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1970 Chronology

1970 During the Year - .
  • N1M-L3M lunar landing complex draft project - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: L3M. Spacecraft: L3M-1970.

    The original draft project anticipated use of a two-launch profile. On the first launch a Block R TB braking stage would be put on a translunar trajectory. The TB would place itself in lunar orbit. Next, the manned L3M lunar lander would be launched. This new spacecraft was much larger than the LK, with a mass of 21 tonnes landed on the lunar surface. The L3M would dock, tail-first, with the TB stage in lunar orbit. The RTB would act as a lunar crasher stage. The L3M would separate from the TB just over the lunar surface, then hover to a soft landing. The crew would spend up 16 days on the surface. Following completion of their work, the landing legs would be left behind, and the L3M would launch itself on a trans-earth trajectory. Just before arrival at earth, the crew would enter their Soyuz capsule, separate from the L3M, and make a lifting re-entry into the earth's atmosphere. It was felt that within the existing funding allocation of the original N1-L3 programme, enough N1's would be available to support a series of landings in 1978-1980.


1970 During the Year - .
  • NASA Space Station / Space Base Studies - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Space Base, Space Station.

    Growth of the 12-man Saturn V-launched Space Station into a 50 man Space Base was a required capability in the Phase B NASA Space Station studies of 1969-1970. The original core Station Module was to be used in the Base build-up several years later or was to be used as a prototype of one of the Space Base modules. Space Base would serve as a major international facility for research, applications and for the support of other space operations such as servicing unmanned satellites.


1970 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-15.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1970? - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Platform: S655. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M013.
  • V7 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-02 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-09 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 Jan - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Tochka.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-05 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: RT-2.
  • RT2 PL70-02 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-03 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-04 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-08 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-12 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-07 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-06 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-03 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-05 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9A.
  • UBP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-04 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 January 2 - . LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Tsiklon 3 launch vehicle development authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Meteor, Tselina-D. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Creation of the Carrier-Rocket 11K68 on The Basis of 11K69 RN and S5M Stage for Launch of Space Apparatus 'Tselina' and .Meteor'--approval of work on the Tsiklon-3 RN.

1970 January 2 - . 06:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 30.01 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 January 3 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Greely. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para, Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1970 January 4 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • NASA canceled the Apollo 20 mission and stretched out the remaining seven missions - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 20. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing.

    NASA had canceled the Apollo 20 mission and stretched out the remaining seven missions to six-month intervals, Deputy Administrator George M. Low told the press in an interview after dedication of the Lunar Science Institute (next to MSC in Houston). Budget restrictions had brought the decision to suspend Saturn V launch vehicle production after vehicle 515 and to use the Apollo 20 Saturn V to launch the first U.S. space station in 1972.


1970 January 4 - .
  • Birth of Christopher John 'Chris' Cassidy - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cassidy. American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on..

1970 January 5 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 January 6 - .
  • Apollo MSC Experiments Review Group established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. An MSC Experiments Review Group was established to consider new or late experiments for the Apollo flights. The group would recommend MSC policy on changes in experiments and would serve as a management clearing house..

1970 January 6 - .
  • Birth of David Saint-Jacques - . Nation: Canada. Related Persons: Saint-Jacques. Canadian physicist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on..

1970 January 7 - .
  • NASA issued instructions for deletion of the Apollo 20 mission from the program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 20. Spacecraft: Apollo LM.

    NASA issued instructions for deletion of the Apollo 20 mission from the program. MSC was directed to take immediate action to:

    • Stop work on LM-14 and determine its disposition.
    • Delete requirements for the Apollo 20 spacesuits and portable and secondary life support systems.
    • Determine disposition of CSM 115A pending a final decision as to its possible use in a second workshop mission.
    • Reevaluate orbital science experiments and assignments and prepare proposed revisions.

1970 January 8 - .
  • Dale D. Myers was appointed NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller.

    Dale D. Myers was appointed NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight with an effective date of 12 January. He succeeded George E. Mueller, who left NASA on 10 December 1969 to become a vice president of General Dynamics Corporation. Prior to his acceptance of the NASA position, Myers was Vice President and General Manager of the Space Shuttle Program at North American Rockwell.


1970 January 9 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 318 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4292 . COSPAR: 1970-001A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 January 10 - .
  • Death of Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev at Moscow, Russia. Natural causes - Complications from stomach ulcer - pneumonia after stomach operation for an ulcer due to panc - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev. After getting progressively worse after his surgery, Belyayev dies in the hospital. Meanwhile initial planning is underway for the Soyuz 9 mission..

