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1991 Chronology

1991 - . LV Family: HOTOL. Launch Vehicle: Interim HOTOL.
  • Interim HOTOL designed by British Aerospace - . Nation: UK. This was a less ambitious, scaled-back version of the original HOTOL. The single-stage to orbit winged launch vehicle using four Russian rocket engines. It was to have been air-launched from a Ukrainian An-225 aircraft..

1991 During the Year - .
  • Mars Direct - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: American Mars Expeditions. Spacecraft: Mars Direct. Martin Marietta and NASA Ames (Zubrin, Baker, and Gwynne) proposed 'Mars Direct' - a Mars expedition faster, cheaper, and better than the standard NASA plan..

1991 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Oka. Launch Vehicle: Iskander.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1991 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Oka. Launch Vehicle: Iskander.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1991 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Oka. Launch Vehicle: Iskander.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1991 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Oka. Launch Vehicle: Iskander.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1991 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Oka. Launch Vehicle: Iskander.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1991 January 6 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1991 January 7 - . 17:03 GMT - .
1991 January 8 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • NATO 4A - . Payload: NATO 4A. Mass: 1,433 kg (3,159 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 21047 . COSPAR: 1991-001A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NATO communications; 18 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 18 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 17.81 deg W drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 16.26W drifting at 0.003W degrees per day.


1991 January 9 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1991 January 14 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-6 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 205. Mass: 7,125 kg (15,707 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 60.14 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-03-15 18:06:59 . Decay Date: 1991-03-15 18:06:59 . USAF Sat Cat: 21053 . COSPAR: 1991-002A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered new life support equipment to replace life-expired equipment aboard. Docked with Mir on 16 Jan 1991 16:35:25 GMT. Undocked on 15 Mar 1991 12:46:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Mar 1991 18:07:26 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 57.84 days.


1991 January 15 - .
  • SAC transferred Vandenberg AFB, California, to Air Force Space Command. - . Nation: USA.

1991 January 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Space Command takes over Vandenberg AFB from SAC. - . Nation: USA. Host base responsibilities for Vandenberg AFB transferred from Strategic Air Command to Air Force Space Command..

1991 January 15 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Italsat 1 - . Mass: 1,865 kg (4,111 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 21055 . COSPAR: 1991-003A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Inclination: 4.2000 deg. Period: 1,440.20 min.

    Experimental commsat; 13.2 deg E. ITALSAT is a body stabilized geostationary satellite and it is proposed to provide pre-operational domestic telecommunications services on the 20/30 GHz bands. Geographic longitude 13.2 deg E. Longitudinal tolerance +/- 0.1 deg. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1991-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 144.14 deg E drifting at 1.021 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 86.26E drifting at 1.156W degrees per day.

  • Eutelsat II F2 - . Mass: 1,878 kg (4,140 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 21056 . COSPAR: 1991-003B. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,759 km (22,219 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 10 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/234 and 239 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1991-1999 12 deg W in 1999-2000 As of 4 September 2001 located at 12.60 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.49E drifting at 4.801W degrees per day.


1991 January 16 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1991 January 17 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2121 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 24.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 21059 . COSPAR: 1991-004A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1991 January 18 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2122 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1993-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 21065 . COSPAR: 1991-005A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Ocean surveillance..

1991 January 19 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-W. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Israel - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 20 - .
  • Death of Paul F Bikle - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bikle. American engineer. Worked at Wright Field and Edwards AFB from 1940. Director NASA Edwards 1959-1971. Oversaw projects from the XB-43 through the X-15 to the NASA lifting bodies..

1991 January 20 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 20 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 21 - .
  • Kazakhstan Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Related Persons: Aubakirov. Kazakh astronaut trained for flights to the Mir space station..

1991 January 21 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 21 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 21 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 21 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 21 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 21 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 21 - . 19:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Combat launch - target: Al Jubail - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 22 - . Launch Site: Haikou. Launch Vehicle: Zhinui.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1991 January 22 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 22 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 22 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 22 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 22 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 22 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 23 - . 10:59 GMT - .
1991 January 23 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 23 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 23 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-W. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Israel - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 23 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 23 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 25 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 25 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 26 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 26 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • JHU FOT 10 (Io) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 January 26 - . 09:00 GMT - .
1991 January 26 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 28 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 January 28 - . 18:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • GBI-1 ERIS Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1991 January 28 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: ERIS.
  • ERIS Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

    During the mission the TRW team monitored a mission telephone com channel real time in Redondo Beach. Participants recall the intense, "nail biting" anxiety as they waited the approximate 30 minutes it took for the RV to reach the nominal intercept point, over the Pacific and closer to Hawaii than to Kwajalein Atoll. Launch of the Minuteman I target from Vandenberg AFB came at 1803:00.3, launch of the ERIS interceptor at 1824:24.2, and kinetic intercept over Pacific at 1832:08.2.


1991 January 29 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Oscar 21 - . Payload: Informator s/n 1. Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Informator. USAF Sat Cat: 21087 . COSPAR: 1991-006A. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 956 km (594 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min.

    Prototype satellite for the planned Koskon (Space Conversion) Global Space Communication System. It was planned that the Koskon constellation would consist of a constellation of 32 to 45 satellites in 1997-2001. Also carried amateur radio transponders and performed geological research. Routine communications, collection and relaying of information in the interests of the Ministry of Geology of the USSR and other branches of the country's national economy, and the development of communications between amateur radio-operators.


1991 January 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1991 February 1 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-W. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Israel - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 2 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 3 - .
  • Death of Otto August Hoberg - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Hoberg. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1991 February 3 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion sounding rocket.
  • Strafam 3 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1991 February 5 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2123 - . Payload: Tsikada/RS-12/RS-13. Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsikada. USAF Sat Cat: 21089 . COSPAR: 1991-007A. Apogee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Perigee: 963 km (598 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min.

    Civilian navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 13 of constellation. Testing of components and equipment of a space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and ships of the USSR merchant marine and fishing fleet at any point on the oceans and seas. Two amateur satellite transponders, RS12 and RS13, were secondary payloads on the Cosmos 2123 navigation satellite. These transponders were developed at the Kaluga Electromechanical Plant under the direction of Aleksander Papkov and were launched aboard several satellites by the USSR during 1978-1991.


1991 February 6 - .
  • Salyut-7 Burnup In Earth's Atmosphere (Soviet Union Space Station) - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 7.

1991 February 6 - . 07:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Talos. Launch Vehicle: Space Data LCLV.
  • Target / active plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 510 km (310 mi).

1991 February 7 - .
  • Salyut 7 re-enters - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut 7. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 7.

    Salyut 7 had been put into a high storage orbit in June 1986, which was supposed to allow it to remain in orbit for ten years before decaying. But much greater than expected solar activity caused the orbit to decay rapidly. By the end of 1990 the station was no longer controllable, and on 7 February 1991 the station came down over South America.


1991 February 7 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 February 7 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2124 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 21092 . COSPAR: 1991-008A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1991 February 7 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 9 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: MT-135.
  • NNP-O3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1991 February 11 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 11 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 12 - . 02:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2125 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 345. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21100 . COSPAR: 1991-009A. Apogee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Perigee: 1,458 km (905 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.20 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2129 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 349. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21104 . COSPAR: 1991-009E. Apogee: 1,469 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,430 km (880 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2126 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 346. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21101 . COSPAR: 1991-009B. Apogee: 1,496 km (929 mi). Perigee: 1,467 km (911 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.60 min.
  • Cosmos 2128 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 348. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21103 . COSPAR: 1991-009D. Apogee: 1,469 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,445 km (897 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2130 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 350. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21105 . COSPAR: 1991-009F. Apogee: 1,469 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,401 km (870 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 2131 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 351. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21106 . COSPAR: 1991-009G. Apogee: 1,468 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,387 km (861 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.40 min.
  • Cosmos 2132 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 352. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21107 . COSPAR: 1991-009H. Apogee: 1,469 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2127 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 347. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 21102 . COSPAR: 1991-009C. Apogee: 1,478 km (918 mi). Perigee: 1,467 km (911 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.40 min.

1991 February 12 - . 03:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi).

1991 February 12 - . 09:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant XII.
  • TOPAZ 3 Active plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 February 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1991 February 14 - .
  • Death of John A McCone - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McCone. American manager, director of the Central Intelligence Agency 1961-1965, during initial exploitation of satellite reconnaisance systems..

