and this helped. The last months the Mir-crew regularly called TsUP in vain for long periods, even via Altair-2. Deteriorated motivation of the Capcoms at TsUP?

    Andy Thomas:

    On 5.06.98, so 1 day after the docking of Discovery, Andy settled himself into the Shuttle and became a member of STS-91's crew. He regularly showed up inside the contours of the Mir-complex, but did no longer communicate from there with TsUP Moscow. Valeriy Viktorovich Ryumin: This leading designer of RKK Energiya and former Salyut-6 cosmonaut needed only a few days extra to bring his spaceflight record up to 365 days, so a full year. On 5.06.1998 he passed this limit and both crews celebrated this jubilee on board Mir. Musabayev offered for this opportunity guitar music. All styles were possible: Beatles, Russian- or Kazakh folk songs, even that of Vysotskiy. For Ryumin as a high-ranking official of RKK Energiya it was an excellent opportunity to execute an extensive inspection of Mir's systems.

    Musabayev and Budarin were very pleased that this earthling could see by his own eyes the situation about which cosmonauts so often complained. He was displeased about the enormous mess within the station. In his opinion the abundance of useful, but also of superfluous and useless things, makes the work for cosmonauts, in particular new ones, extremely difficult. Behind a panel he found a lot of rubbish and he asked TsUP permission to get rid of that. Among this rubbish were some cables and TsUP did not give him this permission. He grumbled a little bit, but did not press the matter for he himself had ordered that cosmonauts always have to stick to decisions from flight control. During conversations with TsUP about technical matters Musabayev sometimes referred to Ryumin. For instance about the problems they had with the installation of camera's to document the departure of the Discovery. The brackets near certain portholes to fix these camera's did not fit. Ryumin said that the man at TsUP had to write this down in his report in red capital letters.

    I have been listening to the voices of cosmonauts for some decades and it was a real sensation to hear this old stager again via my headphones. It felt as if a time machine had put me back 20 years.

    Module Spektr:

    Almost for a year the experts are struggling along with the 1000 dollar question how to locate the leakage in the hull of the Spektr module. Previous attempts to find these leakage by pumping fluorescent gasses through Spektr were unsuccessful. Mission STS-91 gave the last opportunity to try this again. The first test was executed on 6.06.1998 during the VHF-pass in orbit 70242, between 1756 and 1807 UTC. Budarin opened the valve of Spektr's hatch and inflated the fluorescent gasses into the module. Musabayev gave a count down so that everybody on board of Discovery could be alert with camera's and at portholes. During the test Budarin reported the pressures inside Spektr. These values were relatively low, not more than 55 MM mercury. Precourt reported that nothing could be seen with the naked eye. The test was repeated after the undocking of Discovery on 8.06.98. At 1124 UTC Discovery was station keeping right in front of the Mir-station while Musabayev and Budarin repeated the procedure and again Precourt reported that they did not see anything.

    Let us hope that analyses on earth of the video recordings and photographs will help.

    Departure of Discovery:

    During the undocking communications went via VHF-channels. This took place during the pass in orbit 70272 (1554-1602 UTC). After some camera problems the images were transmitted via tracking stations in Russia. Altair-2 was not active. During the following orbit (70273) Altair-2 was active and images could be seen of the autonomously flying Discovery. The crew also transmitted video recordings of the farewell party just before the closing of the hatches to Discovery. Altair-2 stopped transmitting at 17.23.40 UTC, so just before the separation burn of Discovery, which took place at 1724 UTC. From 1732 UTC Mir communicated via the VHF channels in the 143 and 130 mc bands.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 June 9 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: How Bizarre - . Flight: STS-91. "How Bizarre" by O.M.C CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 10 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: Superman - . Flight: STS-91. "Superman" - TV Theme Song played in honor of Franklin Chang-Diaz's record-breaking time in orbit aboard a Space Shuttle, a total of more than 51 days spent in orbit during six shuttle flights. CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 10 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5.
  • Thor 3 - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: Norway. Agency: Telenor. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Thor Comsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25358 . COSPAR: 1998-035A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    The spacecraft was delivered to its final orbit in a complex series of five engine burns by three rocket stages. The Delta's second stage demonstrated its restart capability in 4 burns: Burn 1 placed the rocket and payload into a low circular orbit; Burn 2 raised the apogee to 1400 km; Burn 3 circularised the orbit at 1400 km. The second stage then separated, and Burn 4 lowered the spent stage's perigee to a low altitude to ensure the stage would decay quickly and not add to the space junk already on orbit. Stage 3 burned once to place the payload and its kick motor into a high 1400 km perigee geosynchronous transfer orbit. The Stage 4 Star 30 apogee kick motor circularised the spacecraft's orbit at geostationary altitude. Geostationary at 0.8 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 0.83 deg W drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 0.85W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.


1998 June 11 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: Interplanet Janet - . Flight: STS-91. "Interplanet Janet" Song from the"Schoolhouse Rock" educational videotape series played in honor of Janet Kavandi CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 11 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Anhueng. LV Family: KSR. Launch Vehicle: KSR-II.
  • X-ray astronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Korea South. Agency: KARI. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi). Measured the vertical distribution of ozone using an ultraviolet radiometer..

1998 June 12 - .
  • STS-91 - Wakeup Song: Homeward Bound - . Flight: STS-91. "Homeward Bound" by Simon and Garfunkel CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 June 12 - .
1998 June 15 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The launch vehicle control system was misprogrammed before launch due to a malfunction of the ground instrumentation. However the satellites were in usable orbits..
  • Cosmos 2352 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 108. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25363 . COSPAR: 1998-036A. Apogee: 1,872 km (1,163 mi). Perigee: 1,313 km (815 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 118.00 min. Six Strela-3 military communications satellites launched as usual by a single launch vehicle. However the S5M third stage cut off early during its circulisation burn, leaving the satellites in elliptical 1300 x 1900 km orbits..
  • Cosmos 2355 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 111. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25366 . COSPAR: 1998-036D. Apogee: 1,865 km (1,158 mi). Perigee: 1,305 km (810 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2354 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 110. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25365 . COSPAR: 1998-036C. Apogee: 1,869 km (1,161 mi). Perigee: 1,309 km (813 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 118.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2353 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 109. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25364 . COSPAR: 1998-036B. Apogee: 1,867 km (1,160 mi). Perigee: 1,303 km (809 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2357 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 113. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25368 . COSPAR: 1998-036F. Apogee: 1,861 km (1,156 mi). Perigee: 1,296 km (805 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2356 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 112. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25367 . COSPAR: 1998-036E. Apogee: 1,865 km (1,158 mi). Perigee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.80 min.

1998 June 16 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Cincinatti / OhioSGC Aeronomy / education mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1998 June 17 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1998 June 18 - . 22:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Intelsat 805 - . Mass: 3,520 kg (7,760 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Manufacturer: RCA. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 7000. USAF Sat Cat: 25371 . COSPAR: 1998-037A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Satellite had 28 C-band and 3 Ku-band transponders, and initially served the Atlantic Ocean region for INTELSAT. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. Geostationary at 55.5 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 55 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 55.52 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 55.54W drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.


1998 June 24 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • GRP-IDF-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Two Minuteman 3 missiles launched from Vandenberg to Kwajalein Atoll, one from silo LF-09 and the second from LF-10. Each carried three re-entry vehicles..

1998 June 24 - . 12:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT168GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT. Part of dual Minuteman 3 shot..

1998 June 24 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2358 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Kozlov bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 120.00 days. Decay Date: 1998-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 25373 . COSPAR: 1998-038A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission. Landed October 22, 1998..

1998 June 25 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2359 - . Mass: 6,620 kg (14,590 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Kozlov bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Decay Date: 1999-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25376 . COSPAR: 1998-039A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Photo/digital surveillance. Entered an initial 170 x 290 km x 64.9 deg initial orbit. It manoeuvred to its operational orbit of 240 x 302 km x 64.9 deg on June 27..

1998 June 27 - .
  • Cosmonaut Boris Nikolayevich Belousov dies at age of 67 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belousov. Belarusian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1968..

1998 June 28 - .
  • Mir News 429: Uncertainty - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27.

    For the time being the fate of Mir is uncertain. The cosmonauts on board Mir hoped to get information about the results of meetings on earth about the exploitation of Mir for the very near future. A meeting about this subject planned for last week has been put back until 2.07.1998. At this meeting a commission or group of experts will discuss the serious problems due to the lack of money for the present Mir exploitation and future operations. RKK Energiya did not receive the promised money badly needed this year and if this allotment will not be transferred soon, there are no means for the launch of Soyuz-TM28 with the relief crew for the present expedition. Possibly the meeting on 2.07.1998 will draft an ultimatum to the Kremlin: if the Kremlin fails to transfer the needed amount, another meeting will take place in mid July to discuss the termination of Mir's exploitation and to plan the operation to bring the station back into the atmosphere for decay later this year.

    The present uncertainty phase is unpleasant for the cosmonauts. On 19.06.98 Musabayev spoke with Baturin, who is still training for his flight to Mir with Soyuz-TM28, together with the crew for the next (26th) Mir Main Expedition. Musabayev wished Baturin a good flight and said that he hoped to meet him soon on board Mir. Baturin, a former spaceflight constructor and an advisor of Yeltsin, was selected for a flight to Mir for political reasons, but regretfully Yeltsin sacked him due to measures of economy.

    Apart from asking questions about the developments the cosmonauts do not say much about the present situation, but it is clear that their mood is far below the desired level. This could repeatedly be derived from conversations between the crew and TsUP. Especially Musabayev, a man with a stable character and in fact a humorist who likes to laugh a lot, regularly looses his temper.

    Mir-routine:

    Nevertheless Musabayev and Budarin continue to run the station as good as possible. They performed a number of repairs and were busy with a series of experiments. Last week they spent a lot of time to mend the defective Elektron oxygen generator in Kvant-1 for which they used parts of the Elektron in Module-D. A few times they did not succeed, but on 25.06 the Elektron worked well for 6 hours. On 26.06 the crew replaced a part of the Antares transmitter (for communications via Altair-2) and obviously they succeeded, for on 28.06 the transmitter was in use for a televised family meeting. Later on Musabayev reported that he had replaced the transmitter.

    Experiments:

    In co-ordination with American experts the cosmonauts continued the use of the Optizon furnace for melting processes. The Gallar furnace was also used. There were a lot of medical experiments, especially aimed at the cardio-vascular systems, Regularly they reported about experiments like Cardio, Holter and (the Dutch) Portapress.

    They also worked on astrophysical experiments. The crew reactivated the spectrometer Mariya in Kvant-1 to study electromagnetic processes in the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere. They also carried out radiation measurements outside the complex along Mir's trajectory. Experiments located in the Priroda module were also discussed, i.e. MOMS, Ozon and Alisa.

    Planning:

    The last report about the launch of the Soyuz-TM28 with the relief crew Padalka and Avdeyev, and the politician Baturin, was about putting back this mission with 1 day for ballistic reasons. The launch is now scheduled for 3.08.1998 and the rendezvous with Mir for 5.08.98. To free the aft (+X axis) docking port of Mir the Progress-M39 has to undock from there on 4.08 for an autonomous flight. After the departure of Soyuz-TM27 the new transport ship Soyuz-TM28 has to be redocked to the forward (-X-axis) port. From that moment on the aft docking port is free for the redocking of the Progress-M38. This cargo ship has to remain docked to Mir, for the next one, Progress-M40, will not arrive before September 1998.

    This all with due reserve, for important decisions regarding Mir's immediate fate have to be made. If Padalka, Avdeyev and Baturin will fly, their call will be Altair.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 July 1 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-3-49 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 61. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2011-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 25379 . COSPAR: 1998-040A. Apogee: 39,850 km (24,760 mi). Perigee: 501 km (311 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 717.70 min.

1998 July 3 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M-V. Launch Vehicle: M-V.
  • Nozomi - . Mass: 258 kg (568 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Manufacturer: NEC. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Nozomi. USAF Sat Cat: 25383 . COSPAR: 1998-041A. Apogee: 489,381 km (304,086 mi). Perigee: 703 km (436 mi). Inclination: 27.3000 deg. Period: 20,910.00 min.