1970 January 10 - . LV Family: Scout.
  • A NASA/Defense Department agreement provided that NASA would contract for the services of a Scout (SLV-1) launch team beginning on 1 July 1970. - . Under Air Force supervision, the team would launch Scout vehicles from Vandenberg AFB for both NASA and the Defense Department..

1970 January 10 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1970 January 10 - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1970 January 11 - .
  • Funeral arrangements for Belyayev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev.

    Kamanin is making state funeral arrangements for Belyayev. The question is -- shall he be given the same send-off as Gagarin and Komarov, or less? Word comes down from the Kremlin - less. He is to be buried not in the Kremlin wall at Red Square, but in Novodevich Cemetary.


1970 January 12 - .
  • Dale D Myers' appointed NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller. Program: Apollo.

    Dale D. Myers' appointment as NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight was announced effective January 12, to succeed Dr. George E. Mueller, who had joined General Dynamics Corp. in New York City as a Vice President. Before this appointment, Myers was Vice President and General Manager of the Space Shuttle Program, North American Rockwell Corp.


1970 January 12 - . Launch Site: Minot AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Force Modernization to the Minuteman III (LGM-30G) began at Wing III, the 91st Strategic Missile Wing, at Minot AFB, North Dakota. - .

1970 January 13 - . 05:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • LRL ROX-3 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1970 January 13 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 42 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 January 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 January 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 04:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Auroral lower elevatuib Ionosphere / plasma / meteor mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 201 km (124 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1970 January 14 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 6531 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 25 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1970-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4296 . COSPAR: 1970-002A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 110.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. The 25th Air Force Titan IIIB/Agena D space booster was launched from Vandenberg AFB. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1970 January 15 - . 00:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M.
  • Intelsat 3 F-6 - . Mass: 293 kg (645 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 3. Completed Operations Date: 1977-05-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 4297 . COSPAR: 1970-003A. Apogee: 36,126 km (22,447 mi). Perigee: 36,079 km (22,418 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,452.30 min.

    Stationed at 336 deg E. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 25 deg W in 1970; over the Atlantic Ocean 30 deg W in 1970-1971; over the Atlantic Ocean 20 deg W in 1971 Apr-1972 Mar; over the Indian Ocean 64 deg E in 1972-1974; over the Pacific Ocean 177 deg W in 1975 As of 5 September 2001 located at 163.49 deg E drifting at 4.024 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 47.49E drifting at 4.027W degrees per day.


1970 January 15 - . 13:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 319 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 25. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-07-01 . Decay Date: 1970-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4299 . COSPAR: 1970-004A. Apogee: 1,508 km (937 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 January 16 - .
  • Apollo 16-19 lunar orbital science experiments revised - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 16.

    An MSC meeting to realign the Apollo 16-19 lunar orbital science experiments recommended that the Sounding Radar Experiment, S-167, be deleted and the Lunar Electromagnetic Sounder, S-168, should be developed and flown. Scientific-value for the experiments was ranked in the following descending priorities for the various scientific disciplines: geochemistry, particles and fields, imagery and geodesy, surface and subsurface profiles, and atmospheres.


1970 January 16 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC161. Launch Pad: LC161/ShPU-2. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 16 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Auroral extreme ultraviolet Aurora / aeronomy / chemica mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 January 16 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 320 - . Payload: DS-MO s/n 3. Mass: 375 kg (826 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-MO. Completed Operations Date: 1970-02-10 . Decay Date: 1970-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4301 . COSPAR: 1970-005A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilisation and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments..

1970 January 16 - . 11:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Bullpup Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 41 km (25 mi).

1970 January 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 17 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1970 January 17 - . 03:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi).

1970 January 18 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1970 January 19 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 32 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1398 kph. Maximum Altitude - 26410 m. Flight Time - 410 sec..

1970 January 19 - .
  • Soviet leadership interest in manned spaceflight has collapsed. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev, Brezhnev, Bykovsky, Chelomei, Mishin, Popovich. Program: Salyut, Almaz, Skylab. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-S.

    Kamanin notes that interest of the leadership in manned spaceflight has collapsed with the end of the moon race. Brezhnev has declared that his primary interest is in earth orbital space stations. Both Mishin and Chelomei have stations in development, but the work is progressing slowly. There will be no launch of either of their projects until 1972 - which means the Soviets will be beaten by the US Skylab. Kamanin believes the Americans can never be beaten in space unless all space projects are guided firmly by a single Ministry of Defence and Civilian Space office. Meanwhile the Hong Kong flu epidemic is hitting many at the cosmodrome - Moroz, Popovich, and Bykovsky are all seriously ill.