1991 February 14 - . 08:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2133 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 1. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1995-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21111 . COSPAR: 1991-010A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. First launch of improved second generation version. Declared purpose: 'Investigation of outer space and of processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1991; 24 deg W in 1992-1993; 80 deg E in 1993-1995 As of 2 September 2001 located at 80.48 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 74.02E drifting at 0.040E degrees per day.


1991 February 14 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Hafir Al Batin - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 14 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Hafir Al Batin - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 15 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2134 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 13. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 45.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21116 . COSPAR: 1991-011A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Topographic mapping for the Army General Staff..

1991 February 15 - . 15:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-80 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 21118 . COSPAR: 1991-012A. Apogee: 37,317 km (23,187 mi). Perigee: 3,029 km (1,882 mi). Inclination: 64.4000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1991 February 15 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Combat launch - target: Al Jubail - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 16 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Telescopes Extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi).

1991 February 18 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC1. LV Family: Strypi. Launch Vehicle: Strypi XI.
  • Bow Shock 2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1991 February 19 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1991 February 20 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1991 February 21 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Combat launch - target: King Khalid Military City - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 21 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Combat launch - target: King Khalid Military City - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 21 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Combat launch - target: King Khalid Military City - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 21 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Bahrain - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 22 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 February 23 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 23 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 24 - . 01:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 24 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Riyadh - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 24 - . 09:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Combat launch - target: King Khalid Military City - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Qatar - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 26 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2135 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 21130 . COSPAR: 1991-013A. Apogee: 1,018 km (632 mi). Perigee: 923 km (573 mi). Inclination: 82.8000 deg. Period: 104.50 min. Military navigation satellite. Replaced by Cosmos 2195. Reactivated in August 1993 after Cosmos 2195 failed..

1991 February 27 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1991 February 28 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 27 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 38L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1998-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21132 . COSPAR: 1991-014A. Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 7.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min.

    Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 29 August 2001 located at 109.47 deg E drifting at 0.276 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.06E drifting at 0.198W degrees per day.


1991 March - .
  • Saboteurs destroy LKS spaceplane mock-up - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: OK. Spacecraft: LKS. A group of unidentified saboteurs (possibly KGB) broke into the premises of NPO Mashinostroyeniye and destroyed the mock-up..

1991 March 2 - . 23:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Astra 1B - . Mass: 2,620 kg (5,770 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 5000. USAF Sat Cat: 21139 . COSPAR: 1991-015A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 19.2 deg E; European coverage. Astra 1B provides TV coverage to Western Europe. The satellite is owned and operated by Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES), a private company formed in 1985. Astra 1B is the second in a network of four satellites. SES acquired Astra 1B from DBS Crimson Satellite Associates while still under construction by GE Astro Space (as Satcom K3). Astra 1B is colocated with Astra 1A, and doubled the number of channels provided by the Astra network. Spacecraft: GE 5000 platform.3-axis stabilisation with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 20 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Solar arrays provide 4850 W BOL, 4 50 Ahr NiH batteries. GEO insertion provided by 2 500N bipropellant motors. Payload: 16 Ku-band transponders (with six spares) Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1991-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.20 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 92.40W drifting at 6.354W degrees per day.

  • Meteosat 5 - . Payload: MOP 2. Mass: 681 kg (1,501 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. USAF Sat Cat: 21140 . COSPAR: 1991-015B. Apogee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,434.90 min.

    Earth imaging for weather, climatology, atmospheric physics; 4 deg E. Geostationary meteorological satellite, operating within the world-wide network of the World Weather Watch of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Its main missions are: imaging in the visible, infrared and water vapour region of the spectrum. Dat a reception from so called Data Collection Platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes, etc). Launch time 2336:00 UT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 4 deg W in 1991; 1 deg W in 1991; 4 deg W in 1991-1992; 1 deg W in 1992; 8 deg W in 1993-1997; 9 deg W in 1997-1998; 63 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.77 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 1 located at 63.15E drifting at 0.006E degrees per day.


1991 March 5 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Terrier.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1991 March 6 - .
  • Soviet Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 11 Supplemental selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev.

1991 March 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2136 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21143 . COSPAR: 1991-016A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1991 March 7 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1991 March 8 - . 12:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403A.
  • USA 69 - . Payload: Lacrosse 2. Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Manufacturer: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 21147 . COSPAR: 1991-017A. Apogee: 662 km (411 mi). Perigee: 420 km (260 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Still operating December 1997. First West Coast launch of a Titan 4..

1991 March 8 - . 23:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 6925.
  • Inmarsat 2 F2 - . Mass: 1,385 kg (3,053 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 1000. USAF Sat Cat: 21149 . COSPAR: 1991-018A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Mobile and maritime communications; 15.5 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 15 deg W in 1991-1996; 55 deg W in 1997-1999; DRIFT As of 6 September 2001 located at 97.95 deg W drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 97.96W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


1991 March 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 March 12 - . 19:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Nadezhda 3 - . Payload: Tsikada-Kospas. Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Nadezhda. USAF Sat Cat: 21152 . COSPAR: 1991-019A. Apogee: 1,016 km (631 mi). Perigee: 955 km (593 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min.

    Civilian navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 12 of constellation. Maritime navigation. Signals at 150,00 MHz and 400.00 MHz. Carried COSPAS search and rescue package. Location of vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet; work within the international space search and rescue system for locating vessels and aircraft in distress (COSPAS-SARSAT).


1991 March 13 - . 17:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1991 March 18 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Colorado SXT X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 March 19 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN UNK. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 March 19 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN UNK. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 March 19 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-7 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 208. Mass: 7,307 kg (16,109 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 49.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-05-07 17:21:50 . Decay Date: 1991-05-07 17:21:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 21188 . COSPAR: 1991-020A. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Attempted to dock with Mir on 21 March 1998 14:28 GMT, but missed the station by 500 m. Docking attempted again on 23 March but at 50 meters the docking was aborted; the Progress missed hitting the station by five meters. Thereafter it was placed in a station-keeping co-orbit with Mir while the problem was diagnosed. Finally docked with Mir on 28 Mar 1991 12:02:28 GMT. On 12 and 14 Apr 1998 two burns of the engine of Progress M-7 raised the station's orbit from a 360 x 377 km orbit to a 370 x 382 km orbit. Undocked on 6 May 1991 22:59:36 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 May 1991 17:20:05 GMT. Total free-flight time 9.72 days. Total docked time 39.46 days.


1991 March 19 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2137 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1Yu. Decay Date: 1995-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 21190 . COSPAR: 1991-021A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 356 km (221 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Radar calibration mission..

1991 March 20 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1991 March 22 - .
  • Death of Viktor Ivanovich Kuznetsov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kuznetsov, Viktor. Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1946-1989 of Nll-10 and NII-44. Specialised in missile and spaceship gyroscopes..

1991 March 22 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-40 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 55. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21196 . COSPAR: 1991-022A. Apogee: 37,374 km (23,223 mi). Perigee: 2,948 km (1,831 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1991 March 23 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • MAMA ultraviolet Telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 March 25 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1991 March 26 - . 13:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2138 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21203 . COSPAR: 1991-023A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 161 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1991 March 27 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 95 km (59 mi).

1991 March 30 - . 02:27 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 March 31 - . 15:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Almaz 1 - . Payload: Almaz-K s/n 305. Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Decay Date: 1992-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 21213 . COSPAR: 1991-024A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 72.7000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.

    Second flight of Almaz radar imaging satellite. Surveyed the territory of the Soviet Union and of other countries for purposes of geology, cartography, oceanology, ecology and agriculture, and studied the ice situation at high latitudes. Launched eight months after its target date into an initial operational orbit of approximately 270 km with an inclination of 72.7 degrees, slightly higher than the 71.9 degrees inclination of Cosmos 1870. Unfortunately, the failure of one of the SAR antennas to deploy fully rendered that side inoperable. Returned images of 10 to 15 meter resolution through 17 October 1992. Its radiometer provided images of 10 to 30 km radiometer resolution over a 600 km swath. Its engines completed 760,000 firings during its 18 month service life.


1991 April 2 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1991 April 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1991 April 4 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2139 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 50L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21216 . COSPAR: 1991-025A. Apogee: 19,160 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,098 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2141 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 54L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21218 . COSPAR: 1991-025C. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,113 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2140 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 53L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21217 . COSPAR: 1991-025B. Apogee: 19,161 km (11,906 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1991 April 4 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P.
  • Anik E2 - . Mass: 2,923 kg (6,444 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 5000. USAF Sat Cat: 21222 . COSPAR: 1991-026A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Canadian communications; 107.3 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 107 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 111.10 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 123.15E drifting at 4.124W degrees per day..