    Originally known as Planet-B; renamed Nozomi ('Hope') after launch. The third stage and payload entered a 146 x 417 km x 31.1 deg parking orbit. The KM-V1 kick (fourth) stage then fired to place the spacecraft into a circumlunar 359 x 401491 km x 28.6 deg orbit. Nozomi made multiple lunar and Earth gravity assist passes to increase its energy for solar orbit insertion and the cruise to Mars.. The spacecraft used a lunar swingby on 24 September and another on 18 December 1998 to increase the apogee of its orbit. It swung by Earth on 20 December at a perigee of about 1000 km. The gravitational assist from the swingby coupled with a 7 minute burn of the bipropellant engine put Nozomi into an escape trajectory towards Mars. It was scheduled to arrive at Mars on 11 October 1999 at 7:45:14 GMT, but the Earth swingby left the spacecraft with insufficient acceleration and two course correction burns on 21 December used more propellant than planned, leaving the spacecraft short of fuel. The new plan is for Nozomi to remain in heliocentric orbit for an additional four years and encounter Mars at a slower relative velocity in December 2003.


1998 July 7 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-407. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil'-1.
  • Shtil 1 - . Payload: Shtil-1 instr. package. Nation: Israel. Manufacturer: TuB. Spacecraft: Shtil. Decay Date: 2014-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 25391 . COSPAR: 1998-042C. Apogee: 801 km (497 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 79.0000 deg.

    The first satellite launch from a submarine. The Shtil-1 launch vehicle was a converted R-29RM (RSM-54) three stage liquid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile made by the Makeyev design bureau. The satellite payload is placed in the standard R-29RM reentry vehicle. The launch plaform was the K-407 Novomoskovsk, a 667BDRM Delfin class submarine of the Russian Northern Fleet's 3rd Flotilla. Launch was from the Barents Sea at 69.3 degrees N x 35.3 degrees E. The Shtil contained an Israeli instrument package.

  • Tubsat-N - . Mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: TuB. Program: Tubsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. Decay Date: 2002-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 25389 . COSPAR: 1998-042A. Apogee: 776 km (482 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 78.9000 deg. Period: 96.40 min.

    The first satellite launch from a submarine. The Shtil-1 launch vehicle was a converted Makeyev R-29RM SLBM. The satellite payload was placed in the standard re-entry vehicle. The launch platform was the K-407 Novomoskovsk, a 667BDRM Delfin class submarine of the Russian Northern Fleet 3rd Flotilla. The launch was made from a firing range in the Barents Sea off the coast of the Kolskiy Peninsula, at 35.3 deg E 69.3 deg N. The payloads were the Tubsat-N and Tubsat-N1 `nanosatellites'. Tubsat-N entered a 400 x 776 km x 78.9 deg orbit. Both carried small store-forward communications payloads used to keep track of transmitters placed on vehicles, migrating animals, and marine buoys. They are owned, operated and built by the Technische Universitat Berlin (TUB). Tubsat-N was the larger of the pair, with dimensions of 32x32x10.4 cm and a mass of 8.5 kg.

  • Tubsat-N1 - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: TuB. Program: Tubsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. Decay Date: 2000-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 25390 . COSPAR: 1998-042B. Apogee: 776 km (482 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 78.9000 deg. Period: 96.30 min.

    The dual Tubsat-N/Tubsat-N1 repersented the Technical University of Berlin's first Nanosatellite project. Tubsat-N1 measured 32x32x3.4cm and had a mass of 3 kg. The technology demonstrator satellite provided store and forward communications and conducted attitude control experiments.


1998 July 9 - .
  • Death of Robert Heinrich Karl Paetz - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Paetz. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1998 July 9 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1998 July 10 - .
  • Death of Albert E Schuler - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Schuler. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1998 July 10 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Resurs-O1 No. 4 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 No. 4. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: VNIIEM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 25394 . COSPAR: 1998-043A. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min.

    In addition to its remote sensing equipment, the satellite carried the Belgian LLMS (Little LEO Messaging System) communications payload for the IRIS system. The launch was critical in restoring confidence in the Zenit vehicle prior to planned commercial launches of Globalstar satellites from Baikonur and the first Sea Launch flights using a three-stage Zenit from a California-based floating launch platform. Expected life 3 to 5 years.

  • WESTPAC - . Mass: 24 kg (52 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: WPLTN. Manufacturer: EOS, RKA. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: GFZ-1. USAF Sat Cat: 25398 . COSPAR: 1998-043E. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min.

    Formerly known as WPLTN-1, this geodesy satellite was a copy of Potsdam's GFZ-1 satellite, a sphere covered with laser retroreflectors, with a different `Fizeau' corner cube design. It serves as a target for the Western Pacific Laser Tracking Network (WPLTN) and is a joint project of Electro Optic Systems of Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia, and the Russian Space Agency. Diameter is 0.24m.

  • Gurwin Techsat 1B - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Technion. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gurwin. USAF Sat Cat: 25397 . COSPAR: 1998-043D. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 817 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Built by Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. Replaced earlier Russian-launched Techsat which failed to orbit in 1995..
  • SAFIR-2 - . Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Safir satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 25399 . COSPAR: 1998-043F. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen..
  • Fasat-Bravo - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Chile. Agency: FACh. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Fasat. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-70. USAF Sat Cat: 25395 . COSPAR: 1998-043B. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Customer: Chilean Air Force (FACH). Chile's second satellite carrying store and forward and Earth observation payloads, replacing those lost on FASat-Alpha. Still operational as of 2000.. Additional Details: here....
  • TMSAT - . Payload: Thai-Paht. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: FACh. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: TMSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-70. USAF Sat Cat: 25396 . COSPAR: 1998-043C. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 816 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min.

    Customer: Thailand (Thai Microsatellite Company and MUT). Thailand's first microsatellite built through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward and Earth observation payloads. Still operational as of 2000. Additional Details: here....


1998 July 15 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1998 July 18 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3B.
  • Sinosat - . Payload: Spacebus 3000A. Mass: 2,820 kg (6,210 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Eurasspa. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Sinosat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000 . USAF Sat Cat: 25404 . COSPAR: 1998-044A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    The CZ-3B's liquid hydrogen upper stage and the Sinosat were placed in a 609 x 35958 km x 19.0 deg geostationary transfer orbit at 09:45 GMT. The first two liquid apogee burns were carried out on July 19 and 21. Sinosat, an Alcatel Spacebus 3000, was built in Cannes and owned temporarily by EurasSpace, a joint venture between Daimler-Benz Aerospace and the China Aerospace Corporation. After on-orbit testing it was delivered to the Sino Satellite Communications Company of Shanghai for communications services in China. The satellite carried 24 C-band transponders and 14 Ku-band transponders which covered the entire Asia-Pacific region. With a design life span of 15 years, the satellite was to provide multiple data transfer services for China's financial and air transportation control systems, as well as the Shanghai Information Port project, Sinosat operated in geosynchronous orbit at 110.5 deg E in 1998-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 110.55 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 110.51E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.


1998 July 21 - .
1998 July 21 - .
  • Death of Alan Bartlett Jr 'Al' Shepard at Monterey, California. Natural causes - Leukemia, two years after diagnosis. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shepard. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MR-3, Apollo 14. First American in space. Grounded due on medical grounds during Gemini, but reinstated, becoming fifth person to walk on the moon. Millionaire entrepreneur on the side., Apollo 14, , , , , ,.

1998 July 22 - .
  • Astronaut Alan Bartlett (Al) Shepard Jr dies at age of 74 -- Natural causes - Leukemia, two years after diagnosis. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shepard.

1998 July 22 - . Launch Complex: Damghan. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Shahab 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1998 July 24 - .
  • Mir News 431: Mir-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27.

    Indefatigably the 2 cosmonauts on board Mir continued the exploitation of this immense laboratory. Contradictory to the last months it seemed as if the cosmonauts could reduce their attention to repairs and replacement of systems, which enabled them to spend more time and energy to their main task: the preparation and execution of all kinds of scientific experiments. In the west, especially in the U.S.A., media attention for that what is going on aboard Mir is rather poor after the departure of the last American astronaut. Long series of radiograms, reaching the cosmonauts by the Packet Radio system (originally used by radio-amateurs and which cannot be praised enough) contain enough instructions for experiments to keep them busy day in and day out. Regularly the crew speaks about experiments in the furnaces Optizon, Gallar and Kristall, of which those performed in the Optizon furnace take place in co-ordination with American experts. Other experiments which pass the review are Dakon, MAD, Temir, Phantom, Optovert, Maksat and Laser sensing with Alisa.

    Communications:

    For Western Europe the Mir-complex merely comes in range during the night hours and so there is not much traffic via the VHF-channels. During the working day Mir-TsUP communications take place during one window. In the period from 10 to 17.07.98 Altair-2 was in use for other purposes. On 16 and 17.07.98 the 10 GHz channel was in use for the relay of audio and TV transmissions of the ceremonies for the burial of Czar Nikolay-II and his family. Just before the conclusion of the ceremonies, as soon as the first salute of guns was fired the relay of Altair-2 stopped and this satellite could be used for Mir-TsUP traffic again. On 22.07.98 during a communications session via Altair-2 the cosmonauts called someone with the call sign Agata. They spoke about the BDD-2 (Betriebstechnik Deutschland Direkt), so they used the same system which was operational during the ESA-expedition to Mir (Euromir-95). The crew had received 2 diskettes with a program to activate a computer for BDD experiments. They exchanged data of the experiment Dakon. The communications took place via a station in Russia and not via Oberpfaffenhofen in Germany as was the case during Euromir-95.

    Technical failures:

    The a.c. BKV-3 still shows hiccups just after switching on. An alarm signal points out that something is wrong with the pressure. After switching off and on a few times, the BKV-3 worked well. On 19.07.98 there was again smoke alarm. There was no smoke at all and in this case the smoke sensor was to blame. The malfunction of one of the gyrodynes was also mentioned and one of the solar panels of the Spektr module does not produce enough energy due to the malfunction of the driver which has to change the angle of that panel. (To eliminate this problem the crew of the next expedition has to execute an internal spacewalk -IVA- inside Spektr). The life support systems are performing well in this period, possibly due to the fact that they have to serve only 2 men. The crew keeps a sharp eye on the CO-2 values, especially during and after physical exercises.

    Plans for the near future:

    In fact the uncertainty phase still continues. Russian spaceflight organisations are still waiting for the promised funding needed to continue Mir operations until June 1999. The Russians expect that the money will be remitted in due time. And there was another development: the Russian Menatep bank promised to sponsor the last Mir-Mohicans, i.e. Mir's ME 27 from February to June 1999.

    Almost certain is:

    that Soyuz-TM28 with Padalka, Avdeyev and Baturin will be launched on 13.08.1998 and dock with Mir on 15.08.1998, that the freighter Progress-M39 will separate from Mir on 14.08.1998 for an autonomous flight until the departure of the relieved crew and Baturin with the Soyuz-TM27 on 25 or 26.08.1998 and that the launch of the next freighter Progress-M40 will take place not before 15.10.1998. Znamya-2: Several Television programs used the Itar-Tass publication about the execution of the experiment Znamya-2 in November this year to enlighten the dull season program with an interesting item. A Progress-M freighter should deploy a circular reflection sail for the spectacular illumination of a number of cities on earth.

    That this operation might be possible in November is doubtful for after an experiment like this, the freighter has to decay in the earth's atmosphere and cannot return to the Mir-complex to redock to the aft (Kvant-1) docking port. Because of the necessary thermal protection of that port and the Kvant-1 itself, a Progress-M ship has to be docked there until the next Progress-M ship. The period until the docking of the Progress-M41 (not before March 1999) would be pretty long. (And there is also the question if the Progress-M can be redocked after the experiment.)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 July 24 - .
  • Death of Max Ernst Nowak - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Nowak, Max. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1998 July 28 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2360 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 22. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 25406 . COSPAR: 1998-045A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1998 July 29 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1998 July 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Sphere - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1998 August - . LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Shahab 3.
  • Iranian satellite launcher mockup exhibited - . Nation: Iran. Iranian television showed what appeared to be a mock-up of a clam-shell nosecone with a small satellite inside and a model of a space launch vehicle with a bulbous payload section, apparently based upon the Shahab 3 joint North Korean/Iranian IRBM..

1998 August 1 - .
  • ESA Astronaut Training Group 3 selected. - . Nation: Europe. Related Persons: De Winne, Kuipers. European Space Agency astronauts sent to Russia for cosmonaut training..