1970 January 20 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 321 - . Payload: DS-U2-MG s/n 1. Mass: 365 kg (804 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-MG. Completed Operations Date: 1970-03-23 . Decay Date: 1970-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4308 . COSPAR: 1970-006A. Apogee: 479 km (297 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Studed the Earth's magnetic poles..

1970 January 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 21 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 3H.
  • Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1,848 km (1,148 mi).

1970 January 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 322 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4315 . COSPAR: 1970-007A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 January 22 - .
  • Apollo Applications Program Managers met at MSFC and conducted a full review of the ATM status. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Apollo ATM, Skylab. Among the items covered were the film vault design, film test program, subsystems status, module ground test program, quality and reliability, mission operations support to MSC, prototype refurbishment, project schedules, and funding..

1970 January 23 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • NASA Houston in-house study of shuttle concepts - . Nation: USA.

    The study was in an attempt to resolve disputes between the centres as to the best approach. Houston's Faget straight-wing two-stage vehicle was in competition with concepts from other centres - recoverable versions of Saturn boosters, and an advanced single-stage-to-orbit Aerospaceplane. Payload for the Faget vehicle was to be only 5,700 to 6,800 kg to low earth orbit, and the system was to be operational by the end of 1975, after the last Apollo flight.


1970 January 23 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6.
  • ITOS 1 - . Payload: Tiros M. Mass: 309 kg (681 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 4320 . COSPAR: 1970-008A. Apogee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Perigee: 1,434 km (891 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.

    NASA successfully launched the Improved Tiros Operational Satellite (ITOS I) (TIROS-M) from Vandenberg AFB aboard a two-stage, Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/Delta (SLV-2K), Thorad/Delta, using six solid-propellaiit, strap-on Thiokol TX 354-5 Castor II motors. This was the first use of the "Super Six" Thor/Delta (DSV-3N-6) booster vehicle that employed the six Castor II motors, three of which ignited 30 seconds after lift-off. Generating nearly 600,000 pounds of thrust, the new launch vehicle could orbit a spacecraft weighing more than twice as much as the previous Tiros Operational Satellites. Improved TIROS Operational Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

  • Oscar 5 - . Payload: Australis-Oscar 5. Mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Clemson. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 4321 . COSPAR: 1970-008B. Apogee: 1,478 km (918 mi). Perigee: 1,434 km (891 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.

    Australis-OSCAR 5 was launched piggyback with ITOS-1 (TIROS-M weather satellite. Weight 17.7 kg (9 kg of which was battery mass). Box shaped 304 x 431 x 152 mm. 2 meter monopole and 10 meter dipole antennas. It was the first amateur satellite to be remotely controlled. Built by students at The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Battery powered, Australis-OSCAR 5 transmitted telemetry on both 2 meter (144.050 MHz at 50 mW) and 10 meter (29.450 MHz at 250 mW) bands that operated for 23 and 46 days respectively. Passive magnetic attitude stabilization was performed by carrying two bar magnets to align with the Earth's magnetic field in order to provide a favorable antenna footprint. The University of Melbourne compiled tracking reports from hundreds of stations in 27 countries.


1970 January 23 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 January 24 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar infrared Solar infrared mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1970 January 25 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150 MI.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1970 January 25 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi).

1970 January 26 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 33 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1443 kph. Maximum Altitude - 26730 m. Flight Time - 411 sec..

1970 January 26 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • DLR N-J-19 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1970 January 27 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 357 km (221 mi).

1970 January 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1970 January 29 - .
  • Kamanin is subject to a government audit of the Gagarin Centre and its future plans. - . Nation: Russia. The audit reveals that the institute should receive an 850,000 rouble budget increase, and construct new training facilities..

1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. LV Family: DF-3. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • R&D (Minfeng target) - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). First test of prototype DF-3 (perhaps same configuration as CZ-1); not deployed..

1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 30 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63. FAILURE: Second stage failed 128 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DS-P1-I s/n 6 - . Payload: DS-P1-I. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1970 January 30 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • DLR N-J-20 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1970 January 31 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1970 February 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Space station programs rationalised. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Mishin. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-S, Soyuz OB-VI.