1991 April 5 - .
  • Death of Dr Manley Lanier Jr 'Sonny' Carter at New Brunswick, Georgia. Crash of a commercial airliner while on NASA business travel. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carter. American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-33..

1991 April 5 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 April 5 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-37 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Apt, Cameron, Godwin, Nagel, Ross. Payload: Atlantis F08 / Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Mass: 16,611 kg (36,620 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Cameron, Godwin, Nagel, Ross. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 5.98 days. Decay Date: 1991-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21224 . COSPAR: 1991-027A. Apogee: 462 km (287 mi). Perigee: 450 km (270 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.70 min.

    Manned five crew. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command. Payloads: Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO), Crew/ Equipment Translation Aids (part of Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Experiment), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BlMDA), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-Block Il, Space Station Heatpipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE)-ll, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-ll, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  • Compton Observatory - . Payload: Gamma Ray Observatory. Mass: 15,620 kg (34,430 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: GRO. Decay Date: 2000-06-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 21225 . COSPAR: 1991-027B. Apogee: 453 km (281 mi). Perigee: 448 km (278 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.60 min.

    Astrophysical laboratory for gamma ray observations; deployed from STS-37 4/7/91; renamed Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was intentionally deorbited on by NASA over the objections of the scientific community on June 3, 2000. NASA decided to end the mission after several orientation gyroscope failures. They felt that if another gyroscope was lost, the heavy spacecraft might eventually reenter out of control.


1991 April 6 - .
  • STS-37 - Wakeup Song: Music by Marching Illini Band, University of Illinois - . Flight: STS-37. "Music by Marching Illini Band, University of Illinois" . Band members had a special message for one of their alumni.

1991 April 7 - .
  • EVA STS-37-1 - . Crew: Apt, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.19 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Ross. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Manually deployed Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna..

1991 April 7 - .
  • STS-37 - Wakeup Song: The Marine Corp Hymn - . Flight: STS-37. "The Marine Corp Hymn" performed by the U. S. Naval Academy band. The music was in honor of STS- 37 pilot Ken Cameron who is a lieutenant colonel in the U.S.M.C..

1991 April 8 - .
  • EVA STS-37-2 - . Crew: Apt, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Ross. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Tested CETA (Crew / Equipment Translation Aids - rail with cart for moving astronauts around exterior of International Space Station)..

1991 April 8 - .
  • STS-37 - Wakeup Song: Hail Purdue - . Flight: STS-37. "Hail Purdue" by Purdue University Band for alumni Jerry Ross..

1991 April 9 - .
  • STS-37 - Wakeup Song: 10,000 Men of Harvard Want Victory Today - . Flight: STS-37.

    "10,000 Men of Harvard Want Victory Today" sung by Harvard Glee Club, in honor of Jay Apt, a Harvard graduate. About five minutes after the wake up call, Apt played a recorded Scottish tune from Atlantis in honor of the highest and fastest Highlanders, Ross and Cameron.


1991 April 9 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • SISSI 4 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

1991 April 10 - .
  • STS-37 - Wakeup Song: La Bamba - . Flight: STS-37. "La Bamba" by the Brass Rhythm and Reeds for Linda Godwin who played saxophone in the band. Flight director Milt Heflin played Trombone in the same band..

1991 April 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1991 April 11 - .
  • Galileo antenna relese fails - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Galileo. Spacecraft: Galileo probe. Subsequent attempts to release it failed, reducing data return rate by an order of magnitude..

1991 April 11 - .
  • STS-37 - Wakeup Song: Magnum PI - . Flight: STS-37. "Magnum PI" Theme with a greeting by Tom Selleck for Mission Specialist Linda Godwin. .

1991 April 11 - .
1991 April 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Talos. Launch Vehicle: HPB.
  • Target / decoys mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1991 April 13 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • ASC-2 / Spacenet F4 - . Mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Contel. Program: GTE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 3000. Spacecraft: ASC. USAF Sat Cat: 21227 . COSPAR: 1991-028A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Commercial business communications; stationed at 101 deg W. C, Ku band communications satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 101 deg W in 1991-1999; 81 deg W in 2000. As of 6 September 2001 located at 172.04 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 34.51E drifting at 2.539W degrees per day.


1991 April 15 - . 22:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 736. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • DASO-6 demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 April 16 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2142 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 21230 . COSPAR: 1991-029A. Apogee: 1,019 km (633 mi). Perigee: 960 km (590 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 5 of constellation. Signals at 150.03 and 400.07 MHz..

1991 April 17 - . 07:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10CM1.
  • SPFE 2 (LACE Target) Technology test - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 April 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Second and final launch of the Small ICBM missile - . Nation: USA. Second and final launch of the Small ICBM missile (first launch on 11 May 1989)..

1991 April 18 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg TP-01. Launch Vehicle: SICBM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 April 18 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I. FAILURE: RL-10 Centaur engine turbopump failed at T+361 seconds; destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Yuri 3H - . Payload: BS-3H. Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: TSCJ. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: BS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Decay Date: 1991-04-18 . Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1991 April 22 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1991 April 24 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 3-04 - . Payload: Meteor-3 s/n 6. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21232 . COSPAR: 1991-030A. Apogee: 1,209 km (751 mi). Perigee: 1,187 km (737 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 109.40 min. Testing data-measuring equipment and methods for remote sensing of the atmosphere and Earth's surface to benefit the Soviet economy and science. First completely operational version of the spacecraft..

1991 April 25 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 19 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 April 26 - . 20:29 GMT - .
1991 April 28 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-39 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Payload: Discovery F12. Mass: 9,712 kg (21,411 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-39. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.31 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

    Manned seven crew. Deployed USA 70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved IBSS. Payloads: Infrared Background Signature Survey (lBSS), Air Force Program (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-I, Multi-Purpose Experiment Canister (MPEC), Cloud Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll.

  • AFP-675 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: AFP-675. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • STP-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: STP-1. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • SPAS-II - . Payload: SPAS. Mass: 3,230 kg (7,120 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SPAS. COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Shuttle Pallet Satellite-II (SPAS-II) experiments were carried out on this classified mission. No details on whether SPAS was released or nature of experiments..
  • CRO-B - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 21246 . COSPAR: 1991-031E. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Perigee: 68 km (42 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 85.80 min. Chemical Release Observation; deployed 2 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..
  • CRO-A - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 21247 . COSPAR: 1991-031F. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Chemical Release Observation; deployed 3 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..
  • IBSS - . Payload: SPAS-2. Mass: 1,901 kg (4,190 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: IBSS. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21244 . COSPAR: 1991-031B. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Infrared Background Signature Survey; sensor technology test; retrieved 2 May 1991..
  • USA 70 - . Payload: MPEC. Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Military technology satellite. Spacecraft: MPEC. USAF Sat Cat: 21262 . COSPAR: 1991-031C. Classified subsatellite released from shuttle..
  • CRO-C - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21245 . COSPAR: 1991-031D. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Perigee: 67 km (41 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 85.70 min. Chemical Release Observation; deployed 2 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..

1991 April 29 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 441 km (274 mi).

1991 April 30 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
  • CWAS 20 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1991 May 1 - . Launch Site: Qom. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Shahab 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1991 May 3 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1991 May 4 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • UM JASPR I Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 May 6 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1991 May 6 - .
1991 May 7 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SERTS-91 (04) Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 May 8 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Castor 4A. Launch Vehicle: Maxus. FAILURE: Failed..
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

    Microgravity experiments. Recovered, although it reached only a fraction of the planned altitude. The MAXUS sounding rocket program began in 1989 and the first launch took place in 1991.The program was a joint venture between the Swedish Space Corporation and the German space company EADS-ST. The Maxus program was financed by ESA. The scientific objective was to perform experiments during 12-13 minutes of microgravity (10-4 g) using a single stage sounding rocket motor. The motor, a Castor 4B, had a maximum acceleration of 13 g, a top speed of 3500 m/sec and reached an apogee of around 750 km depending on the payload mass.


1991 May 10 - .
  • Death of Ernest W Brackett - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brackett. American bureaucrat. Director of NASA Procurement 1960-1968..