1998 August 2 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: RW04/22. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL/HAPS.
  • Orbcomm B5 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM17. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25413 . COSPAR: 1998-046A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Plane B. Ascending node 61 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm B2 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM14. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25419 . COSPAR: 1998-046G. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Plane B. Ascending node 60.4 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm B6 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM18. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25414 . COSPAR: 1998-046B. Apogee: 827 km (513 mi). Perigee: 810 km (500 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Plane B. Ascending node 59.7 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm B7 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM19. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25415 . COSPAR: 1998-046C. Apogee: 828 km (514 mi). Perigee: 809 km (502 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Plane B. Ascending node 61.1 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm B8 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM20. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25416 . COSPAR: 1998-046D. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Plane B. Ascending node 61.2 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm B4 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM16. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25417 . COSPAR: 1998-046E. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 812 km (504 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Plane B. Ascending node 59.9 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm B3 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM15. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25418 . COSPAR: 1998-046F. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 812 km (504 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.28 min. Plane B. Ascending node 60 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm B1 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM13. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25420 . COSPAR: 1998-046H. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0000 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane B. Ascending node 60.4 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..

1998 August 4 - .
  • Cosmonaut Yuri Petrovich Artyukhin dies at age of 68 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Artyukhin. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 14. Member of first military space station mission..

1998 August 5 - .
  • Iraq ends cooperation with UN arms inspectors - . Nation: International.

1998 August 9 - .
  • Death of Alvin R Luedecke - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Luedecke. American manager. Air force nuclear weapons and propulsion liaison positions, 1949-1958. General Manager AEC 1958-1964; Deputy Director JPL 1964-1967..

1998 August 12 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 401A/Centaur. FAILURE: Due to guidance system loss of heading after power interrupt, booster pitched over 40 seconds after launch, and was destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Mercury ELINT - . Payload: Mercury ELINT 3. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, NSA. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. Third launch of Mercury ELINT satellite..

1998 August 13 - . 09:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-28 - . Call Sign: Altair. Crew: Avdeyev, Baturin, Padalka. Backup Crew: Kaleri, Zalyotin. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 77. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev, Baturin, Kaleri, Padalka, Zalyotin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EP-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 198.69 days. Decay Date: 1999-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 25429 . COSPAR: 1998-047A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    Soyuz TM-28 docked at 10:56 GMT on August 15 with the rear (Kvant) port of the Mir space station, which had been vacated at 09:28 GMT on August 12 by Progress M-39. The EO-25 crew, Musabayev and Budarin, landed with Baturin on Aug 25, leaving the EO-26 crew of Padalka and Avdeyev on the station. As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, the return crew of Soyuz TM-28 was subject to constant replanning and revision. On February 8, 1999, at 11:23 GMT Padalka and Avdeyev undocked from Mir's -X port in Soyuz TM-28, and redocked at the +X Kvant port at 11:39 GMT, freeing up the front port for the Soyuz TM-29 docking. Finally on February 27, 1999 EO-26 commander Padalka and Slovak cosmonaut Bella undocked Soyuz TM-28 from the Kvant rear docking port at 22:52 GMT, landing in Kazakhstan on February 28 at 02:14 GMT. Avdeyev remained on Mir with the EO-27 crew delivered on Soyuz TM-29, heading for a manned space flight time record.


1998 August 15 - .
  • Death of Anatoli Petrovich Abramov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Abramov. Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1966-1980 of Korolev design bureau. Specialised in launch complexes..

1998 August 15 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • EEV CCD X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 August 16 - .
  • Mir News 434: Successful docking Soyuz-TM28 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EP-4.

    This transport ship docked at Mir's aft (+X-axis) docking port on 15.08.1998 at 10.56.52 UTC. The intention was to perform approach and docking in the automatic mode with the system Kurs, but at the distance of about 20 M, when the approach speed was almost 0 M/sec. , TsUP seemed to be unsure about the good functioning of the Kurs system and ordered Padalka to take over the approach manually. From the distance of 12 M Padalka flawlessly steered his ship to the docking port and accomplished a perfect docking. Well done for a cosmonaut who makes his first spaceflight. He certainly deserves the so called 'manual docking bonus'.

    During the pass in the next orbit (71335, 1218-1229 UTC) the crew prepared the TV-report of the opening of the hatches and the meeting of the 2 crews. It could be derived from the given communication commands that the images of that event would be transmitted on a UHF-channel and via Russian tracking stations, so not via Altair-2. Just before the complex disappeared behind my eastern horizon the crews got permission to open the hatches and to greet each other. This time the Russians refrained from the normal routine to have the first human contact between the 2 commanders due to the presence of the VIP Baturin. He got the honour to be the first crew member to float from Soyuz-TM28 into Mir and embrace his CIS-countryman, Musabayev. This took place at 1230 UTC.

    From that moment on the crew of the Mir-space station consists of 5 persons and this will undoubtedly draw a heavy toil on the life support systems of the complex. Technically the situation on board was not 100% before the docking: the power supply is not fully restored and the station seems to fly in the free drift (they spoke about 'indikatornyy rezhim', but whether the gyrodynes are fully spinning or not has not been confirmed) and Musabayev got orders to economise power consumption and to switch off all superfluous equipment.

    Until his departure Musabayev will remain commander of both crews. During all communication sessions on 15.08.1998 it was clear that Musabayev acquits himself of that task. Meanwhile Budarin occupied himself with radio-amateurism on 145.985 mc. He tried to get in touch with Russian radio-amateurs.

    During the last pass in which Mir was able to communicate via a Russian tracking station with TsUP (orb. 71339, 1704-1715 UTC) Musabayev called in vain and he decided to give his message blindly (hoping that TsUP would hear him anyway). He reported that they had reinstalled Baturin's seat liner (from Soyuz-TM28 to Soyuz-TM27). The BKV-3 (a.c.) worked after he had tried to switch it on 3 times. The humidity was quoted as 11.3, the gas composition in the station as: CO2 4.5 , oxygen 203 and water 11.2. Pressure 797 MM.

    Communications during flight Soyuz-TM28:

    13.08.1998: After the launch the signals of the Soyuz-TM28 could be monitored here for the first time between 1415-1420 UTC. A very stable Padalka reported the results of the 1st and 2nd impulses: 1st 1384 during 32 seconds, 2nd 696 for 16 seconds. The SIRT (system for the measurement of the fuel consumption) gave after the 1st impulse 745 KG, after the 2nd one 728 KG (remaining fuel). During the following passes he reported that all went well, they were in a good mood and health and all systems worked nominally. There were only problems with a recording experiment. The device of that experiment did not give the right figures. Baturin had been shooting video images. Good signals in the 166 and 165 mc bands and on 922.755 mc.

    During the pass between 1547 and 1552 UTC again good signals on all frequencies. TCA (dip in 922.755 mc signal) was at 154915 UTC. Padalka still very stable reported the good functioning of all systems. They had done something with the orientation in relation to the power supply and they got a good power reading between 25 and 26. The TV-test they had done was positive. They felt well and enjoyed the flight.

    14.08.1998: Good signals on all frequencies and Padalka again sounded like a skilled cosmonaut. All parameters were normal and the only problem was a recording device about which Padalka long and extensively reported.

    Soyuz-TM27: The return flight of the crew of the 25th Main Expedition to Mir (Musabayev and Budarin) and the cosmonaut-researcher-politician Baturin is scheduled for 25.08.1998. The Soyuz-TM27 will undock from Mir at 0220 UTC descend was announced as 0526 UTC.

    26th Main Expedition to Mir: The crew of this ME is Padalka and Avdeyev. According to information now available (confirmed by a reliable source) this crew will remain on board Mir until June 1999. So if there will be no changes anymore the 26th ME is the last one to Mir.

    Mir-routine:

    In the period after MirNEWS.432 a number of technical problems emerged. Radio communications revealed that the complex had been flying in free drift (indikatornyy rezhim), which caused a sharp decrease in power supply on 11.08.1998. That day all superfluous systems had to be switched off and for a while only 2 lamps were burning: one in the Base Block and one near the P.Kh.O. (transition section). There were also airseal problems. Musabayev had to check a rubber bearing of a hatch with his fingers. To secure a good atmosphere on board the crew used oxygen from a tank in the Progress-M39. The crew also repeatedly tested the Kurs antenna on Kvant-1 and they had to change cable connections of this system. Not long before the launch of Soyuz-TM28 they had to repeat such a test which seemed to have been positive.

    On 12.08.1998 Musabayev launched a long tirade in which he relieved his feelings. He has great problems with the activities of journalists who, in his opinion, are not really interested in the cosmonauts as such. Only when something goes wrong they are on it like a bird and then they blame the crew for that. He characterises a lot of their publications as nonsense and even swinishness. He emphasises that this expedition, the 25th, was a very fruitful one. While the Mir-station is operational for 12.5 years their expedition performed 50% of all melting experiments in the furnaces, for instance almost all what had to be done with the Optizon furnace. They accomplished experiments which could not be done by previous expeditions. In the 190 days of their mission they were not able to work according the formular 23 for 2 days and for this the crew was even not to blame. They also solved a lot of technical problems and he refers to the repair of the SUD (attitude control system) on the eve of the arrival of a Shuttle.

    The fact that life on board Mir is still possible is thanks to their work for they installed the new VDU (external thruster). They did a lot of cardio vascular experiments, which still had to be executed.

    My personal opinion about this argumentation is the following: I do not want to compare this expedition with other ones. But I agree with Musabayev: he was in command of a magnificent expedition.

    First day with 2 crews on board:

    On 16.08.1998 during the first pass Padalka asked TsUP whether they had seen something in the Telemetry and he supposed that they wished to speak to them. TsUP confirmed this and ordered Padalka to switch over to the 2nd regime for this conversation. From this moment on monitoring had no sense due the computerised scrambling of the speech. For a very long time, I dare to say for years, they had not used this routine.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 August 19 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
  • Iridium 3 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV078. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25431 . COSPAR: 1998-048A. Apogee: 779 km (484 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 199.4 degrees..
  • Iridium 76 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV076. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25432 . COSPAR: 1998-048B. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 199.4 degrees..

1998 August 20 - .
  • U.S. cruise missiles hit suspected terrorist bases in Sudan and Afghanistan - . Nation: USA.

1998 August 21 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 August 25 - . 23:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P.
  • ST-1 - . Payload: Eurostar 2000+. Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Singapore. Agency: Arianespace. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Singapore, Taiwan. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000 . USAF Sat Cat: 25460 . COSPAR: 1998-049A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Singapore-Taiwan-1 Matra Marconi Space Eurostar 2000 class satellite to provide communications for Singapore Telecom and Chunghwa Telecom of Taiwan. Geostationary at 88.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 88 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 88.04 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 88.05E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.


1998 August 25 - .
1998 August 27 - . 01:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 8930. FAILURE: Due to guidance system induced oscillation all solid motor gimbal hydraulic fluid exhausted after only 71 seconds of flight. Range safety destroyed booster 75 seconds into flight at 16 km altitude.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Galaxy 10 - . Payload: HS 601HP. Mass: 3,876 kg (8,545 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601.

    Built by Hughes/El Segundo for Panamsat. The satellite carried 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders to provide US/Caribbean coverage, and was to have replaced the ageing SBS-5 satellite at 123 deg West. Replenishing the Galaxy/PAS constellation was a high priority for Panamsat following the loss of Galaxy 4 and problems with Galaxy 7. Galaxy 11 was not scheduled to go up until the first launch of the Sea Launch Zenit-3SL in early 1999, and this booster was in limbo due to legal problems with unauthorised transfer of technical data from Boeing to Russia. In addition there were several PAS satellites awaiting launch over the next year on Proton and Ariane vehicles.


1998 August 29 - .
  • Mir News 436: Soyuz-TM28 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27.

    Padalka and Avdeyev redocked this ship from the aft to the forward docking port of the Mir-complex on 27.08.1998. They separated from Mir at 0544 UTC and docked again at 06.07.09 UTC. Padalka accomplished the approach and docking manually, so if the Russian treasury is able to bear this he can expect his 2nd manual docking bonus.

    Communications during this operation was via the VHF channel of Soyuz-TM28 on 121.750 mc. For listeners in Western Europa there was a short pass during an elevation of 1 degree. Nevertheless such a lot of traffic could be monitored between 0600 and 0603 UTC that it was clear that the operation proceeded flawlessly. At 06.00.20 UTC Padalka reported that they had finished the fly around and that the Soyuz-TM28 was station keeping on the X-axis. They had the target dish exactly in the centre and were able to see the docking port. The fuel consumption had been very low and the SIRT indicated that there still was 463 KG available. Padalka reported that he did not want to wait and that he was about to approach and dock. At 06.02.30 UTC the distance to Mir was 15 M.

    Traffic during the pass in orbit 71521, 0731-0741 UTC, made it clear that the redocking had been successful. The cosmonauts were back on board of Mir. They switched back on all the systems they had switched off before the operation. An air hose had been deployed from the base block to the Soyuz-TM28 and they started the conservation of that ship. During the following passes these activities were still going on.