    Brezhnev orders a cooperative crash program to build a civilian space station to beat Skylab into orbit. The civilian station (later named Salyut) will use the Almaz spaceframe fitted out with Soyuz functional equipment. Mishin's OIS military station was cancelled and Chelomei's Almaz would continue, but as second priority to the civilian station. The Soyuz 7K-S station ferry, the 7K-ST, would be revised to be a more conservative modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK. The OIS cosmonaut group was incorporated into the Almaz group.


1970 February 1 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. Launch Vehicle: JCR.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 February 2 - .
  • Soyuz 9 experiment review - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Nikolayev visits the IMBP to review the modified ECS required for the long-duration Soyuz 9 mission. This will have to function reliably for 20 days. The biomedical experiments and objectives of the mission are also reviewed..

1970 February 2 - . 23:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • DLR A-BBV-23 Synove Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi).

1970 February 3 - . 06:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. Launch Vehicle: LS-C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 February 3 - . 22:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 25 / Polar 1 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi).

1970 February 4 - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. Launch Vehicle: JCR.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 February 4 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • SERT 2 - . Mass: 1,404 kg (3,095 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Cleveland. Class: Technology. Type: Ion engine technology satellite. Spacecraft: SERT. USAF Sat Cat: 4327 . COSPAR: 1970-009A. Apogee: 1,046 km (649 mi). Perigee: 1,039 km (645 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 106.00 min.

    Space Electric Rocket Test; the ion engines aboard were operated until 1981. The SERT 2 development program started in 1966 and included thruster ground tests of 6742 hours and 5169 hours duration. A prototype version of the SERT 2 spacecraft was ground-tested for a period of 2400 hours with an operating ion engine. In addition to diagnostic equipment and related ion engine hardware, the spacecraft had two identical 15 cm diameter, mercury ion engines. Flight objectives included in-space operation for a period of 6 months, measurement of thrust, and demonstration of electromagnetic compatibility. The thruster maximum power level was 0.85 kW, and this provided operation at a 28 mN thrust level at 4200 s specific impulse. Flight data were obtained from 1970 to 1981 with an ion engine operating intermittently in one of three different modes, namely, HV ion extraction, discharge chamber operation only, or just neutralizer operation. Major results were that two mercury engines thrusted for periods of 3781 hours and 2011 hours. Test duration was limited due to shorts in the ion optical system. Thrust measured in space and on the ground agreed within the measurement uncertainties. Up to 300 thruster restarts were demonstrated. One power-processing unit accumulated nearly 17,900 hours during the course of the mission. Additionally, the ion propulsion system was electromagnetically compatible with all other spacecraft systems.


1970 February 4 - . 04:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1970 February 4 - . 05:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C57 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1970 February 4 - . 06:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aurora / aeronomy / chemica mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi).

1970 February 4 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 February 5 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 February 5 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1970 February 6 - .
  • Requirements for Apollo lunar roving vehicle (LRV) established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LRV.

    A statement of agreements was reached between NASA Hq. and the Centers covering the requirements for a lunar roving vehicle (LRV). Appropriate portions of the agreements were being incorporated in a revised Apollo Program Specification and in Apollo Program Directive No. 4.


1970 February 6 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. Launch Pad: LC81/23?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. FAILURE: Failure of vehicle on launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ye-8-5 s/n 405 - failure of vehicle on launch - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 405. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1970-02-06 . Robotic lunar soil return mission..

1970 February 6 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 626. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 6 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC.
  • ESRO S44 / 1 Stellar ultraviolet Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1970 February 7 - .
  • Soyuz 10 and 11 crew selections; Soyuz 9 experiment review - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut, Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Kamanin meets with nine generals involved in supervising aspects of the space programme. Only one is from the VVS aviation, the rest have artillery or rocket backgrounds. Naturally they have no bad words for the RSVN or TsUKOS. At the centre, crew selection for the Soyuz 10 and Soyuz 11 missions to the DOS space station are underway. A review is conducted of the biomedical and zero-G studies planned for Soyuz 9. This is followed by a meeting with General Komarov and the cosmonauts on plans for the new cosmonaut training building and a nine-story apartment building.


1970 February 7 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 February 7 - . 05:31 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150 MI.
  • Infrared Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1970 February 8 - .
  • Leonov wants to send letter to Brezhnev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Brezhnev, Grechko, Andrei, Keldysh, Krylov, Leonov, Mishin, Serbin, Smirnov, Ustinov, Zakharov.