1991 May 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-On CINC Evaluation Test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 May 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Follow-On CINC Evaluation Test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 May 11 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • GBI-2 ERIS Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    This was intended to be the second ERIS intercept flight, but there was either an ERIS launcher problem or a range safety problem that aborted the attempt after the target vehicle was on its way towards Kwajalein.It took just over one year to recover from that abort and to perform the intercept attempt against target vehicle "2B".


1991 May 13 - . 19:03 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • MSSTA I Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1991 May 14 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 12 - . Payload: NOAA D. Mass: 1,416 kg (3,121 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 21263 . COSPAR: 1991-032A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 805 km (500 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1991 May 15 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1991 May 16 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2143 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 53. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21299 . COSPAR: 1991-033A. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,398 km (868 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2146 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 56. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21302 . COSPAR: 1991-033D. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,393 km (865 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2144 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 54. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21300 . COSPAR: 1991-033B. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Cosmos 2145 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 55. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21301 . COSPAR: 1991-033C. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,405 km (873 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2147 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 57. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21303 . COSPAR: 1991-033E. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,388 km (862 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.80 min.
  • Cosmos 2148 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 58. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21304 . COSPAR: 1991-033F. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,381 km (858 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.80 min.

1991 May 18 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1991 May 20 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • SXT / XOGS X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 May 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Resurs F-10 - . Payload: Resurs-F2 17F42 s/n 6. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F2. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21313 . COSPAR: 1991-035A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Also carried microgravity experiments. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of the various branches of the national economy of the USSR, and solution of problems relating to the environment and to international cooperation.


1991 May 22 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1991 May 24 - . 15:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2149 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 41.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 21315 . COSPAR: 1991-036A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1991 May 25 - .
  • Death of Herbert Felix Axster - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Axster. German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1991 May 26 - .
1991 May 27 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1991 May 28 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 May 29 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • Aurora 2 - . Payload: Satcom-C 5. Mass: 1,336 kg (2,945 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GE. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 21392 . COSPAR: 1991-037A. Apogee: 36,161 km (22,469 mi). Perigee: 36,125 km (22,446 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,454.40 min.

    Stationed at 139 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 139 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 30 August 2001 located at 148.31 deg E drifting at 4.531 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 2.15E drifting at 4.534W degrees per day.


1991 May 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Kuryer.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1991 May 30 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-8 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 207. Mass: 7,296 kg (16,084 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12, Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 77.95 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . Decay Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . USAF Sat Cat: 21395 . COSPAR: 1991-038A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 1 Jun 1991 09:44:37 GMT. Undocked on 15 Aug 1991 22:16:59 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Aug 1991 06:56:32 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.43 days. Total docked time 75.52 days..
  • Naduvaniy gazovoy ballon - . Payload: Balloon subsatellite. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-12, Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: NGB. Decay Date: 1991-08-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 21661 . COSPAR: 1986-017FJ. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.34 min. Balloon subsatellite..

1991 May 31 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1991 June 3 - .
  • France agrees to sign 1968 treaty banning spread of atomic weapons - . Nation: France.

1991 June 4 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Okean 3 - . Payload: Okean-O1 no. 6. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. Completed Operations Date: 1994-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 21397 . COSPAR: 1991-039A. Apogee: 656 km (407 mi). Perigee: 621 km (385 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Oceanography. Gathering of up-to-date oceanographic information and data on ice conditions in the interests of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. Okean 3 ceased working in January of 1994..

1991 June 5 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-40 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O Connor, Seddon. Payload: Columbia F11 / GBA-2. Mass: 11,767 kg (25,941 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O Connor, Seddon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-40. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 9.09 days. Decay Date: 1991-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21399 . COSPAR: 1991-040A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Carried Spacelab life sciences module. Payloads: Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS)-1 with long module, getaway special bridge assembly with 12 getaway specials, Physiological Monitoring System (PMS), Urine Monitoring System (UMS), Animal Enclosure Modules (AEM), Middeck Zero-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), 7 Orbiter Experiments Program experiments.

  • GBA-2 - . Payload: GAS Bridge. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: GBA. Decay Date: 1991-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21399 . COSPAR: 1991-040xx. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 276 km (171 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.
  • Spacelab SLS 1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1991-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21399 . COSPAR: 1991-040xx. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 276 km (171 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

1991 June 6 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Great Balls of Fire - . Flight: STS-40. "Great Balls of Fire" Jerry Lee Lewis.

1991 June 7 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Military Medally - . Flight: STS-40. "Military Medally" Marine Corps and Air Force music for O'Connor, a Colonel in USMC and Gutierrez, a Lt. Colonel in the Air Force..

1991 June 7 - . 13:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1991 June 8 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Yakety Yak - . Flight: STS-40. "Yakety Yak" by The Coasters.

1991 June 9 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Somewhere Out There - . Flight: STS-40. "Somewhere Out There" from movie"An American Tail" preceded by greetings from crew's children..

1991 June 10 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Cow Patty - . Flight: STS-40. "Cow Patty" , a humorous western ballad that is a favorite of mission specialist Tammy Jernigan..

1991 June 11 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Shout -The Faber College Theme - . Flight: STS-40. "Shout -The Faber College Theme" by Otis Day and the Knights from the movie"Animal House".

1991 June 11 - . 05:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2150 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 21418 . COSPAR: 1991-041A. Apogee: 805 km (500 mi). Perigee: 778 km (483 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.

1991 June 11 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 June 12 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Twistin' the Night Away - . Flight: STS-40. "Twistin' the Night Away" by Sam Cooke, from the movie,"Animal House".

1991 June 13 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: Chain Gang - . Flight: STS-40. "Chain Gang" by Nylons..

1991 June 13 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2151 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 70. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 21422 . COSPAR: 1991-042A. Apogee: 653 km (405 mi). Perigee: 625 km (388 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Investigation of outer space. .

1991 June 14 - .
  • STS-40 - Wakeup Song: What a Wonderful World - . Flight: STS-40. "What a Wonderful World" Louis Armstrong..

1991 June 14 - . 12:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1991 June 14 - .
1991 June 17 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Mak 1 - . Payload: Mak. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Flight: Soyuz TM-12, Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Mak. Decay Date: 1991-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 21425 . COSPAR: 1986-017DV. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Deployed from MIR 6/17/91. Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. Launched with the Mir orbital station. .

1991 June 18 - . 09:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-81 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 21426 . COSPAR: 1991-043A. Apogee: 38,094 km (23,670 mi). Perigee: 2,262 km (1,405 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1991 June 18 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Family: Castor 4A. Launch Vehicle: Prospector sounding rocket. FAILURE: Failure..
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Material and biological experiments..

1991 June 19 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1991 June 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • RSLP AST re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1991 June 24 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 June 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction - no stable orbit.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Romb - . Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1991 June 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 June 25 - . 21:11 GMT - .
1991 June 26 - . 02:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT144GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1991 June 28 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Resurs F-11 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 52. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 23.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 21524 . COSPAR: 1991-044A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 253 km (157 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. .

1991 June 28 - . 19:02 GMT - .
1991 June 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • REX - . Payload: REX 1. Mass: 85 kg (187 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF Rome. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: GemStar. Spacecraft: REX. USAF Sat Cat: 21527 . COSPAR: 1991-045A. Apogee: 869 km (539 mi). Perigee: 767 km (476 mi). Inclination: 89.5000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Radiation Experiment; tested communications components in high radiation environment. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1991 July 1 - .
  • Responsibility for USAF astronauts transferred from Air Force District of Washington to HQ Air Force Space Command. - . Nation: USA.

1991 July 1 - .
  • Warsaw Pact dissolved - . Nation: Russia.

1991 July 1 - . Launch Site: Chiha-ri. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Hwasong 6.
1991 July 1 - . 21:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 23 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 34L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21533 . COSPAR: 1991-046A. Apogee: 36,188 km (22,486 mi). Perigee: 36,158 km (22,467 mi). Inclination: 6.8000 deg. Period: 1,455.90 min.

    Stationed at 103 deg E. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television broadcasts. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1991-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 159.68 deg E drifting at 4.917 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 0.82W drifting at 4.909W degrees per day.


1991 July 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT143GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1991 July 4 - . 02:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 71 - . Payload: GPS 2A-11 / GPS SVN 24. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 21552 . COSPAR: 1991-047A. Apogee: 20,319 km (12,625 mi). Perigee: 20,043 km (12,454 mi). Inclination: 55.6000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane D Slot 1..
  • Losat X - . Mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: Losat. Decay Date: 1991-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 21553 . COSPAR: 1991-047B. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 40.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Test flight of DOD sensors; Low Altitude Satellite Experiment. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1991 July 9 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2152 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 21558 . COSPAR: 1991-048A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1991 July 10 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2153 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 247.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 21560 . COSPAR: 1991-049A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Photo/digital surveillance..