    The new crew: This crew, that of the 26th Mir Main Expedition, presents themselves as if they already were on board for months. Every time I am surprised that cosmonauts making their first spaceflight very quickly adjust themselves to the new situation and demonstrate that they fully have things in hand. Those who selected and trained these cosmonauts did their work well. (This time Padalka is making his first flight, Avdeyev his 3rd.)

    Altair-2:

    On 13.08.1998 something went wrong with this geostationary satellite over 16 degrees West. During the transfer of data of the relaksatsiya experiment from Mir to TsUP the antenna actuator failed. The communications stopped for the antenna of Altair-2 was no longer aimed at the ground station Shcholkovo near Moscow. A provisional damage assessment seems to justify the conclusion that Altair-2 might be lost.

    Luch-1/Gelios (95054A - 23680): This relay satellite is placed over 77 degrees East. After the launch on 11.10.1995 it was reported that this satellite would be used for the data , telephony and Television relays for Russian manned space flight. Observers in Eastern Europe who can 'see' this satellite better than we in the west, reported that they never heard or saw anything from that object. Just like Altair-2 Luch-1 has been registered as a military satellite.

    Unbelievably soon after the failure of Altair-2 the Russians inserted Luch-1 in the communications chain for Mir -TsUP traffic. After a test communication in the morning of 15.08.1998 the first regular relay of phone and TV between Mir and TsUP could be realised some orbits later. The Russian Television complex Ostankino in Moscow serves as tracking station for Luch-1.

    Ostankino is able to handle phone and TV relays to and from Mir, but modifications have to be implemented to do the same with Telemetry (and possibly Packet Radio).

    For spacewalks (EVA's), docking and descent operations the position over 16 degrees West is better than that over 77 degrees East. Also NASA preferred 16 degrees West during Phase 1 of Shuttle/Mir and after the failure of Altair-1 in the beginning of 1997 they asked the Russians to transfer Altair-2 from 96 degrees East to 16 degrees West.

    More about communications:

    I just have learned that the Mir voice relay sites at NASA's bases in the US will remain in operation, at NASA's expense, per a decision by Frank Culbertson to demonstrate US generosity.

    The loss of Altair-2 means that the amount of information monitored by me will decrease. I now am depending on that what I can monitor via the VHF-channels.

    For some weeks the Russians have problems with the transfer of radiograms by Packet Radio via the service frequencies. Probably the problem has something to with the uplink from a number of tracking stations in Russia. In this period they use for the transfer of radiograms the old RTTY system.

    There are no problems with the Packet Radio in the radio-amateur band. Recently they used the 145.985 mc for that purpose, but now they regularly can be heard on 145.940 mc.

    Progress-M39:

    The redocking of this freighter was scheduled for 29.08.1998 but has been put back. Now this operation is now planned for 1.09.1998. Based on calculations I think that this will take place at about 0400 UTC. The plan is to execute the approach and docking in the automatic mode by the system Kurs, but Padalka and Avdeyev prepared the TORU, the remote control system for eventual use. Padalka will be ready to take over manually if necessary and maybe he has a chance to earn his 3rd manual docking bonus. For us in Western Europe the elevation during the pass in which the objects are in range during the final phase of the approach (orb. Mir 71596, 0350-0353 UTC) is only 1 degree.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 August 30 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Astra 2A - . Payload: HS 601HP. Mass: 3,626 kg (7,993 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25462 . COSPAR: 1998-050A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    The first burn of the Proton's Block DM3 put the spacecraft into a 220 x 36,007 km x 51.6 deg transfer orbit. Astra 2A satellite was a Hughes HS-601, owned by Societe Europeene de Satellites, based in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has not registered any of the Astra satellites with the United Nations, in violation of treaty requirements. Geostationary at 28.3 degrees E. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 28.21 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.20E drifting at 0.028W degrees per day.


1998 August 31 - .
  • North Korea fires missile across Japan - . Nation: Japan.

1998 August 31 - . 03:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Gitdaeryung. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Paektusan 1. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Kwangmyongsong 1 - . Nation: Korea North. Agency: Choson. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Kwangmyongsong.

    North Korea reported the launch of its first satellite on the first of September. This announcement was followed on September 14 by the release of a photograph of the satellite and the claim that the satellite had completed its 100th orbit of the earth between 08:24 and 11:17 local time (2017 GMT) on September 13. Video of the launch, the satellite, and an animation of the satellite in orbit around the earth were distributed to foreign news agencies the following weekend. The satellite appeared almost identical to the first Chinese test satellite (which itself appeared almost identical to the US Telstar).

    Despite these claims no foreign observer ever detected the satellite visually, by radar, or picked up its radio signals. The Pentagon at first claimed it was an ICBM launch, and that the satellite story was just a cover for the test. However on further analysis of the data collected on the launch they admitted nearly a month later that there had been some a satellite launch attempt. What seems to have happened is that the third stage either failed and fell into the Pacific or misfired and put the satellite into a low orbit where it decayed very quickly before it could be detected by foreign observers. Additional Details: here....


1998 September 1 - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Complex: Mojave.
  • Proteus roll-out. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: SpaceShip. Spacecraft: Spaceship One. Scaled Composites (Mojave, California, USA) rolls out and tests Proteus aircraft, predecessor of White Knight carrier-launcher for Tier One/SpaceShipOne..

1998 September 2 - .
  • Russian Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 12 Supplemental selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shargin.

1998 September 7 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: MT-135.
  • Ozone Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1998 September 8 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10C.
  • Iridium 82 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV082. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25467 . COSPAR: 1998-051A. Apogee: 712 km (442 mi). Perigee: 708 km (439 mi). Inclination: 86.5000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Plane 6. Ascending node 325.6 degrees. Not in service..
  • Iridium 77 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV077. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25471 . COSPAR: 1998-051E. Apogee: 709 km (440 mi). Perigee: 707 km (439 mi). Inclination: 86.5200 deg. Period: 98.96 min. Plane 6. Ascending node 325.4 degrees. Not in service..
  • Iridium 79 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV079. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. Decay Date: 2000-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 25470 . COSPAR: 1998-051D. Apogee: 544 km (338 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 86.0100 deg. Period: 95.01 min. Plane 6. Ascending node 316.3 degrees. Failed in low orbit..
  • Iridium 80 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV080. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25469 . COSPAR: 1998-051C. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 6. Ascending node 325.7 degrees..
  • Iridium 81 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV081. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25468 . COSPAR: 1998-051B. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 6. Ascending node 325.7 degrees..

1998 September 9 - . 20:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2 11K77.05. FAILURE: Computer error caused a very premature engine shutdown during second stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
1998 September 11 - .
  • Death of Rudolf Friederich Franz Minning - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Minning. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1998 September 14 - .
  • Mir News 438: Mir-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27.

    After the return of the freighter Progress-M39, the cosmonauts were able to execute a number of experiments. From 1 until 3.09.98 they worked on geophysical, astrophysical and medical experiments. During the geophysical experiments they used the lidar Alisa. Apart from medical experiments the cosmonauts also underwent routine check-ups of their cardiovascular system.

    In this period, but also thereafter, not much was reported about technical failures. Now and then the CO2 scrubber, Vozdukh, in the Base Block received extra attention and the BKV-3, the a.c., was less capricious and mostly functioned without hiccups after it had been switched off and on some times. The internal pressure of the system remained the problem.

    Communications:

    Meanwhile the passes of the Mir-complex for Western Europe shifted to the night. So not much radio traffic can be monitored. Observers in Finland and Sweden confirmed that Luch-1/Gelios is used for Russian manned spaceflight and produces very strong signals. To be able to do somewhat with those signals they have to do a lot of experimental work before they can do with Luch-1 what we could do with Altair-1 and later on with Altair-2. One of them has a dish with a diameter of 3.5 Meter and via a channel not in use for Mir-TsUP traffic, he produced nice pictures of a Proton launch relayed by Luch-1/Gelios.

    Radio-amateurism:

    Until 2.09.98 the 145.940 mc was in use for Packet Radio. As of 2.09 Packet Radio they use 145.985 mc again.

    1st Spacewalk (internal Spacewalk) crew Main Expedition Mir nr. 26:

    After 3.09.98 most attention of the cosmonauts was dedicated to the preparations for the Internal spacewalk scheduled for half September. Until 15.09.98 the crew used some days to check spacesuits and equipment, but also to prepare the complicated procedures in relation to the disconnection of cables in order to close some hatches of the P.Kh.O. during the IVA. The internal spacewalk (IVA) inside the module Spektr will be executed in the night from 15 to 16.09.98. The IVA will last approx. 3 hrs, but the times still have to be confirmed. Possibly the hatch between the P.Kh.O. (transition section) and Spektr will be opened on 15.09.1998 at 2100 UTC. Radio traffic during the preparations and the IVA itself will be handled via the Eastern tracking stations in Russia and the Luch-1/Gelios satellite. During some small windows radio communications might be monitored in Western Europe during the first passes of the Mir-complex, to begin with that in orbit 71828, 2247-2255 UTC.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 September 15 - . 20:00 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-26-1 - . Crew: Avdeyev, Padalka. EVA Duration: 0.0208 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev, Padalka. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir.

    Internal Vehicular Activity. After donning spacesuits, the PKhO compartment of the Mir core module was depressurized and the crew entered the dead Spektr module at 20:00 GMT. They reconnected some cables for the solar panel steering mechanism and closed the hatch a half hour later. The PKhO was then repressurized.


1998 September 16 - . 06:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Panamsat 7 - . Payload: PAS 7. Mass: 3,838 kg (8,461 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Panamsat. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Program: Panamsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 25473 . COSPAR: 1998-052A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 68.7 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 68 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 68.68 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 68.67E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day..

1998 September 16 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 September 17 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1998 September 18 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • GRP-IDF-2 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1998 September 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SOAREX-1 Hypersonic test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 September 21 - . 14:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-560/300 Mk II.
  • DEOS F07 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: DLR, ISRO. Apogee: 425 km (264 mi).

1998 September 23 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: RW04/22. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL/HAPS.
  • Orbcomm C1 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM21. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25475 . COSPAR: 1998-053A. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 181.6 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm C4 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM24. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25478 . COSPAR: 1998-053D. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 814 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 181.7 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm C8 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM28. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25482 . COSPAR: 1998-053H. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0300 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 181.7 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm C2 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM22. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25476 . COSPAR: 1998-053B. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 814 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 178 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm C3 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM23. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25477 . COSPAR: 1998-053C. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 181.8 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm C7 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM27. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25481 . COSPAR: 1998-053G. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 181.6 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm C5 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM25. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25479 . COSPAR: 1998-053E. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 181.5 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..
  • Orbcomm C6 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM26. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 25480 . COSPAR: 1998-053F. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 811 km (503 mi). Inclination: 45.0100 deg. Period: 101.27 min. Plane C. Ascending node 181.5 degrees. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..

1998 September 24 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC32. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Storm-2.
  • MTTV/MTD-3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC, US Army. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1998 September 25 - .
  • Death of Abraham Hyatt - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hyatt. American engineer. Navy chief aeronautics scientist, 1948-1958. Director positions at NASA, 1959-1964. After 1965 corporated director at NA..

1998 September 26 - .
1998 September 28 - . 15:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-560/300 Mk II.
  • DEOS F06 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: DLR, ISRO. Apogee: 422 km (262 mi).

1998 September 28 - . 23:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-1T - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,656 kg (3,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 25485 . COSPAR: 1998-054A. Apogee: 38,755 km (24,081 mi). Perigee: 1,599 km (993 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

1998 September 30 - . Launch Site: Grand Forks AFB.
  • 321st Missile Group at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota, inactivated as part of the ICBM drawdown. - . Nation: USA.

1998 October 3 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Taurus. Launch Vehicle: ARPA Taurus.
  • STEX - . Payload: STEX. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Manufacturer: NRL. Class: Technology. Type: Ion engine technology satellite. Spacecraft: STEX. USAF Sat Cat: 25489 . COSPAR: 1998-055A. Apogee: 759 km (472 mi). Perigee: 744 km (462 mi). Inclination: 84.9859 deg. Period: 99.77 min.

    Tested TAL-D55 plasma engine and was to be part of the NRO's ATex tether experiment. The ATeX lower end mass was meant to remain attached to the STEX parent spacecraft, but with only 21 m of tether deployed, it appeared the tether was so far off vertical that automatic safety systems jettisoned the base to protect the remainder of the STEX satellite. Thus, the upper and lower ATeX end masses were in orbit as one object connected by a 21 m tether, and designated USA 141 (1998-055C). The main STEX satellite was in orbit as a separate object, 1998-055A.