    Work continues at the Gagarin Centre even on Sundays. Kamanin studies the reorganization of space units within the Ministry of Defence. Leonov wants to write a letter to Brezhnev, complaining about the management of the space programme. He wants to finger Mishin, Keldysh, Sminrov, Serbin, Ustinov, Krylov, Zakharov, and Grechko by name. Kamanin asks him -- can all the cosmonauts write to the head of state whenever they want? Who will protect them from the inferno of backlash that would result? He doesn't support Leonov's idea.


1970 February 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/Trident.
  • RMP-B-15 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1970 February 9 - .
  • Salyut project begins. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-T. Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 105-41 'On creation of the DOS using Almaz as a basis' was issued..

1970 February 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 10 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 February 10 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 February 10 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 323 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4328 . COSPAR: 1970-010A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 February 10 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S72 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1970 February 11 - .
  • TsUKOS to be GUKOS - . Nation: Russia. Meeting of senior generals. The decision is made to reorganise TsUKOS as GUKOS and place it on an equal footing with the other services..

1970 February 11 - . 04:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 4S.
  • Ohsumi 5 - . Payload: L-4S-5. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Osumi. Decay Date: 2003-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4330 . COSPAR: 1970-011A. Apogee: 2,440 km (1,510 mi). Perigee: 323 km (200 mi). Inclination: 31.0000 deg. Period: 113.40 min. Engineering tests. Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites. Injection point 29.7 N, 145.8 E .

1970 February 11 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2.
  • DMSP-Block-5A F1 - . Payload: DAPP 1524 / OPS 0054. Mass: 195 kg (429 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 4/5 satellites. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5A. USAF Sat Cat: 4331 . COSPAR: 1970-012A. Apogee: 840 km (520 mi). Perigee: 749 km (465 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1970 February 12 - . 03:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 February 12 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 February 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Work was completed on the new, highly sophisticated spacecraft Environment Enclosure for the Titan IIIC facilities at Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral. - .

    The $1.6 million enclosure on the Mobile Service Tower (MST) would provide a temperature and humidity controlled environment for a variety of spacecraft to be orbited by the Titan IIIC. This would allow crews to adjust or repair spacecraft without removing them from the MST. Official Air Force acceptance was announced on 12 March 1970.


1970 February 13 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1970 February 14 - .
  • Soyuz 9 issues - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anokhin, Tregub. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Kamanin meets with TsKBEM (Tregub, Anokhin) to review issues for the Soyuz 9 mission. These include post-flight care of the cosmonauts, the fact the centrifuge is not available for training, storage of rations and the possibility of spoilage during the long flight.


1970 February 14 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • DLR A-BBV-24 Monica Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 14 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • DLR A-BBV-25 Evelyn Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1970 February 14 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi).

1970 February 14 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S66 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 16 - .
  • Salyut crash program authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-T. Decree 57ss 'On creation of the DOS using Almaz as a basis' was issued..

1970 February 16 - .
  • Cosmonaut book - . Nation: Russia. Riabchakov is at the cosmonaut centre, conducting interviews for his upcoming book Soviet Cosmonauts. Kamanin reviews the film script 'Arkadiy Kamanin' by Bezuglov. The film enterprise needs clearance from the VVS before filming can start..

1970 February 16 - . LV Family: N1.
  • The next five year plan emphasized the use of the N1 for MKBS and robot soil return missions to Mars by the mid-1970's. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Chelomei, . Spacecraft: Soyuz, MKBS, Almaz, Salyut, LK.

    But an N1M and improved lunar spacecraft would be developed for establishment of a moon base late in the decade. This was all laid out in a review of the proposed five-year plan on 16 February 1970 (Mishin Diaries 2-302):
    25. Budget Review - 5 Year Plan (presumed in thousands of rubles)
    Experimental design work - 8734
    R&D - 680
    Projected over 5 yrs
    Experimental Base - 3314
    N1-L3 - 2665 (Capital investments)
    DOS - 170
    Almaz - 645
    Topaz - 750 (unknown code name).
    Apparatus for military use - 825 350
    National economy. others - 928 150
    Launch Vehicles - 255 116
    Launch complexes - 476 91
    Skh.A. - 830 293
    EYaRD - 380
    Launch work - 780 760
    N1-L3 71 72 73 74 75 +ķ
    (11A52) 3 4 4 4 2 17
    11A52 for Mars-75 - - - - 2 2
    Grand total 19
    26. On the draft resolution for the MKBS.
    1. Use the same cooperation established in the design and manufacture of DOS.
    2. Expand the cooperation of developers in various departments (especially on power, life support systems, equipment for national economic and scientific purposes).
    2. Create the necessary experimental and industrial base (with the planned cooperation of developers).
    3. Select TsKBEM factory for serial instrument production with MOM.
    4. Determine the organization within MOM (former Nikitin) for the development of simulators and control panels.
    5. Organize mass production 7K-S at the plant in Omsk (or in the factory "Progress").
    6. Hydrogen blocks Sr and S - TSKBEM factory and plant "Progress".
    7. Instruct Affiliate TsKBM (T. Bugajski) development of MKA (shuttle) according to TsKBEM's requirements (an interesting allusion to development of the LKS space shuttle by Chelomei's organization).
    8. Determine the parent organization for the production of "Almaz" - organization of Chelomei (Reutov).
    9. Immediately begin design work on the technical positions for MKBS ... see paragraph 21 (to establish a single NTS Scientific and Technical Council)