1991 July 11 - . 17:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1991 July 15 - . 11:45 GMT - .
1991 July 17 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40.
  • ERS 1 - . Mass: 2,384 kg (5,255 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: ERS 1-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21574 . COSPAR: 1991-050A. Apogee: 775 km (481 mi). Perigee: 774 km (480 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.30 min.

    Microwave, IR imaging of oceans, ice and land; SAR. ERS-1 was an Earth exploration satellite, using active and passive sensors for oceanography etc. Frequency plan: 2048.85/2225 MHz (TTC), 7225.2960/8489 MHz (PRARE), 8040, 8140 MHz (data transmission). Launch time 0146:31 UT. Designator ESA/91/02.

  • Oscar 22 - . Payload: UoSAT 5. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: TUB. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-70. USAF Sat Cat: 21575 . COSPAR: 1991-050B. Apogee: 772 km (479 mi). Perigee: 759 km (471 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.20 min. Customer: SateLife. Carried store and forward communications and Earth observation payloads, replacing those lost on UoSAT-4. Still operational in 2000..
  • Orbcomm-X - . Payload: ERS 1 Orbcomm X. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESIEESPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 21576 . COSPAR: 1991-050C. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 764 km (474 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.20 min. Store and forward communication..
  • Tubsat-A - . Payload: Tubsat A. Mass: 38 kg (83 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Tubsat. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. USAF Sat Cat: 21577 . COSPAR: 1991-050D. Apogee: 772 km (479 mi). Perigee: 762 km (473 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.20 min.

    Tubsat-A was the first satellite built at Germany's Technical University of Berlin was intended primarily to test attitude control subsystems and give students practice in the design, construction and operation of a satellite. Tubsat-A was launched piggyback with the first ERS mission, and because of it's near polar orbit, the spacecraft became an important communications tool for arctic and Antarctic expeditions. The spacecraft also acted as a testbed for some industry technology including GaAs cells and a transputer. Payload: Star Sensor, Sun Sensor, 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor, Magnetorquer, Store & Forward Communication. Dimensions: 38x38x38 cm. Mass: 35 kg. Still in operation as of 2003.

  • SARA - . Mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Nation: France. Agency: ESIEESPA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SARA. USAF Sat Cat: 21578 . COSPAR: 1991-050E. Apogee: 764 km (474 mi). Perigee: 756 km (469 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.00 min. Satellite built by the ESIEES school in Paris to observe radio emissions from Jupiter..

1991 July 17 - . 17:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Edwards.. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus/HAPS. Failed Stage: G.
  • Microsat 1 - . Payload: Microsat 1 / ... / Microsat 7. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat. Decay Date: 1992-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 21580 . COSPAR: 1991-051A. Apogee: 454 km (282 mi). Perigee: 356 km (221 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Test of LEO network for global communications. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • Microsat 2 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat. Decay Date: 1992-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 21581 . COSPAR: 1991-051B. Apogee: 454 km (282 mi). Perigee: 355 km (220 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Test of LEO network for global communications. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • Microsat 3 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat. Decay Date: 1992-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21582 . COSPAR: 1991-051C. Apogee: 454 km (282 mi). Perigee: 355 km (220 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Test of LEO network for global communications. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • Microsat 4 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat. Decay Date: 1992-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 21583 . COSPAR: 1991-051D. Apogee: 454 km (282 mi). Perigee: 355 km (220 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Test of LEO network for global communications. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • Microsat 5 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat. Decay Date: 1992-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21584 . COSPAR: 1991-051E. Apogee: 455 km (282 mi). Perigee: 355 km (220 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Test of LEO network for global communications. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • Microsat 6 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat. Decay Date: 1992-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 21585 . COSPAR: 1991-051F. Apogee: 454 km (282 mi). Perigee: 355 km (220 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Test of LEO network for global communications. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • Microsat 7 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat. Decay Date: 1992-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 21586 . COSPAR: 1991-051G. Apogee: 452 km (280 mi). Perigee: 358 km (222 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Test of LEO network for global communications. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1991 July 19 - .
  • Death of Sergei Ivanovich Vetoshkin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Vetoshkin. Russian politician. First Deputy Chairman of Military-industrial Commission 1958-1965. Directorate Chief in Ministry of Armaments..

1991 July 19 - . 11:10 GMT - .
1991 July 23 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Resurs F-12 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 53. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 21611 . COSPAR: 1991-052A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of the various branches of the national economy of the USSR, and solution of problems relating to the environment and to international cooperation. .

1991 July 23 - . 09:15 GMT - .
1991 July 27 - . 08:44 GMT - .
1991 July 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CINC Evaluation Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 July 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CET - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 July 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CET - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 July 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CET - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 July 31 - .
  • Bush-Gorbachev summit negotiates strategic arms reduction treaty - . Nation: International.

1991 August 1 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • N-B-E03 EFIELD-B Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 99 km (61 mi).

1991 August 1 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-82 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2004-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 21630 . COSPAR: 1991-053A. Apogee: 39,591 km (24,600 mi). Perigee: 763 km (474 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1991 August 2 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-43 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Adamson, Baker, Mike, Blaha, Low, Lucid. Payload: Atlantis F09 / TDRS 5 [IUS]. Mass: 21,265 kg (46,881 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Adamson, Baker, Mike, Blaha, Low, Lucid. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-43. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.89 days. Decay Date: 1991-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21638 . COSPAR: 1991-054A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 5 satellite. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-E/lnertial Upper Stage (lUS), Space Station Heatpipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE)-ll, Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument 03, Optical Communications Through the Shuttle Window (OCTW), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Auroral Photography Experiment (APE)-B, Bioserve-lnstrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BlMDA)-02, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-03, Protein Crystal Growth Ill Block Il, Space Acceleration Measure-ment System (SAMS), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE)-02, Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE).

  • TDRS 5 - . Payload: TDRS E. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 21639 . COSPAR: 1991-054B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA communications; 174 deg W; deployed from STS-43 8/2/91. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 174 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 174.28 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 171.61W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


1991 August 3 - .
  • STS-43 - Wakeup Song: Back in the High Life - . Flight: STS-43. "Back in the High Life" by Steve Winwood.

1991 August 4 - .
  • STS-43 - Wakeup Song: Dances With Wolves - . Flight: STS-43. "Dances With Wolves" soundtrack for James Adamson who is from Montana.

1991 August 5 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • N-C-M09 MISTI C Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1991 August 6 - .
  • STS-43 - Wakeup Song: Phantom of the Opera - . Flight: STS-43. "Phantom of the Opera" by the Clear Lake High School Orchestra. Commander John Blaha's daughter, Caroline, plays in the orchestra..

1991 August 7 - .
  • STS-43 - Wakeup Song: What a Wonderful World - . Flight: STS-43. "What a Wonderful World" Louis Armstrong.

1991 August 7 - . 05:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1991 August 8 - .
  • Death of James Benson 'Jim' Irwin at Glenwood City, Colorado. Natural causes - Heart attack. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 15. Eighth person to walk on the moon..

1991 August 8 - .
  • STS-43 - Wakeup Song: Cowboy in the Continental Suit - . Flight: STS-43. "Cowboy in the Continental Suit" by Chris LeDoux for country and western fan James Adamson.

1991 August 9 - .
  • STS-43 - Wakeup Song: Washington and Lee University fight song - . Flight: STS-43. "Washington and Lee University fight song" for graduate G. David Low.

1991 August 9 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • N-A-T13 TURBO A Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1991 August 9 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • N-B-E16 EFIELD-A Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1991 August 10 - .
  • China accepts nuclear nonproliferation treaty - . Nation: China.

1991 August 10 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Columbia overhauled at Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

    The orbiter returned to service on 9 February 1992. 62 modifications were made, including replacement of the nose cap; removal of the SEADS and SUMS experiment packages; new Auxiliary Power Units installed; carbon brakes and a drag chute installed; Orbiter 6.0 structural modifications made; AP-101S General Purpose Computers replaced the older AP-101P's; and the Thermal Protection System was reworked.