  • USA 141 - . Payload: ATEX. Mass: 54 kg (119 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: TiPS. USAF Sat Cat: 25615 . COSPAR: 1998-055C. Apogee: 766 km (476 mi). Perigee: 750 km (466 mi). Inclination: 84.9910 deg. Period: 99.90 min.

    NRO's ATeX (Advanced Tether eXperiment) reportedly failed on January 16. The ATeX lower end mass was meant to remain attached to the STEX parent spacecraft, but with only 21 m of tether deployed, it appeared the tether was so far off vertical that automatic safety systems jettisoned the base to protect the remainder of the STEX satellite. Thus, the upper and lower ATeX end masses were in orbit as one object connected by a 21 m tether, and designated USA 141 (1998-055C). The main STEX satellite was in orbit as a separate object, 1998-055A.


1998 October 5 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Eutelsat W2 - . Payload: Spacebus 3000B2. Mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 25491 . COSPAR: 1998-056A. Apogee: 36,086 km (22,422 mi). Perigee: 36,056 km (22,404 mi). Inclination: 1.7000 deg. Period: 1,450.70 min. Geostationary at 16.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 16.17 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 16.01E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..
  • Sirius 3 - . Payload: Sirius 3. Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: NSAB. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Sirius. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25492 . COSPAR: 1998-056B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geostationary at 23.5 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 1998-1999; 5 deg E in 2000.- As of 5 September 2001 located at 5.04 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 4.97E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.


1998 October 7 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 October 7 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: FFAR.
  • Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1998 October 9 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. Launch Pad: SLC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • Hot Bird 5 - . Payload: Eurostar 2000+. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Eutelsat . Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25495 . COSPAR: 1998-057A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary at 10.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 12.97 deg E drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 25.56E drifting at 0.014W degrees per day..

1998 October 11 - .
  • Mir News 441: Mir-reporting - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27.

    During the last weeks the frequency in which my MirNEWS-es appeared decreased a little bit. Main causes of this reduction were the loss of the geostationary communication satellite Altair-2 as an information source, and the fact that Mir-passes merely took place during the night hours. So the VHF-passes, on which I now can only depend did not give much information. Meanwhile Mir is passing again during the evening and afternoon, and the amount of communications has considerably increased. Fortunately sufficient information can be derived from VHF communications and so my work remains to be meaningful. In fact I did not have the Altair-facilities before 1992 and after the installation of an own dish for those communications in 1994 there have been long periods in which the satellite was not available. After the drop out of Altair-1 in the beginning of 1997, due to an attitude problem bringing that satellite in a sun-pointing position, I had to wait until that summer when the Altair-2 was replaced from 96 degrees East to 16 degrees West.

    Mir-routine:

    During the full period after my previous MirNEWS (440) , TsUP and the crew regularly discussed problems regarding the oxygen production for Mir's mini atmosphere. Every day the cosmonauts were engaged in the functioning of the Elektron oxygen generators. These systems did not fail, but it was clear that the crew did not trust the automatic functioning of them, and took over manually at every given moment. The crew did not have problems with the BKV-3, the air conditioner. Recently this system showed glitches when the cosmonauts switched it on.

    On 3.10.1998 the attitude control was discussed. There was no failure, the crew spoke about the SUD (system for control of movements). From the given commands and the use of the indication Quaternion (a coefficient of 2 vectors) could be derived that for a while the attitude was not under control by the gyrodynes. Possibly a reset operation took place. Regularly the gyrodynes have to be reset to the starting point.

    On 5.10.1998 TsUP told the crew that there had been a session of the Contract Commission. The session was a rather tumultuous one, because among other things they discussed problems experienced by the previous expedition (Musabayev and Budarin). The man at TsUP evaluated the results of that session as 'favourable'. Somebody of that commission (possibly named Rodionov) had ordered TsUP to pass on to the present Mir-crew that the 'leadership was highly pleased with the work of the crew'. If Padalka and Avdeyev might have problems they immediately could pass these to him. The man had also promised to follow radio-communications as much as possible.

    On 6.10.1998 Avdeyev discussed with TsUP an audio measurement experiment. In the beginning this was not so successful, this in contrary to the execution of the same experiment in the past. Avdeyev just started the adjustment of parameters and later discussions made it clear that the experiment was running well. Padalka asked for an advice about the Holter experiment (an American cardio-vascular experiment).

    On 7.10.1998 the same audio experiment (possibly Intrazvuk) was accomplished. That day the cosmonauts discussed the inventory of the French experiments on board Mir.

    On 8.10.1998 the cosmonauts showed a great interest in the protest demonstrations which had taken place the day before. It was clear that they agreed 100% the demands of the demonstrators. TsUP gave a short report about the demonstrations, the numbers of the participants (more than our media told us), the many red (communist) and blue (trade-union) flags and the fact that even army chiefs were there. Padalka asked the man at TsUP if he had received his salary. The man said that he had indeed received it.

    On 9.10.1998 there was some confusion about a number of Telemetry connections. The data of some life system channels did not reach TsUP and TsUP was not able to give commands and data inquiries via the 'uplink'. The cosmonauts repeatedly interchanged a number of connections and thus solved the problem. TsUP supposed that the problem was caused during the expedition of Solovyov and Vinogradov.

    On 10.10.1998 TsUP spoke about the possibility that the CO2 amount in Mir's atmosphere was too high. Telemetry gave a value of 5.9. Padalka said that nothing was wrong and that they still felt excellent. Avdeyev checked the Vozdukh CO-2 filter and did not find anomalies. Later the value had been increased to 6.0 and the crew took counter measures by using ventilators to blow the air through the whole complex. This did not help. To decrease the CO2 amount the crew got orders to adjust the Vozdukh scrubber in the Base Block.

    Progress-M40:

    In MirNEWS.440 the possibility of the delay of the launch of this freighter had been reported. Meanwhile there has been confirmed that the launch has been put back from 15.10 to 25.10.1998 due to funding problems. The launch on 25.10, a Sunday, was chosen for ballistic reasons.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 October 14 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1998 October 15 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1998 October 20 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA.
  • USA 140 - . Payload: UHF F/O F9. Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: UHF. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25501 . COSPAR: 1998-058A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 3.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    The orbit at burnout of the Centaur was 286 km x 25866 km x 27.0 degree. Modification of the orbit to a geostationary 38,300 km circular x 0.0 degree inclination was accomplished by the Marquardt R-4D liquid propellant motor on the HS-601 spacecraft. The satellite carried UHF and EHF transponders for naval communications, and a Ka-band Global Broadcast Service video relay package. Launch mass of 3200 kg dropped to 1550 kg once geostationary orbit was reached. UHF F/O F9 was placed over the Atlantic Ocean in geosynchronous orbit at 174 deg W in 1998; 22 deg W in 1999. Additional Details: here....


1998 October 21 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G.
  • Maqsat 3 - . Nation: France. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Kayser-Threde. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MAQSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25503 . COSPAR: 1998-059A. Apogee: 35,491 km (22,053 mi). Perigee: 1,017 km (631 mi). Inclination: 7.5000 deg. Period: 641.20 min.

    Maqsat 3 was an instrumentation package used to monitor performance of the Ariane 5 booster. At T+12:43 the Speltra adapter cover separated revealing Maqsat-3. At T+15:14 the EPS stage Aestus engine ignited and burned until T+31:00. At this point on a normal mission the satellite would separate from the EPS, but to avoid creating space debris Maqsat remained attached to the EPS. The EPS/Maqsat-3 was placed in a 1027 km x 35863 km x 7.0 degree geostationary transfer orbit.

  • ARD - . Payload: Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator. Nation: France. Agency: Arianespace. Program: ISS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ARD. COSPAR: 1998-059S.

    The ARD was an 80 percent scale model of the Apollo Command Module, and a technology test for a possible International Space Station Crew Rescue Vehicle. Equipment included a TDRS satellite communications system; a GPS navigation system; 7 DASA 40 kgf hydrazine attitude control thrusters; a 2.8 m diameter heat shield; three 23 metre diameter parachutes, and a SARSAT recovery beacon. The ARD separated from the Ariane EPS upper stage at 12 minutes 2 seconds after launch. ARD and the EPC stage manoeuvred into a 1 km x 830 km orbit, guaranteeing re-entry at the end of the first orbit. The spacecraft splashed down in the Pacific at 3.69 degrees N, 153.35 degrees W, and was successfully recovered by the French Navy.


1998 October 22 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1998 October 23 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.3 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus H.
  • SCD-2 - . Mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: McLean. Manufacturer: INPE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SCD. USAF Sat Cat: 25504 . COSPAR: 1998-060A. Apogee: 760 km (470 mi). Perigee: 736 km (457 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg. Period: 99.80 min.

    Brazil's SCD-2 satellite was aboard Orbital Science's L-1011 Stargazer aircraft when it took off from the Cape Canaveral Air Station's Skid Strip (Runway 02/20, 28.2N 80.6W) at 23:05 GMT on Oct 22 and flew to the drop zone near Cape Canaveral (in the Mayport, Florida, Warning Area) at 29.0N 78.3W. The Pegasus ignited 5 seconds after drop. The first stage carried a NASA experiment attached to its right wing, to study hypersonic boundary layer separation. The 115 kg Satelite de Coleta de Dados (Data Collection Satellite) relays data from environmental monitoring stations. Air dropped in Mayport DZ.


1998 October 24 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7326-9.5.
  • Deep Space 1 - . Mass: 486 kg (1,071 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: JPL. Class: Asteroids. Type: Asteroid probe. Spacecraft: Deep Space 1. USAF Sat Cat: 25508 . COSPAR: 1998-061A.

    The primary mission of Deep Space 1 probe was to test new technology for future interplanetary spacecraft, the main experiment being an ion propulsion engine using xenon propellant. It had an initial mass of 486.3 kg, including 81.5 kg of Xenon and 31.1 kg of hydrazine propellants. The Delta 7326 used three Alliant GEM-40 solid strap-on motors, the standard Delta II core vehicle, and a Thiokol Star 37FM solid motor as the third stage. The Delta second stage entered a 185 km parking orbit, then fired again to enter a 174 km x 2744 km x 28.5 degree orbit. The Star 37FM then separated and accelerated to place Deep Space 1 to escape velocity. Deep Space 1 successfully started its ion engine on November 24 after an initial attempt failed after four minutes on November 10. From its initial solar orbit of 0.99 AU x 1.32 AU x 0.4 degree, Deep Space 1 was to fly past the 3 km diameter asteroid 1992 KD at its perihelion of 1.33 AU. The spacecraft then flew past the nucleus of comet 19P/Borrelly at a distance of 2200 km at 2230 GMT on Sep 22 2001. It survived the encounter in good shape, sending back photos of the comet. At the encounter DS1 was in a 1.3 x 1.5 AU x 0 deg (ecliptic) solar orbit; Borrelly's orbit was 1.3 x 5.9 AU.

  • SEDSAT 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Boeing. Manufacturer: SEDS. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SEDSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25509 . COSPAR: 1998-061B. Apogee: 1,050 km (650 mi). Perigee: 544 km (338 mi). Inclination: 31.4000 deg. Period: 100.80 min.

    Following separation of the third stage and the primary Deep Space 1 payload, the Delta second stage manoeuvred from its 185 km parking orbit to a 174 km x 2744 km x 28.5 degree orbit. It then released the SEDSAT micro-satellite, built by the Huntsville, Alabama chapter of SEDS (the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space). SEDSAT has two amateur radio transponders and an earth imaging camera.


1998 October 25 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-40 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 239. Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 103.25 days. Decay Date: 1999-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25512 . COSPAR: 1998-062A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.63 min.

    Docked with the rear (+X, Kvant) docking port of the Mir station on October 27. Delivered fuel, dry cargo, and the Znamya-2.5 solar illumination experiment. This was a follow-on to the earlier Znamya-2 experiment on Progress M-15 in 1992. The 25 m diameter Znamya reflector, which would unfold from the nose of the Progress, was to reflect sunlight over a 6 km area onto selected cities. Znamya-2.5 was developed by the Space Regatta Consortium, led by RKK Energia. Energia had long studied such space mirrors as a means of providing lighting to Siberian towns. The project was opposed by environmentalists and astronomers, who feared light pollution. Progress M-40 undocked on February 4, 1999 at 09:59 GMT, but the attempted deployment of the Znamya-2.5 reflector was thwarted when it snagged on a rendezvous system antenna. After two more failed attempts to deploy the antenna the experiment was abandoned. Progress M-40 fired its engines at 10:16 GMT on February 5, braked out of orbit, and burned up over the Pacific Ocean.