1970 February 17 - .
  • Apollo Applications Program redesignated the Skylab Program. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    NASA announced that the Apollo Applications Program had been redesignated the Skylab Program. The name Skylab, a contraction connoting a laboratory in the sky, was proposed by Donald L. Steelman, USAF, while assigned to NASA. The name was proposed following an announcement by NASA in 1968 that they were seeking a new name for AAP. Then NASA decided to postpone renaming the program because of budgetary restrictions. Skylab was later referred to the NASA Project Designation Committee and was approved 17 February 1970.


1970 February 17 - . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • NASA and the Air Force signed an agreement to insure that the Space Transportation System (STS) would provide maximum utility to both military and civilian users at lower operating costs.;; - . NASA would manage STS development, and a NASA-USAF Committee would review the program to guarantee that it met Defense Department and NASA requirements..

1970 February 18 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 34 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum speed. Maximum Speed - 1976 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20520 m. Flight Time - 380 sec..

1970 February 18 - .
  • Kamanin opposes DOS - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev, Kozlov, Mishin, Smirnov, Ustinov. Program: Soyuz, Salyut, Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK, Soyuz OB-VI, Soyuz VI.

    Kamanin recommends the death benefit to be awarded to Belyayev's family. There is to be a one-time payment of 2,000 roubles to his wife; 1,100 roubles to his daughter; 180 roubles/month pension to the wife; 75 roubles/month to the daughter; access to cosmonaut centre sanatoriums; and a seven-room apartment in Moscow.

    Kamanin also reviews the government decree on the DOS-7K space station program. The Ministry of Defence is against it - they want to continue with the Almaz and Soyuz VI projects already underway. DOS will bring both of these to a halt. This is a repeat of the situation in 1967. Kozlov was making good progress on the original Soyuz VI, when it was killed by Mishin. Now three years later Mishin's Soyuz VI is put on the back burner. The Soyuz 7K-OK is still the only manned program brought to completion. Kamanin blames all this on Ustinov and Smirnov's stupid political manoeuvring. The DOS decree has not one word on the training of cosmonauts for these space station missions...


1970 February 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 18 - . 07:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • Auroral substorm Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 494 km (306 mi).

1970 February 19 - .
  • Tereshkova never to fly again - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tereshkova.

    Kamanin has a run-in with Tereshkova over her automobile benefit. Kamanin finds Tereshkova capricious and touching, but also sometimes downright rude. She is also very energetic .... and powerful (though her leadership of the Committee of Soviet Women). She badgers Kamanin after every cosmonaut meeting, as to when another female flight will be scheduled. Kamanin knows from his fights with the leadership on the issue that this will never happen.


1970 February 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 19 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Auroral particles Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 February 19 - . 18:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-13 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4336 . COSPAR: 1970-013A. Apogee: 39,170 km (24,330 mi). Perigee: 461 km (286 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 703.10 min. The first launch of the 8K78M vehicle from the Plesetsk launch site. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 February 20 - .
  • Soyuz 9 schedule; Soyuz Kontakt flights in limbo - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Serbin, Smirnov, Ustinov. Program: Soyuz, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 9, Soyuz n 17, Soyuz n 18, Soyuz n 19, Soyuz n 20. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz Kontakt.

    It was originally planned to fly two Soyuz spacecraft in August-September 1970, but at the end of December it was ordered that this be changed to a single 20 day flight in April 1970. Kamanin was given only two days to put together a training programme that had to prepare the cosmonauts for flight by 20 March. The State Commission meets and decides to move the Soyuz 9 flight to May, even though Kamanin says he can support the April schedule. It is the scientific institutes who say they cannot finish development of their experiments - even to meet the May schedule. Kamanin blames such chaos on Smirnov, Serbin, and Ustinov.