1991 August 11 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1991 August 11 - .
1991 August 14 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Intelsat 6 F-5 - . Payload: Intelsat 605. Mass: 4,296 kg (9,471 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 21653 . COSPAR: 1991-055A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    International communications; 14.5 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1991-1997; 27 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 27.48 deg W drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 174.03E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.


1991 August 15 - . 09:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 3-05 - . Payload: Meteor-3 s/n 5/TOMS. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21655 . COSPAR: 1991-056A. Apogee: 1,208 km (750 mi). Perigee: 1,185 km (736 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 109.30 min.

    Gathering of hydrometeorological data; testing of data-gathering and measuring equipment, of optical and mechanical television and radiometric scanning apparatus, of instruments for geophysical research and of methods for the remote sensing of the atmosph ere and the Earth's surface for various branches of the USSR economy and science; charting the state of the ozone layer, using American (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument. Meteor 3-5 continued to operate during 1993-1994, but its US TOMS developed problems in May, 1993, and failed entirely in late 1994. However, the data returned by the 30-kg instrument, particularly over the south polar region, was exceptionally valuable.


1991 August 15 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 August 17 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1991 August 19 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 August 20 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-9 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 210. Mass: 7,311 kg (16,117 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12, Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 40.39 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . Decay Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 21662 . COSPAR: 1991-057A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried reentry capsule for return of 150 kg of experiment results. Docked with Mir on 23 Aug 1991 00:54:17 GMT. Undocked on 30 Sep 1991 01:53:00 GMT. 350 kg return capsule detached from the Propess' orbital module at an altitude of 110 to 130 km. The capsule underwent a ballistic descent to 15 km, followed by a parachute descent from there to surface. The capsule's beacon began transmitting at 4.5 km. Landed in Kazakhstan on 30 Sep 1991 08:16:24 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.04 days.


1991 August 21 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Resurs F-13 - . Payload: Resurs-F2 17F42 s/n 7. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F2. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21664 . COSPAR: 1991-058A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of the various branches of the national economy of the USSR, and solution of problems relating to the environment and to international cooperation. .

1991 August 22 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/1?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2154 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 21666 . COSPAR: 1991-059A. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 969 km (602 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1991 August 25 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: H-1.
  • Yuri 3B - . Payload: BS-3b. Mass: 1,115 kg (2,458 lb). Nation: Japan. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: BS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Completed Operations Date: 1999-04-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 21668 . COSPAR: 1991-060A. Apogee: 36,244 km (22,520 mi). Perigee: 36,171 km (22,475 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 1,457.70 min. TV; 110 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1991-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 91.59 deg E drifting at 5.350 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 152.69E drifting at 5.334W degrees per day..

1991 August 28 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1991 August 29 - . 06:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • IRS-1B - . Payload: IRS 1B. Mass: 980 kg (2,160 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 21688 . COSPAR: 1991-061A. Apogee: 919 km (571 mi). Perigee: 892 km (554 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Remote sensing; launched commercially by USSR. Operational remote sensing satellite for natural resources management. .

1991 August 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 737. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • DASO-7 demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 August 30 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II.
  • Solar-A - . Payload: Yohkoh. Mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: Yohkoh. Decay Date: 2005-09-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 21694 . COSPAR: 1991-062A. Apogee: 754 km (468 mi). Perigee: 516 km (320 mi). Inclination: 31.3000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. X-ray imaging of Sun..

1991 August 30 - . 08:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Second stage exploded due to heating problems in main engine.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Tselina-2 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 11. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2.

1991 August 31 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1991 September 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 September 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT145GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1991 September 4 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Talos Castor.
  • Tungsten dust cloud Target/Release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Tungsten dust release for SDIO..

1991 September 6 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1991 September 7 - .
  • Death of Chandler Cole 'Chan' Ross - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross, Chan. American engineer. Director of numerous advanced projects at Aerojet (including Aerotojet, Aerorocket, NERVA)..

1991 September 11 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1991 September 12 - . 05:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Talos Castor.
  • Target / release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Tungsten dust release for SDIO..

1991 September 12 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 12 - . 23:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-48 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown, Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Payload: Discovery F13 / UARS. Mass: 7,854 kg (17,315 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-48. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.35 days. Decay Date: 1991-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 21700 . COSPAR: 1991-063A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 575 km (357 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research. Payloads: Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM)-03, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE)-01, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-ll-2, Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics, Experiment (MODE)-01, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-04, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM-02), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll-06, Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM)-03, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  • UARS - . Payload: Discovery F13 / UARS. Mass: 6,795 kg (14,980 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MMS. Spacecraft: UARS. Decay Date: 2011-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21701 . COSPAR: 1991-063B. Apogee: 582 km (361 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min.

    Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite; deployed from STS-48 on 15 Sepetember 1991. It studied the depletion of the ozone layer, confirming that CFCs cause the `ozone hole', and improved models of upper atmosphere chemistry, including studies of methane in the Antarctic, sulphur dioxide from volcanoes, and global wind measurements. Some media hysteria surrounded its reentry on 24 September 2011, but it apparently came down unobserved in the Pacific Ocean east of Hawaii.


1991 September 13 - .
  • STS-48 - Wakeup Song: Hound Dog - . Flight: STS-48. "Hound Dog" by Elvis Presley.

1991 September 13 - . 17:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2155 - . Payload: SPRN No. 6. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21702 . COSPAR: 1991-064A. Apogee: 35,825 km (22,260 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min.

    Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Declared purpose: 'Relaying of telegraph and telephone information'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 3 September 2001 located at 160.51 deg W drifting at 0.257 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 94.69E drifting at 0.424W degrees per day.


1991 September 14 - .
  • STS-48 - Wakeup Song: Release Me - . Flight: STS-48. "Release Me" by Elvis Presley. In anticipation of deployment of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)..

1991 September 15 - .
  • STS-48 - Wakeup Song: Bare Necessities - . Flight: STS-48. "Bare Necessities" from film"Jungle Book". Played for Ken Reightler's daughters who were in Mission Control Center viewing room..

1991 September 15 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: TR-1. Launch Vehicle: TR-1A.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1991 September 16 - .
  • STS-48 - Wakeup Song: Are You Lonesome Tonight? - . Flight: STS-48. "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" by Elvis Presley. Chosen for its line"Are you sorry we drifted apart?" referring to Discovery's separation from its payload (UARS).

1991 September 17 - .
  • STS-48 - Wakeup Song: Return to Sender - . Flight: STS-48. "Return to Sender" by Elvis Presley. In honor of expected landing. .

1991 September 17 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 17 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 17 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-41 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 48. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21706 . COSPAR: 1991-065A. Apogee: 39,145 km (24,323 mi). Perigee: 1,209 km (751 mi). Inclination: 63.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1991 September 17 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 September 18 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C2 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1991 September 18 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C3 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1991 September 18 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S4 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi).

1991 September 18 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C5 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 September 18 - .
1991 September 19 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2156 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 21713 . COSPAR: 1991-066A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1991 September 20 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 September 20 - . 21:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C7 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 September 20 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S8 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1991 September 20 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 September 20 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C10 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 September 20 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S11 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1991 September 23 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC37. LV Family: Sprint ABM. Launch Vehicle: HEDI. FAILURE: Failure.
  • KITE-2 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1991 September 24 - . 09:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1991 September 25 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1991 September 26 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P.
  • Anik E1 - . Mass: 2,977 kg (6,563 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 5000. USAF Sat Cat: 21726 . COSPAR: 1991-067A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 111.1 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 111 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 118.68 deg W drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 31.37E drifting at 3.973W degrees per day..

1991 September 27 - . 23:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • METAL/L-L12 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1991 September 28 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2157 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 59. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21728 . COSPAR: 1991-068A. Apogee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,408 km (874 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2158 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 60. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21729 . COSPAR: 1991-068B. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2159 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 61. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21730 . COSPAR: 1991-068C. Apogee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Perigee: 1,388 km (862 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.80 min.
  • Cosmos 2160 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 62. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21731 . COSPAR: 1991-068D. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,398 km (868 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2161 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 63. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21732 . COSPAR: 1991-068E. Apogee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Perigee: 1,394 km (866 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.80 min.
  • Cosmos 2162 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 64. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21733 . COSPAR: 1991-068F. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,409 km (875 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.

1991 September 30 - . 20:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 September 30 - . 21:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C14 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 September 30 - . 21:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S15 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1991 September 30 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S16 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1991 October - .
  • Lockheed feasibility studies of HL-20 - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: HL-20, Space Station Freedom.