  • Spoutnik-41 - . Nation: France. Agency: ACF, VVS. Manufacturer: AFR. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: PS Model. Decay Date: 1999-01-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 25533 . COSPAR: 1998-062C. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 313 km (194 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg.

    On a space walk from Mir on November 10, Padalka and Avdeyev hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio mini-satellite at around 19:30 GMT. Spoutnik-41, also designated RS-18, was another scale model of the first satellite, Sputnik 1, launched 41 years ago. It carried a small transmitter and was sponsored by Aero Club de France, AMSAT-France, and the Astronautical Federation of Russia. A similar model was launched in 1997 for the fortieth anniversary of Sputnik. On that occasion, two flight models were carried to Mir but only one was launched. The second Spoutnik-40 flight model was still aboard Mir as of 1998. The second Spoutnik-40 would perhaps be deployed prior to the abandonment of Mir in 1999.


1998 October 27 - .
  • Mir News 444: Progress-M40 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27.

    This freighter linked up with the Mir-space station on 27.10.1998 at 05.43.42 UTC. Approach and docking were executed in the automatic mode with the system Kurs. During the pass for my position (the Hague) could be heard how the cosmonauts observed the approaching Progress-M40. They also took images with the LIV camera. At the beginning of this pass (in orb. Mir.72476) from 0530-0537 UTC the distance to Mir's aft docking port was 152 Meters, at LOS this distance was approx. 113 Meters. A calm Padalka regularly reported that all was going well. During this pass the beacon transmitter of Progress-M40 on 922.755 mc could be heard, so obviously this transmitter does not interfere with the Kurs transponders.

    During the next pass in orb. 72477, 0702-0712 UTC, it was clear that the docking had been a success and that the hatches to the Progress-M40 already were open. These had been opened between 0620 and 0630 UTC. The crew enjoyed a nice wintry smell of the air which reached them from the Progress-M40. The cosmonauts already had installed the protection caps and TsUP gave them permission to load some orientation commands in the control computer. They also loaded commands for the aiming of the ONA (the narrow beam antenna for contact with the geostationary satellite). This had something to do with the fact that communications via Luch-1/Gelios had not been satisfactory. The cosmonauts also started unloading the Progress-M40.

    Communications:

    During passes of Progress-M40 on 26.10.1998 the transmitters in the 166, 165 and 922.755 mc bands easily could be monitored.

    Radio-amateur equipment:

    TsUP reported that the mini-sputnik, almost the same as the Sputnik-40 and the promised gear for SSTV experiment could not be transported to Mir with this Progress-M. Other items, for instance the experiments for the French- and Slovak expeditions and a French device for the measurement of meteorite streams had a higher priority.

    2nd Spacewalk (EVA), (the 1st one was an IVA, the internal spacewalk in the Spektr):

    The French sensors for the detection of meteorites must be installed at the outer surface of the Mir-complex. This EVA was put forward to have this experiment operational during the Leonid meteorites around 17.11.1998. The EVA will be made in the night from 10 to 11.11.1998 and will last approx. 5 hours. A second task during this EVA will be the dismantling and retrieving of Russian experiments from outside.

    Progress-M39:

    This old freighter undocked from Mir on 25.10.1998 at 23.03.24 UTC. Indeed the Russians manoeuvred a lot with this ship after the undocking. The ship flawlessly responded on steering commands and the crew made video-images and measurements with spectrometers. On 29.10.1998 at about 0630 UTC deorbit impulses will be given for burning up over a designated area in the Pacific East of New Zealand.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 October 28 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Afristar - . Payload: Eurostar 2000+. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Worldspace. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: WorldSpace. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25515 . COSPAR: 1998-063A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Afristar was the first WorldSpace satellite. Afristar was to broadcast digital radio over Africa and the Middle East. Small hand-held radios could pick up the 24 to 96 radio channels available on the three L-band beams. Dry mass of Afristar was 1205 kg; it carried 1534 kg of propellant at launch. Geostationary at 21.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 21 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 20.98 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 20.98E drifting at 0.010W degrees per day.

  • GE 5 - . Mass: 1,720 kg (3,790 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GE Americom. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25516 . COSPAR: 1998-063B. Apogee: 35,808 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Satellite was originally built as a backup for Argentina's Nahuelsat. This allowed Dornier and Alcatel to deliver the satellite in a record twelve months. Dry mass of GE 5 was 769 kg - it carried 950 kg of propellant at launch. Geostationary at 36.4 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 79 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 79.00 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.99W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.


1998 October 29 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-95 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Lindsey, Mukai, Parazynski, Robinson. Payload: Discovery F25. Mass: 116,884 kg (257,685 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Lindsey, Mukai, Parazynski, Robinson. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-95. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.91 days. Decay Date: 1998-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 25519 . COSPAR: 1998-064A. Apogee: 557 km (346 mi). Perigee: 536 km (333 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 95.60 min.

    The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years, due to the presence of ex-astronaut Senator John Glenn on the crew, which also included the first Spanish astronaut, Pedro Duque. The US Navy PANSAT student satellite was deployed on Oct 30 into a 550 km x 561 x 28.5 degree orbit. The Spartan 201 satellite was deployed from Discovery on November 1 and retrieved on November 3. Spartan 201 was on its fifth mission to observe the solar corona. The data on this mission would be used to recalibrate the SOHO satellite which recently resumed observation of the Sun following loss of control. Discovery landed at 17:03:31 GMT November 7 on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center.

  • Spacehab - . Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1981-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 25519 . COSPAR: 1998-064xx. Apogee: 560 km (340 mi). Perigee: 550 km (340 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 95.75 min.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1998-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 25521 . COSPAR: 1998-064C. Apogee: 560 km (340 mi). Perigee: 549 km (341 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 95.74 min. Retrieved by Discovery November 3 1998..

1998 October 30 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 03 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Lindsey, Mukai, Parazynski, Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Discovery's astronauts will spend their first full day in space supporting wide-ranging activities, from releasing a small communications satellite to studying the behavior of materials at an atomic level.. Additional Details: here....

1998 October 30 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: What a Wonderful World - . Flight: STS-95. "What a Wonderful World" Louis Armstrong. Played for Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski from his wife, Gail. CAPCOM: Mike Gernhardt.

1998 October 31 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 05 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Mukai, Parazynski. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95. Medical investigations will begin in earnest today as Discovery's crew moves forward with research comparing the changes the human body goes through when making trips into orbit with the changes that occur as part of the natural aging process on Earth.. Additional Details: here....

1998 October 31 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: Cachito - . Flight: STS-95. "Cachito" Nat King Cole. This song about parenthood was directed to Pedro Duque and his wife, Consuelo, who recently has a baby. CAPCOM: Mike Gernhardt.

1998 November 1 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Glenn, Lindsey, Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95.

    Chris Rice's "Hallelujahs" awakened Discovery's seven astronauts at 6:35 a.m. Central time today to begin their fourth day of science activities. The song was requested by pilot Steve Lindsey's wife, Diane. Today's primary activity will be deployment at 1:03 p.m. CST this afternoon of the Spartan solar physics satellite, which will fly free of Discovery for two days studying the outer layers of the sun's atmosphere. Additional Details: here....


1998 November 1 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: This Pretty Planet - . Flight: STS-95. "This Pretty Planet" Tom Chapin requested by pilot Steve Lindsay's wife Diane And/or"Hallelujahs" by Chris Rice. CAPCOM: Mike Gernhardt.

1998 November 2 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: Moon River - . Flight: STS-95. "Moon River" Andy Williams. Annie Glenn requested it as a tribute to the friendship between Williams and her husband. CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 November 2 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SOPHIE (NCAR / CU-7) Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 November 3 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Lindsey, Mukai, Parazynski, Robinson. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95.

    The SPARTAN satellite was captured and returned to its berth this afternoon, successfully completing its two-day solar science mission. SPARTAN Mission Manager Craig Toohey congratulated the crew and flight control team on their performance in executing the mission exactly as planned. Toohey said that 30 percent of the science data already had been linked to the ground and the remainder would be off-loaded at landing. SPARTAN Scientist Dr. Richard Fisher noted that investigators were pleased to have the satellite in orbit near a solar maximum cycle and that its instruments had captured sought-after data on a solar mass ejection event. Additional Details: here....


1998 November 3 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: The House is Rockin' - . Flight: STS-95. "The House is Rockin'" Stevie Ray Vaughn. In honor of Mission Specialist Steve Robinson known as"Stevie Ray Robinson" by other members of his astronaut band,"Max Q" CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 November 4 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: Wakaki Chi - . Flight: STS-95. "Wakaki Chi" ("Young Spirit") a cheering song from Keio University where Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai received her medical degree. CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 November 4 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Panamsat 8 - . Payload: PAS 8. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Panamsat. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Program: Panamsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 25522 . COSPAR: 1998-065A. Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    The Proton launch vehicles Block DM3 fourth stage put the Panamsat PAS 8 into a 6784 km x 35941 km x 17.3 degree transfer orbit. PAS 8 had 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders and was to be located over the Pacific after its R-4D apogee engine manoeuvred the orbit to geostationary altitude and inclination. Geostationary at 166.1 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 166 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 166.05 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 165.96E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.


1998 November 5 - .
  • ait launch from Kodiak Launch Center - . Nation: USA.

    The USAF conducted the launch of the ait (atmospheric interceptor technology) suborbital rocket, marking the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Center in Alaska. During the 16-minute flight, the vehicle flew a trajectory that reached an altitude of about 730 km and traveled approximately 1,600 km downrange, landing in the Pacific Ocean west of Seattle, Washington.


1998 November 5 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: I Know You're Out There Somewhere - . Flight: STS-95. "I Know You're Out There Somewhere" The Moody Blues. Chosen by Commander Curt Brown's family. CAPCOM: Scott Horowitz.

1998 November 6 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: Voyage Into Space - . Flight: STS-95. "Voyage Into Space" , an original composition written for John Glenn by composer and pianist Peter Nero, a long-time friend of the Glenns. CAPCOM: Scott Horowitz.

1998 November 6 - . 01:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kodiak. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Juno test vehicle.
  • ait-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC, USAF. Apogee: 715 km (444 mi).

1998 November 6 - . 13:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10C.
  • Iridium 2 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV087. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25527 . COSPAR: 1998-066A. Apogee: 603 km (374 mi). Perigee: 590 km (360 mi). Inclination: 85.6000 deg. Period: 96.60 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 289.1 degrees. Parking orbit..
  • Iridium 83 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV083. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25531 . COSPAR: 1998-066E. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294.2 degrees..
  • Iridium 84 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV084. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25530 . COSPAR: 1998-066D. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 294.1 degrees. Raising orbit..
  • Iridium 85 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV085. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. Decay Date: 2000-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 25529 . COSPAR: 1998-066C. Apogee: 536 km (333 mi). Perigee: 512 km (318 mi). Inclination: 86.0200 deg. Period: 95.12 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 291.1 degrees. Parking orbit..
  • Iridium 86 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV086. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25528 . COSPAR: 1998-066B. Apogee: 712 km (442 mi). Perigee: 708 km (439 mi). Inclination: 86.5000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Plane 5. Ascending node 293.9 degrees. Raising orbit..

1998 November 7 - .
  • STS-95 Mission Status Report # 19 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duque, Ross. Program: STS. Flight: STS-95.

    The seven astronauts aboard Space Shuttle Discovery were awakened at 3:09 a.m. this morning to make final preparations for their return to Earth later this morning. "La Cucaracha," a well-known Spanish song, was played for Mission Specialist Pedro Duque at the request of his wife, Consuelo. Additional Details: here....


1998 November 7 - .
  • STS-95 - Wakeup Song: La Cucaracha - . Flight: STS-95. "La Cucaracha" . Played for Pedro Duque at request of his wife, Consuelo. CAPCOM: Scott Horowitz.

1998 November 7 - .
1998 November 10 - .
  • Death of William E 'Bill' Zisch - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Zisch. American business manager of Aerojet, 1942-1966. No college degree or scientific training, but he led Aerojet from five employees to $700 million annual sales of JATO, Polaris, Aerobee, Delta, Titan, Apollo SPS, M-1 and Nerva rocket engines..

1998 November 11 - . 19:23 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-26-2 - . Crew: Avdeyev, Padalka. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev, Padalka. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir.