1970 February 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 February 21 - .
  • Cosmonaut book - . Nation: Russia. Riabchikov conducts further interviews at the Gagarin Centre for his book..

1970 February 21 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • UK-4 instrumented prototype Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C37 / 1 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 24 - .
  • X-24 Flight 9 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 819 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14326 m. Flight Time - 258 sec..

1970 February 24 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • VLF / Particles Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 796 km (494 mi).

1970 February 24 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S70 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1970 February 24 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Chaff Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1970 February 25 - .
  • Soyuz 9 decision preempts Soyuz Kontakt flights - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Kerimov, Mishin. Program: Soyuz, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 9, Soyuz n 17, Soyuz n 18, Soyuz n 19, Soyuz n 20. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz Kontakt.

    Meeting with Mishin. It is clear that he wanted to continue with the original plan for a dual Soyuz flight in August. It was Afanasyev and Kerimov who were pushing for a single long-duration flight in May. There is no action by the Ministry of Defence to provide rational decision making in regard to manned spaceflight.


1970 February 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT53B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). A Wing II configuration LGM-30B Minuteman I became the 275th Minuteman missile to be launched from Vandenberg AFB since September 1962. .

1970 February 25 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S61 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Chaff Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1970 February 26 - .
  • Kamanin views DOS, continuation of N1-L3 with dismay - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Soyuz, Salyut, Lunar L3, Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, LK, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz OB-VI, Soyuz VI.

    The Ministry of Defence and VVS approve the draft DOS resolution. Kamanin has fought against it. He would prefer to develop a single reliable Soyuz spacecraft model by building and flying ten more (there are only four left of the original production lot in assembly). Instead the space leadership keep dreaming up new projects. In Kamanin's view, the DOS and its new Soyuz ferry design join Almaz, Soyuz VI, and the L3 as 'paper spacecraft'. Mishin still thinks he will 'teach the N1 to fly' and complete the L3, but Kamanin thinks the chances of this are nil. There is no coherent plan for Soviet spaceflight.


1970 February 26 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S61 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1970 February 26 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 February 26 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1970 February 27 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 35 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum altitude. Maximum Speed - 1400 kph. Maximum Altitude - 27524 m. Flight Time - 416 sec..

1970 February 27 - .
  • DOS schedules, Soyuz Kontakt flights still in play - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bogomolov, Mishin. Program: Soyuz, Salyut, Lunar L3, Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz n 17, Soyuz n 18, Soyuz n 19, Soyuz n 20. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Soyuz Kontakt, Soyuz OB-VI, Soyuz VI.

    A meeting is held on the DOS project. The Central Committee and Soviet Ministers have directed that two DOS space stations be completed by the end of 1970. TsNIIMASH thinks this is impossible - the task can be accomplished in no less than 18 to 24 months. Mishin insists it can be done in ten months, as directed. Kamanin believes he won't even have it ready by the second half of 1971. It took five to seven years to just bring the Almaz, Soyuz VI, and L1 to flight status. This DOS will stop work on all other projects. Mishin still wants to fly two Soyuz spacecraft to test Bogomolov's Kontakt docking system for the L3.


1970 February 27 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1970 February 27 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 324 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 32. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-05-23 . Decay Date: 1970-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4338 . COSPAR: 1970-014A. Apogee: 465 km (288 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 February 27 - . 20:55 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1970 February 28 - .
  • Failure to achieve space objectives in Five-Year Plan - . Nation: Russia. Program: Soyuz, Lunar L1, Lunar L3, Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Soyuz OB-VI, Soyuz VI.

    Kamanin is asked to assist in preparation of the next five-year plan for spaceflight (1971-1975). He muses that nothing that was to be accomplished in the last five-year plan was achieved, so what is he supposed to put in the new one? 1966-1971 was supposed to have seen Soviet manned flybys and landings on the moon; a cosmonaut contingent increased to 140 and cadres in training for military missions on the Soyuz VI and Almaz. None of this was achieved, and the cosmonaut corps actually only numbers 97.


1970 February 28 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1970 February 28 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Auroral particles Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 February 28 - . 13:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1970 February 28 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1970 March 1 - .
  • GUKOS formed to direct military space program. - . Nation: Russia. Ministry of Defence Decree 'On formation of GUKOS on the basis of TsUKOS and subordinated to RVSN' was issued..