    Lockheed Advanced Development Company began a study to determine the feasibility of developing a prototype and operational system. The study objectives were to assess technical attributes, to determine flight qualification requirements, and to develop cost and schedule estimates.


1991 October - .
  • Galileo passes by asteroid Gaspra - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Galileo. Spacecraft: Galileo probe. Galileo returned the first images of an asteroid..

1991 October 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 15.0 N x 65.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-20.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1991 October 2 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1991 October 2 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 October 3 - .
  • Death of Joseph Kaplan - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kaplan. Hungarian-American geophysicist, heavily involved in efforts in the 1950s to launch the first satellite, served as the chair of the US National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, 1953-1963..

1991 October 3 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 October 3 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C18 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 October 3 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S19 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 October 3 - . 23:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S20 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1991 October 4 - . 00:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 October 4 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-C22 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1991 October 4 - . 00:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S23 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 October 4 - . 01:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • METAL/L-S24 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 October 4 - . 01:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • METAL/L-L25 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1991 October 4 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Foton 7 - . Payload: Foton s/n 7L. Mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Foton. Duration: 15.54 days. Decay Date: 1991-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21737 . COSPAR: 1991-070A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Materials research; carried German, French experiments. Continuation of space materials research conducted jointly with Germany and France. .

1991 October 9 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Cosmos 2163 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 3. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 58.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 21741 . COSPAR: 1991-071A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited..

1991 October 10 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 October 10 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2164 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1Yu. Decay Date: 1992-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 21743 . COSPAR: 1991-072A. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Radar calibration mission..

1991 October 10 - .
1991 October 13 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1991 October 14 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). LEAP-1. Missile Tracking and Discrimination for SDIO..

1991 October 16 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1991 October 17 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-10 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 211. Mass: 7,306 kg (16,106 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3, Soyuz TM-13. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 95.50 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-20 12:03:05 . Decay Date: 1992-01-20 12:03:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 21746 . COSPAR: 1991-073A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. First attempted to dock with Mir on 19 October 1991. The docking was automatically aborted at a distance of 150 m from the station. Successfully docked with the forward port of Mir on on 21 Oct 1991 03:40:50 GMT. Unloading began next day. Undocked on 20 Jan 1992 07:13:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Jan 1992 12:03:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.35 days. Total docked time 91.15 days.

  • VBK Raduga - . Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3, Soyuz TM-13. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Decay Date: 1992-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21746 . COSPAR: 1991-073xx. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.

1991 October 23 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 24 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 35L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21759 . COSPAR: 1991-074A. Apogee: 36,394 km (22,614 mi). Perigee: 36,220 km (22,500 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,462.80 min.

    Stationed at 80 deg E. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television broadcasts. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 158.79 deg E drifting at 6.583 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 172.52W drifting at 6.586W degrees per day.


1991 October 29 - .
1991 October 29 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Intelsat 6A F-1 - . Payload: Intelsat 601. Mass: 4,330 kg (9,540 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 21765 . COSPAR: 1991-075A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    International communications; 27.5 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 27 deg W in 1992-1997; 34 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 34.48 deg W drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 63.65E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.


1991 October 30 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 November 1 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1991 November 4 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 737. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • DASO-8 demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 6 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1991 November 8 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403A.
  • USA 72 - . Payload: Intruder 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. USAF Sat Cat: 21775 . COSPAR: 1991-076A. Apogee: 1,321 km (820 mi). Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 106.40 min. Second launch by Titan 4 of new generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. However earlier NOSS weighed only 2,000 kg; Titan 4 booster has seven times this capacity. What else was launched?.
  • USA 74 - . Payload: Intruder 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. USAF Sat Cat: 21799 . COSPAR: 1991-076C. Apogee: 1,270 km (789 mi). Perigee: 954 km (593 mi). Inclination: 63.4270 deg. Period: 107.44 min.
  • USA 76 - . Payload: Intruder 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. USAF Sat Cat: 21808 . COSPAR: 1991-076D. Apogee: 1,270 km (789 mi). Perigee: 954 km (593 mi). Inclination: 63.4280 deg. Period: 107.44 min.
  • USA 77 - . Payload: Intruder 2. Nation: USA. Agency: NRL, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. USAF Sat Cat: 21809 . COSPAR: 1991-076E. Apogee: 1,270 km (789 mi). Perigee: 954 km (593 mi). Inclination: 63.4270 deg. Period: 107.44 min.

1991 November 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CET - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CET - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CINC Evaluation Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • CET - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 11 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT146GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1991 November 12 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2165 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 65. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21779 . COSPAR: 1991-077A. Apogee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,395 km (866 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2168 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 68. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21782 . COSPAR: 1991-077D. Apogee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,390 km (860 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.80 min.
  • Cosmos 2169 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 69. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21783 . COSPAR: 1991-077E. Apogee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,383 km (859 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2167 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 67. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21781 . COSPAR: 1991-077C. Apogee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,400 km (800 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2166 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 66. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21780 . COSPAR: 1991-077B. Apogee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,407 km (874 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2170 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 70. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 21784 . COSPAR: 1991-077F. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.

1991 November 13 - . 15:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1991 November 16 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: LC36 L-630. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • CONSORT 4 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SSI. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). CONSORT 4 - 9 microgravity experiments..

1991 November 18 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1991 November 19 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • WSMC and ESMC redesignated 30th Space Wing - . Nation: USA. WSMC and ESMC redesignated 30th Space Wing and 45th Space Wing, respectively. Simultaneously, the word 'Test' was removed from the geographic designation, 'Western Test Range.'.

1991 November 20 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 20 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2171 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 21787 . COSPAR: 1991-078A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1991 November 22 - . 13:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2172 - . Payload: Potok no. 7 s/n 18L. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1995-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21789 . COSPAR: 1991-079A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Stationed at 13 deg W. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1991-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 7.91 deg W drifting at 0.026 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 39.91W drifting at 0.204W degrees per day.


1991 November 23 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 28 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: MBB. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi).

1991 November 24 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-44 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Payload: Atlantis F10 / DSP 16 [IUS]. Mass: 20,242 kg (44,625 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-44. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.95 days. Decay Date: 1991-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21795 . COSPAR: 1991-080A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. Payloads: Defense Support Program satellite/ Inertial Upper Stage, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor, Terra Scout, Military Man in Space, Shuttle Activation Monitor, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor, Radiation Monitoring Equipment Ill, Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument, Visual Function Tester 1.

  • USA 75 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 14 F16. Mass: 2,360 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 21805 . COSPAR: 1991-080B. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Inclination: 2.5000 deg. Period: 1,421.90 min.

    DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite, deployed from shuttle STS-44 on 25 November 1991. Only DSP launched from the shuttle before the Challenger disaster moved the payload to the Titan 4. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 130 deg W in 1992; 70 deg E in 1992; 8 deg E in 1999; 40 deg W in 2000. Still in service as of March 2007.


1991 November 25 - .
  • STS-44 - Wakeup Song: Space - the final frontier - . Flight: STS-44.

    "Space - the final frontier" .

    "This is the voyage of the Space Shuttle Atlantis - Its ten-day mission: To explore new methods of remote sensing and observation of the planet Earth - To seek out new data on radiation in space, and a new understanding of the effects of microgravity on the human body - To boldly go where two hundred and fifty-five men and women have gone before. Hello - Fred, Tom, Story, Jim, Tom, and especially Mario - This is Patrick Stewart, choosing not to outrank you as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, saying that we are confident of a productive and successful mission. Make it so". All this to the theme music of"Star Trek - the Next Generation" Capcom Marsha Ivins contacted actor Patrick Stewart to request the special wakeup call for Mario Runco, a big"Star Trek" fan.


1991 November 26 - .
  • STS-44 - Wakeup Song: This is the Army, Mr. Jones - . Flight: STS-44. "This is the Army, Mr. Jones" by Irving Berlin from the movie,"This is the Army." preceded by Reveille (bugle call) followed by gunfire..

1991 November 26 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 27 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2173 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 21796 . COSPAR: 1991-081A. Apogee: 1,017 km (631 mi). Perigee: 946 km (587 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 4 of constellation..

1991 November 28 - .
  • STS-44 - Wakeup Song: Cheeseburger in Paradise - . Flight: STS-44. "Cheeseburger in Paradise" Jimmy Buffett preceded by recorded turkey gobbles.