    Padalka and Avdeyev made the EVA from the Kvant-2 airlock on the Mir. The walk began at 19:24 GMT. The cosmonauts installed a meteoroid detector in for the upcoming Leonid shower, and hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio mini-satellite. The space walk concluded at 01:18 GMT on November 11.


1998 November 16 - .
  • ISS Status Report 1 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Currie, Newman, Ross. Program: ISS.

    With the first component of the International Space Station encapsulated in its nose fairing, a 180-foot long Russian Proton rocket was transported to its launch pad at dawn today at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakstan in preparation for liftoff Friday to begin assembly of the new complex. Additional Details: here....


1998 November 18 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1998 November 18 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: TR-1. Launch Vehicle: TR-1A.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1998 November 19 - .
  • China Astronaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Chen Quan, Deng Qingming, Fei Junlong, Jing Haipeng, Liu Buoming, Liu Wang, Nie Haisheng, Pan Zhanchun, Yang Liwei, Zhai Zhigang, Zhang Xiaoguang, Zhao Chuandong.

    Selection of astronauts to fly the Project 921 / Shenzhou manned spacecraft began at the end of 1995. Only PLAAF pilots were considered. Review of service records identified 1504 candidates, further reduced to 886 after stricter screening. In the summer of 1996, 60 candidates passed initial testing at their home bases and were sent to Beijing for final tests and interviews. By April 1997 the candidate list had been pared down to 20, and the final 12 were selected at the end of 1997. The group was officially established in January 1998. In March, 1998, the two Chinese astronauts trained in Russia in 1996, who were also the trainers of this first group of 12 cosmonauts, joined the group officially as candidates for future spaceflights, bringing the total to 14.


1998 November 20 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: M56A1.
  • TTV-1 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SMDC. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1998 November 20 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Zarya - . Payload: FGB 77KM s/n 175-01. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: ISS Zarya. USAF Sat Cat: 25544 . COSPAR: 1998-067A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 374 km (232 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min.

    This was the first launch in the assembly of the International Space Station. The Zarya FGB was funded by NASA and built by Khrunichev in Moscow under subcontract from Boeing for NASA. Its design from the TKS military station resupply spacecraft of the 1970’s and the later 77KS Mir modules. Zarya included a multiple docking adapter, a pressurised cabin section, and a propulsion/instrument section with a rear docking port. Initial orbit was 176 lm x 343 km x 51.6 degrees. By November 25 it had manoeuvred to a 383 km x 396 km x 51.7 degree orbit, awaiting the launch of Shuttle mission STS-88 which docked the Unity node to it.

  • Radioscaf-B - . Payload: Suitsat. Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Krechet. Spacecraft: Orlan. Decay Date: 2012-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 37772 . COSPAR: 1998-067CK. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 345 km (214 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Used Orlan spacesuit equipped with a radio transmitter. Released during an ISS EVA and transmitted for two days in a separate orbit. The astronauts shoved it into space with the words "Goodbye, Mr Smith.".

1998 November 21 - .
  • ISS Status Report 4 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS.

    The International Space Station's Zarya module completed a first day in orbit early this morning as flight controllers at Mission Control in Korolev, Russia, continued checks of the module's systems and fired an engine to begin raising its orbit to the planned altitude for a rendezvous by the Space Shuttle Endeavour on Dec. 6. Additional Details: here....


1998 November 22 - .
1998 November 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. Launch Pad: SLC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5.
  • BONUM-1 - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Telenor. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: BONUM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25546 . COSPAR: 1998-068A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    BONUM-1 provided domestic Russian television service for Media Most, a Moscow media enterprise, broadcasting 50 channels to western Russia from a geostationary orbit at 36 degrees E. Mass was 1426 kg at launch, 800 kg of that propellant. BONUM-1 carried 8 Ku-band transponders. The Delta upper stage raised the initial 157 km x 189 km at 29.2 degree parking orbit to 159 km x 1304 km and then 1228 km x 1683 km at 26.7 degrees. A Thiokol Star 48B solid third stage boosted BONUM-1 to a 1285 x 36703 km x 19.5 degree geostationary transfer orbit, with the Thiokol Star 30 apogee kick motor placing the satellite in its final geostationary orbit. After separation of the spacecraft, the Delta made a final depletion burn to lower its orbit to 274 km x 1552 km x 25.6 degree to ensure it would quickly decay and burn up in the atmosphere. Geostationary at 35.9 degrees E. From 8 August 2000 position was 56.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 36 deg E in 1998-1999 55 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 56.03 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 55.94E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.


1998 November 23 - .
  • ISS Status Report 5 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross. Program: ISS. Flight controllers in Moscow commanded the first element of the International Space Station through two altitude raising maneuvers today placing it closer to the desired orbit planned for the rendezvous by Space Shuttle Endeavour two weeks from now.. Additional Details: here....

1998 November 24 - . 09:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Castor 4A. Launch Vehicle: Maxus.
  • Biological/Physics mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA, SSC. Apogee: 713 km (443 mi).

1998 November 25 - .
  • ISS Status Report 7 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS.

    Flight controllers in Moscow continued to monitor the health of systems aboard the first component of the International Space Station as it passed within range of ground stations in Russia today, performing a standard check of two command relay electronics boxes and of the fire detection and suppression system. Additional Details: here....


1998 November 27 - .
  • ISS Status Report 8 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS.

    Flight controllers in Moscow and Houston have completed the formal checkout of the various systems on the Zarya module and reported it is ready for the arrival of Space Shuttle Endeavour and the next element of the International Space Station - the Unity connecting node. Additional Details: here....


1998 November 30 - .
  • ISS Status Report 9 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Flight controllers in Moscow and Houston continued to monitor systems on the Zarya module during the weekend and prepare for the arrival of the Space Shuttle Endeavour and the Unity connecting node.. Additional Details: here....

1998 December 2 - .
  • ISS Status Report 10 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Ross. Program: ISS.

    Flight controllers in Moscow and Houston continue to monitor systems on the Zarya control module and briefed the STS-88 astronauts earlier today on its status on the eve of the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida to carry the second component of the International Space Station to orbit. Additional Details: here....


1998 December 3 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • Mini-Texus 6 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1998 December 4 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Get Ready - . Flight: STS-88.

    "Get Ready" by the Temptations, an appropriate description of the full slate of activities the crew will be involved with as they get ready for the important events of the flight by checking out the equipment and tools that will be utilized during rendezvous, docking and space walking activities. CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield


1998 December 4 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-88 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Cabana, Currie, Krikalyov, Newman, Ross, Sturckow. Payload: Endeavour F13. Mass: 116,277 kg (256,346 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana, Currie, Krikalyov, Newman, Ross, Sturckow. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 11.80 days. Decay Date: 1998-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 25549 . COSPAR: 1998-069A. Apogee: 399 km (247 mi). Perigee: 382 km (237 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    First attempted launch of STS-88 was scrubbed at 09:03 GMT on December 3 due to a problem with a hydraulic system sensor. Launch came the next day, with Endeavour entering an initial 75 km x 313 km x 51.6 degree orbit. Half an orbit after launch, at 09:19 GMT, Endeavour fired its OMS engines to raise the orbit to 180 km x 322 km x 51.6 degree.

    On December 5 at 22:25 GMT Nancy Currie unberthed the Unity space station node from the payload bay using the RMS arm. She then moved the Unity to a position docked to the Orbiter Docking System in the payload bay in readiness for assembly with the Russian-launched Zarya FGB ISS component. After rendezvous with the Zarya FGB module, on December 6 at 23:47 GMT Endeavour grappled Zarya with the robot arm, and at 02:07 GMT on December 7 it was soft docked to the PMA-1 port on Unity. After some problems hard dock was achieved at 02:48 GMT. Unity and Zarya then formed the core of the future International Space Station. Ross and Newman made three space walks to connect cables between Zarya and Unity, on December 7, 9 and 12. On the last EVA a canvas tool bag was attached to the exterior of Unity to provide tools for future station assembly workers. Docking cables were disconnected to prevent Unity and Zarya from inadvertently undocking. Following an internal examination of the embryonic space station, Endeavour undocked at 20:30 GMT on December 13. The SAC-A and Mightysat satellites were ejected from the payload bay on December 14 and 15. Deorbit burn was December 16 at 03:48 GMT, and Endeavour landed at 04:53:29 GMT, on Runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center.

    Payloads included:

    • Sill: RMS arm No. 303
    • Bay 1-2: Tunnel Adapter 002
    • Bay 3-4: Orbiter Docking System/External Airlock (Boeing/Palmdale)
    • Bay 7-13: Unity (Node 1) (Boeing/Huntsville), including the PMA-1 and PMA-2 docking adapters (Boeing/Huntington Beach)
    • Bay 2 Port: GABA adapter with SAC-A satellite
    • Bay 4 Starboard: Carrier with Tool Stowage Assembly
    • Bay 5 Port: GABA adapter with two PFR space walk platforms and one PFR stanchion.
    • Bay 5 Starboard: GABA adapter with two more PFR space walk platforms and one PFR stanchion.
    • Bay 6 Port: GABA adapter with Mightysat
    • Bay 6 Starboard: APC carrier with TCS laser rendezvous sensor
    • Bay 7 Starboard: APC carrier with TCS laser rendezvous sensor
    • Bay 13 Port: GABA adapter with SEM-7 and G-093 canisters
    • Bay 13 Starboard: GABA adapter with IMAX Cargo Bay Camera
  • SAC-A - . Mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Manufacturer: INVAP. Program: SAC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SAC-A. Decay Date: 1999-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 25550 . COSPAR: 1998-069B. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 381 km (236 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. SAC-A was to provide engineering bench testing for new space science technology instruments and equipment that will be used in a more complex spacecraft for the Argentine space program..
  • Unity - . Mass: 11,600 kg (25,500 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Douglas. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: ISS Unity. Decay Date: 1972-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 25575 . COSPAR: 1998-069F. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 92.43 min.
  • Mightysat 1 - . Mass: 320 kg (700 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: McLean. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Mightysat 1. Decay Date: 1999-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 25551 . COSPAR: 1998-069C. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 381 km (236 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. First flight of a USAF Philips Laboratory/Space Experiments Directorate ejectable technology demonstration platform. Four advanced technologies demonstrated, including composite structure, advanced solar cells, advanced electronics, and a shock device..

1998 December 5 - .
  • STS-88 Mission Status Report # 06 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana, Currie, Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-88. Endeavour's astronauts were awakened at 1:36 p.m. Central time today to begin in earnest preparations for on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station.. Additional Details: here....

1998 December 5 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Anchors Aweigh - . Flight: STS-88. "Anchors Aweigh" CAPCOM: Chris Hadfield.

1998 December 6 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Somewhere Over the Rainbow - . Flight: STS-88. "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" - Judy Garland. Requested by Bob Cabana's daughter, Judy CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 6 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L.
  • Satmex 5 - . Payload: HS 601HP. Mass: 4,135 kg (9,116 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Satmex. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25558 . COSPAR: 1998-070A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    The Ariane placed the Satmex 5 satellite into a 211km x 21516 km x 7.0 degree orbit from which the satellite was to use its on-board engine to reach geostationary orbit. Satmex 5 was operated by Satellites Mexicanos S.A. de C.V, which took over the Morelos constellation from Mexican Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes. Satmex 5 replaced Morelos 2 and carried the XIPS ion engine station-keeping system. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 116 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 116.79 deg W drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 116.81W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.


1998 December 6 - . 00:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Vandenberg.. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL.
  • SWAS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SWAS. USAF Sat Cat: 25560 . COSPAR: 1998-071A. Apogee: 611 km (379 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 96.80 min.

    On December 3 the Orbital Sciences L-1011 Stargazer took off from Vandenberg AFB Runway 30/12 carrying a Pegasus XL launch vehicle with the SWAS satellite aboard. It reached the drop box at 36.0N 123.0W over the Pacific, but due to a software-related problem the range ordered the launch scrubbed and the L-1011 returned to base. After a further delay due to weather, the L-1011 took off at 23:58 GMT on December 5 and SWAS reached orbit and separated from the third stage at 01:09 GMT. SWAS, the Sub-millimetre Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz sub-millimetre receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. SWAS was used to study the cooling of molecular cloud cores, the sites of star formation in our galaxy, by measuring lines from molecular oxygen and water. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.


1998 December 7 - .
  • STS-88 Mission Status Report # 09 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana, Currie, Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-88.

    Endeavour's astronauts continued the assembly of the International Space Station late Sunday, mating the Russian-built Zarya control module with the U.S.-built Unity connecting module in the shuttle's cargo bay following a flawless rendezvous and grapple of Zarya. Additional Details: here....


1998 December 7 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Jerry the Rigger - . Flight: STS-88. "Jerry the Rigger" an old Celtic song. In honor of Mission Specialist Jerry Ross, who with fellow Mission Specialist Jim Newman, will conduct more than 18 hours of space walks during this flight. CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 8 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Streets of Bakersfield - . Flight: STS-88. "Streets of Bakersfield" - Dwight Yoakum. Requested by the wife of Pilot Rick Sturckow, a California native. CAPCOM: Janet Kavandi.

1998 December 8 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 December 8 - . 22:10 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-88-1 - . Crew: Newman, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.31 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft: ISS. Began assembly of International Space Station. Connected cables between Zarya and Unity modules..

1998 December 9 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Floating in the Bathtub - . Flight: STS-88. "Floating in the Bathtub" selected for Mission Specialist Jim Newman by his wife, Mary Lee. CAPCOM: Jim Newman.

1998 December 9 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh61.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 December 10 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: God Bless the USA - . Flight: STS-88. "God Bless the USA" -Lee Greenwood. Played for Mission Specialist -2, Nancy Currie at the request of her husband, David. CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 December 10 - . 11:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Nadezhda 5 - . Payload: Tsikada-Kospas. Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Nadezhda. USAF Sat Cat: 25567 . COSPAR: 1998-072A. Apogee: 1,013 km (629 mi). Perigee: 974 km (605 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min.
  • Astrid-2 - . Mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: SSC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Astrid 1. Spacecraft: Astrid-2. USAF Sat Cat: 25568 . COSPAR: 1998-072B. Apogee: 1,011 km (628 mi). Perigee: 973 km (604 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Swedish Space Corporation micro-satellite Astrid-2 was ejected from the Nadezdha 5 COSPAS satellite at 15:25 GMT and was to measure the auroral electromagnetic fields and particle environment..

1998 December 10 - . 20:33 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-88-2 - . Crew: Newman, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft: ISS. Continued assembly of International Space Station. Connected cables between Zarya and Unity modules and deployed antennae..

1998 December 11 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Trepak - . Flight: STS-88. "Trepak" a Russian dance from Tchaikovsky's"The Nutcracker" in honor of cosmonaut and Mission Specialist Sergei Krikalev. CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 11 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7425-9.5.
  • Mars Climate Orbiter - . Mass: 629 kg (1,386 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Manufacturer: Martin. Program: Mars Surveyor. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: MCO. Decay Date: 1999-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 25571 . COSPAR: 1998-073A.

    The Mars Climate Orbiter was the second flight of the Mars Surveyor Program. The probe was to enter a 160 km x 38600 km polar orbit around Mars on September 23,1999, and use aerobraking to reach a 373 km x 437 km x 92.9 degree sun-synchronous mapping orbit by November 23 1999. While the Mars Orbit Insertion burn began as planned on September 23, 1999 at 08:50 GMT, no signal was received after the spacecraft went behind the planet. Subsequent investigation showed that the spacecraft had plunged deep into the Martian atmosphere, with its closest approach to Mars being 57 km. It was concluded that the spacecraft burnt up in the atmosphere. It was later found that cutbacks in tracking, combined with incorrect values in a look-up table imbedded deep in the spacecraft software (use of pounds force instead of newtons) were to blame. This failure led to a shake-up of NASA's 'faster, better, cheaper' approach to unmanned spaceflight. Additional Details: here....


1998 December 12 - .
  • STS-88 Mission Status Report # 20 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Barry, Jernigan, Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-88. Endeavour's astronauts awoke at 10:36 a.m. CST today, to the sounds of Elvis Presley's "Hound Dog," and began preparing for the third and final scheduled space walk of the mission.. Additional Details: here....

1998 December 12 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Hound Dog - . Flight: STS-88. "Hound Dog" - Elvis Presley CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 13 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Goodnight Sweetheart, Goodnight - . Flight: STS-88. "Goodnight Sweetheart, Goodnight" - The Spaniels. As the crew prepare to say"goodnight" to the space station. CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 13 - . 20:33 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-88-3 - . Crew: Newman, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Ross. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft: ISS. Completed initial assembly of International Space Station. A canvas tool bag was attached to the exterior of Unity to provide tools for future assembly workers. Also disconnected some docking cables, so that Unity and Zarya could no longer undock..

1998 December 14 - .
  • STS-88 Mission Status Report # 24 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana, Phillips, Ross, Sturckow. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-88.

    Endeavour's crew awoke to the sounds of James Brown's "I Got You (I Feel Good)," today, in honor of the good feelings evoked by this successful first International Space Station Assembly mission. That wake-up call from Mission Control at 11:36 a.m. today, marks the start of the final full-day of operations for the six-member crew of STS-88. Additional Details: here....


1998 December 14 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: I Got You (I Feel Good) - . Flight: STS-88. "I Got You (I Feel Good)" - James Brown. In honor of the good feelings evoked by this successful first International Space Station Assembly mission. CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 15 - .
  • STS-88 Mission Status Report # 25 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cabana, Currie, Newman, Ross, Sturckow. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-88. Endeavour's astronauts wrapped up their mission objectives and packed up their ship, ready for a landing late tonight at Kennedy Space Center and the end of the first mission to assemble the International Space Station.. Additional Details: here....

1998 December 15 - .
  • STS-88 - Wakeup Song: Ride of the Valkyries - . Flight: STS-88. "Ride of the Valkyries" - Richard Wagner CAPCOM: Bob Curbeam.

1998 December 15 - .
1998 December 17 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS11 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS.

    Flight controllers in Houston and Moscow continued to monitor and checkout systems on the International Space Station this week, completing a successful test firing of both of the Zarya module's large thrusters that raised the station's orbit by about four statute miles. Additional Details: here....


1998 December 17 - .
  • Death of Clay D Blair - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Blair. American writer. Magazine correspondent and editor of Saturday Evening Post 1957-1964..

1998 December 18 - .
  • Cosmonaut Lev Stepanovich Demin dies at age of 72 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Demin. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 15..

1998 December 19 - .
  • Death of Bernhard Tessmann - . Nation: Austria, Germany. Related Persons: Tessmann. Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing..

1998 December 19 - . 11:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
  • Iridium 11 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV088?. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25577 . COSPAR: 1998-074A. Apogee: 780 km (480 mi). Perigee: 776 km (482 mi). Inclination: 86.4000 deg. Period: 100.40 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 197 degrees. Parking orbit..
  • Iridium 20 - . Payload: Iridium s/n SV089?. Mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Iridium. Manufacturer: Lockheed, Motorola. Program: Iridium. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: LM 700. USAF Sat Cat: 25578 . COSPAR: 1998-074B. Apogee: 710 km (440 mi). Perigee: 709 km (440 mi). Inclination: 86.5000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Plane 2. Ascending node 197.2 degrees. Parking orbit..

1998 December 21 - .
  • Mir News 448: Orbit correction - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27.

    The natural drag caused a considerable decrease of Mir's altitude. On 16.12.1998 the apogee was 355.6 KM, the perigee 345.3 KM. Even if the Russians stick to their obligations in the ISS field and dump the Mir complex in July 1999, some orbit corrections will be necessary to reduce the decay rate. There have been plans to increase the altitude of the orbit on 22.12.1998 and to do the same in March 1999. On 21.12.1998 I could not yet get confirmation that the correction is still scheduled for 22.12. So it might be possible and if this will happen, the predictions based on Kepler elements older than 22.12 will become more and more inaccurate.

    Sun orbit:

    These days the Mir-space station is flying on a sun orbit. So Mir remains in sunlight continuously and does not fly in eclipses at all. This means an extra burden for the thermoregulation of the complex. It is very warm on board, but the cosmonauts have not complained about this inconvenience thus far.

    Elektron (oxygen generator):

    For some weeks during communication sessions the crew reported on the internal pressure of one of the Elektrons. The values they reported were between 1.1 an 1.3. This value should remain not much higher than 1.1. After replacement of a unit or part of that Elektron, they no longer reported these values.

    Mir-routine:

    The crew executed a lot of experiments and most of their working hours were used for these activities. Less time was spent on maintenance and repair work of the life systems, for instance they refuelled the hydraulic thermoregulation system of the Kvant-2 module. They also had to repair electronic parts of experimental equipment (power units, interfaces, cables a.s.o.).

    Among the executed experiments were the study of plant growth in the greenhouse Svet, the determination of optical characteristics of the earth's atmosphere with the photometer EFO-2, and with the magnetic spectrometer Mariya the study of high energetic particles in space and in the radiation belts of the earth.

    Regularly the furnaces Krater, Gallar and Optizon passed in review. And the cosmonauts spoke about Ionozond, Dakon, Doze, Sigma and Alisa.

    The cosmonauts also had to undergo medical checks while training on the home trainer (velo-ergometer) and the treadmill. A few times the electro cardio cassette sounds were transmitted via the VHF phone channel.

    Mood on board:

    Almost no complaining or dissatisfaction could be derived from radio traffic, but there also was neither exuberance nor cheerfulness. With TsUP, Padalka settles his matters in an efficient, clear and in a business-like way. Rarely Avdeyev gets the opportunity to use his nice Russian to bring up something, but even then Padalka quickly reconquers the microphone. During passes within my range, I did not hear reactions from the cosmonauts on the beginning of the ISS-assembly. Without comments they listened to the news about the ISS, relayed to them by TsUP .

    Znamya 2.5:

    The experiment with this solar reflector after the undocking of Progress-M40 will, if nothing changes, take place a few days before the launch of the Soyuz-TM29 with the 27th Main Expedition to Mir on 22.02.1999.

    Spacewalks (EVA-s):

    No more EVA's are planned for the present (26th M.E.) crew.

    Communications:

    Now and then the Luch-1/Gelios satellite over 77 degrees East is in use for Mir-TsUP communications. And just like during the use of the old Altairs, this does not always go smoothly. For instance on 20.12.1998 family and friends gathered at TsUP for an Television session with Mir, but after 20 or 30 seconds the communications stopped.

    And to conclude: For you all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 December 22 - . 01:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L.
  • PAS 6B - . Payload: HS 601HP. Mass: 3,475 kg (7,661 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Panamsat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Panamsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25585 . COSPAR: 1998-075A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    The Ariane third stage placed the PAS 6B into a 228 km x 35717 km x 7.0 degree orbit. The satellite’s on board rocket system will move it into its final geostationary position over South America. PAS 6B will provide direct TV broadcasting service in replacement of PAS 6, a Loral satellite which had problems with its solar arrays. The new satellite had 32 Ku-band transponders. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 43 deg W in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 43.17 deg W drifting at 0.020 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 43.11W drifting at 0.015W degrees per day.


1998 December 23 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Ross. Program: ISS.

    International Space Station flight controllers successfully completed two test firings of the Zarya module's two large thrusters this week, checking out the software and systems required for an automated rendezvous and docking with the third station module, scheduled to be launched from Russia in mid-1999. Additional Details: here....


1998 December 24 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2361 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 25590 . COSPAR: 1998-076A. Apogee: 1,013 km (629 mi). Perigee: 967 km (600 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. A Parus navigation satellite in the same orbital plane as Cosmos 2233..

1998 December 27 - .
  • Mir News 449: Orbit correction - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27.

    On 24.12.1998 at 0409 UTC the engines of the freighter Progress-M40 raised Mir's orbit. With the

    2-line elements determined after the orbit correction it was possible to calculate accurate passes of the complex again.

    On 25.12.1998 the cosmonauts asked for the new Apogee and Perigee of Mir. TsUP said that these values were 372 and

    361 KM. Possibly the last 2-lines will only be valid for a short period for there might follow a 2nd correction on 26 or 28.12.1998. Radio traffic and radio observations did not confirm that there was a correction on 26.12 so let us wait and hear if this will take place on 28.12.1998.

    A high ranking official in Korolyov assured me that the reboost of the Mir-complex has nothing to do with an eventual

    prolongation of the exploitation after June 1999, but was executed for ballistic reasons. The rumours about plans to extend

    Mir's operational life are unfounded and the plan to bring Mir back in the earth's atmosphere after June 1999

    is still fully in force.

    Progress-M40:

    The undocking of this freighter from Mir is scheduled for 4.02.1999. After some autonomous orbits Progress-M40 will jettison and deploy a solar reflector for the execution of the Znamya 2.5 experiment.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2362 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25593 . COSPAR: 1998-077A. Apogee: 19,177 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,082 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2364 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25595 . COSPAR: 1998-077C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,125 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2363 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25594 . COSPAR: 1998-077B. Apogee: 19,163 km (11,907 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.


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