1991 November 28 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 28 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • USA 73 - . Payload: DMSP S-12/Star 37S S/N 15029. Mass: 830 kg (1,820 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS N. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21798 . COSPAR: 1991-082A. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 835 km (518 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. 500th Atlas launch..

1991 November 29 - .
  • STS-44 - Wakeup Song: Twist and Shout - . Flight: STS-44. "Twist and Shout" from the movie"Ferris Bueller's Day Off".

1991 November 30 - .
  • STS-44 - Wakeup Song: University of Alabama fight song - . Flight: STS-44. "University of Alabama fight song" and Auburn University fight song. For football game that day between the schools and Auburn graduates Jim Voss and Jan Davis. Voss was on Atlantis for his first spaceflight, Davis was the Capcom..

1991 December - .
  • HL-20 Mock-up tests completed - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: HL-20, Space Station Freedom, X-24A, X-38.

    NASA, North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T University built a full-scale model of the HL-20 for human factors research on the concept. In the end, space station Freedom became the International Space Station. As the initial crew emergency rescue vehicle, the Russian Soyuz spacecraft was selected. However NASA, looking for a higher-capacity alternative and concerned about reliable availability of the Soyuz in the future, did begin development of the X-38 CERV in 1997. The X-38 was however based on the Johnson concept of parachute-assisted landing, and used the pure-USA X-24 lifting body shape....


1991 December 1 - .
  • Death of James C Fletcher - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fletcher. American engineer, administrator of NASA 1971-1977 (completion of Apollo and beginning of shuttle) and 1986-1989 (NASA restructuring after Challenger disaster)..

1991 December 1 - .
  • STS-44 - Wakeup Song: In the Mood - . Flight: STS-44. "In the Mood" ..

1991 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: KALMAR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-27. Launch Vehicle: Zyb.
  • Sprint Technology mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1991 December 2 - .
1991 December 4 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1991 December 5 - .
  • Mir News 115: Mir solar panel damaged by space debris. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3, Soyuz TM-13.

    On 4 Dec. 1991 during pass in orb. 33171 (1103 UTC) Volkov spoke with a Pyotr (might have been Klimuk) about the Ukraine. Volkov made a passing reference to the fact that the crew discovered 2 small holes In one of the solar panels of Module-D. About this damage the cosmonauts spoke during the first 3 passes on 5 Dec. 1991. They made images with a TV camera, but these were not good enough for analyses. To get better images the cosmonauts had to install a special camera in the transition section (P.Kh.O.) and therefor they had to deploy and connect a cable. In Krikalyov's opinion the only way to get a good insight in the damage a space-walk (EVA) will be necessary. On 5 Dec. they spoke about 2 great holes and 1 small hole. Krikalyov even uttered the possibility that the damage has been arisen during the period in which the American Space shuttle 44, Atlantis, had to alter course to avoid a collision with the 3rd of a Soviet rocket launched long ago. So again a substantial problem for the cosmonauts. For a long time the crew are struggling with the water regeneration system Elektron and the attitude control of the complex.

    During the last days Mir almost permanently remained in sunlight and for the orientation of the sensors they used sun-vectors.

    DIVERTING CAPABILITIES OF THE Mir-COMPLEX IN CASE OF 'COLLISION DANGER' :

    In comparison with the American (and Soviet-) Space Shuttles the Mir-station is a 'lame duck '. Even if Norad (or its Soviet opposite side) would warn Mir and TsuP for an object on collision course a quick diverting manoeuvre cannot be executed (within a few minutes). With the engines of the freighter Progress-M and the ferry Soyuz-TM the altitude of the complex can be altered, but this process lasts too long for comfort. The present crew consist of phlegmatic and crisis proof cosmonauts and they seem not to bother about this all. During radio amateur conversations they state that all is going well.

    1ST STAGE ENERGIYA ROCKET BLOWN UP DURING FIRE TEST:

    This news comes from a radiologist in Omsk, N. Spinov. S., also a member of the State Committee for Ecology, reported that on 20 November 1991 near the village Krutaya Gorkia (55 KM from the Siberian town Omsk) the 1st stage of the Energiya rocket exploded due to a failure in the cooling system. In a huge orange cloud the heath of the explosion dispersed and S. demands a detailed investigation for during the last years the number op persons suffering of cancer alarmingly increased.

    (The 1st stage of the Energiya consists of 4 'strap on' boosters, each of which is a modified version of the 1st stage of the Zenith (SL-16) rocket. Fuel is kerosene, oxidiser LOX).

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1991 December 6 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Nike Tomahawk.
  • RED AIR 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi).

1991 December 6 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Nike Tomahawk.
  • RED AIR 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi).

1991 December 7 - . 22:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II.
  • Eutelsat II F3 - . Mass: 1,874 kg (4,131 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 21803 . COSPAR: 1991-083A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 16 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. French registration 1991-8. Transfer orbit was 663 min, 200 x 36000 km x 7.0 deg. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/249 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organi zation. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg E in 1992-1998; 36 deg E in 1999. As of 1 September 2001 located at 21.51 deg E drifting at 0.017 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.40E drifting at 3.531W degrees per day.


1991 December 9 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Aguas Belas Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1991 December 11 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1991 December 14 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1991 December 16 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Telecom 2A - . Mass: 2,275 kg (5,015 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Telecom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 21813 . COSPAR: 1991-084A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    French communications; 3 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 3 deg E in 1992; 8 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 8.05 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 111.59E drifting at 4.763W degrees per day.

  • Inmarsat 2 F3 - . Mass: 1,310 kg (2,880 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 1000. USAF Sat Cat: 21814 . COSPAR: 1991-084B. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Global maritime and mobile communications; 178 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 178 deg E in 1992-1997; 65 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 29 August 2001 located at 65.01 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 155.28W drifting at 15.158W degrees per day.


1991 December 17 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2174 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 14. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21816 . COSPAR: 1991-085A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Topographic mapping for the Army General Staff..

1991 December 18 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 25 - . Payload: AUOS-Z APEKS-IK s/n 301. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 21819 . COSPAR: 1991-086A. Apogee: 2,969 km (1,844 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.50 min.

    Solar activity monitoring; hosted experiments from Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary. Comprehensive study of the effects of artificial impact of modulated electron flows and plasma beams on the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth (forming part of the Apex international scientific project, conducted jointly with Bulgaria, Czechoslovak ia, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania.) Launched with the Czechoslovak satellite Magion-3, separated from the space object Intercosmos-25 on 28 Dec 1991, in accordance with the scientific programme of the Apex project.

  • Magion 3 - . Payload: S2-AP. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: UNKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 21835 . COSPAR: 1991-086E. Apogee: 2,943 km (1,828 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.20 min.

    Separated from Intercosmos 25 on 12/28/91; geophysical. Research of magnetosphere nad the ionosphere of the Earth by passive and active methods. Launched on 18 Dec 1991. The Czechoslovak satellite Magion 3 forms, together with the spacecraft Intercosmos 25, part of the Apex scientific project. Magion 3 was sep arated into an autonomous orbit on 28 Dec 1991. Magion 3 was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 25.


1991 December 19 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 28 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 39L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 21821 . COSPAR: 1991-087A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 6.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1992-1999; 45 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 61.74 deg E drifting at 0.302 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 115.81E drifting at 0.085E degrees per day.


1991 December 20 - . 21:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC175/2. Launch Pad: LC175/58. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • Grand Prix test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 December 21 - . 16:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1991 December 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1991 December 25 - .
  • Soviet Union breaks up - . Nation: Russia. Soviet Union breaks up after President Gorbachev's resignation; constituent republics form Commonwealth of Independent States .

1991 December 25 - .
  • Death of Igor Fedrov. Forced to attempt manual return to earth in December 1991 when left stranded in space by fall of the Soviet Union. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fedrov. Russian phantom cosmonaut. 1998 urban legend held that during the fall of Soviet Union, their cosmonauts were stranded on the Mir space station. Embodied on film by character Fedrov in short Norwegian film 'Kosmonaut'..

1991 December 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3. FAILURE: Third stage failed to ignite. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zhongxing-4 - . Payload: STTW 5. Mass: 1,025 kg (2,259 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Program: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21833 . COSPAR: 1991-088A. Apogee: 34,041 km (21,152 mi). Perigee: 2,023 km (1,257 mi). Inclination: 32.3000 deg. Period: 632.60 min. Third stage failure; unusable orbit. DFH-2 operational communications satellite..


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