1970 March 1 - .
  • Wernher von Braun became NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning in Washington. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Wernher von Braun left MSFC to become NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning in Washington. Eberhard F. M. Rees, who had served as the MSFC Deputy Director Technical since 1963, became Director of MSFC. .

1970 March 1 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 00:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Polar Atmospheric pressure Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC1. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Dual Ba 1B Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barter Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Dual Ba 1A Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 March 2 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 March 3 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The first operational Minuteman III (LGM-30G) was completed at Air Force Plant 77. - .

1970 March 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-06 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 March 3 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC1. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Dual Ba 2B Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 March 3 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA5B. Launch Vehicle: Black Arrow.
1970 March 4 - . 12:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 325 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 73. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 4340 . COSPAR: 1970-015A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1970 March 4 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barter Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Dual Ba 2A Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 March 4 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC1. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Dual Ba 3B Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 March 4 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • KH-4B 1109 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1109 / Agena D 1657 / OPS 0440. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1970-03-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 4342 . COSPAR: 1970-016A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 88.0000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. KH-4B. Cameras operated satisfactorily but the overall image quality of both the forward and aft records is variable..
  • SRV 819 - . Payload: SRV 1109-1. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: P 11. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1971-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4343 . COSPAR: 1970-016xx. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi). Perigee: 164 km (101 mi). Inclination: 88.1000 deg. Period: 87.80 min.
  • OPS 3402 - . Payload: EHH B18. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1971-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4343 . COSPAR: 1970-016B. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 441 km (274 mi). Inclination: 88.1000 deg. Period: 94.10 min. Radar monitoring; may or may not have existed!!!.

1970 March 5 - .
  • VK Bezverby - It is necessary to make a proposal for the establishment of heavy MKBS. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Bezverby, . Spacecraft: , MKBS. (Mishin Diaries 2-263):.

1970 March 5 - . 03:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT54B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 March 5 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Barter Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Dual Ba 3A Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 March 5 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 March 6 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • DLR A-BBV-27 Chr'ine Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi).

1970 March 6 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA5. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 43 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 March 6 - . 18:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionospheric / SX Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 March 6 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 March 7 - .
  • President Nixon listed six specific objectives for the space program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Nixon. Program: Apollo.

    In a White House release, President Nixon listed six specific objectives for the space program: continued exploration of the moon, exploration of the planets and the universe, substantial reductions in the cost of space operations, extension of man's capability to live and work in space, rapid expansion of the practical applications of space technology, and greater international cooperation in space.


1970 March 7 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionospheric Eclipse ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 16:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: East Quoddy. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant III.
  • Eclipse solar ultraviolet and x-rays mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA5. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 44 Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA4. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Thermosphere Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA5. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 45 Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA4. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Thermosphere Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA1. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • NRL NE4.238 Eclipse / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA, NRL. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA1. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Far ultraviolet Eclipse Spectrum Eclipse / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Eclipse ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA4. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Eclipse ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass spectrometer Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Eclipse ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 46 Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass spectrometer Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • Eclipse / plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 829 km (515 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:52 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: East Quoddy. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant III.
  • Eclipse solar ultraviolet and x-rays mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 18:57 GMT - . Launch Site: East Quoddy. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant III.
  • Eclipse solar ultraviolet and x-rays mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • NRL NE3.216 Solar eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 19:03 GMT - . Launch Site: East Quoddy. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant III.
  • Eclipse solar ultraviolet and x-rays mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 19:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Eclipse aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1970 March 7 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A.
  • NRL NE3.235 Solar eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 March 8 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 24 Aurora / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NTNF. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1970 March 8 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • DLR A-BBV-26 Inger Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1970 March 8 - . 17:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 47 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1970 March 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 March 9 - . 03:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • B field / particles Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi).

1970 March 9 - . 03:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • E field Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 March 9 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • ISRO 17.03 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi).

1970 March 9 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • ISRO 17.01 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi).

1970 March 9 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • ISRO 17.02? Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi).

1970 March 9 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 March 10 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT62B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 March 10 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou Diamant. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant B.
  • DIAL-WIKA - . Payload: DIAL Wissenschaftliche Kapsel. Mass: 63 kg (138 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: BMW, CNES. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Dial WIKA. Decay Date: 1978-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4344 . COSPAR: 1970-017A. Apogee: 1,631 km (1,013 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 5.4000 deg. Period: 104.20 min. Engineering package..
  • Dial MIKA - . Payload: DIAL Mini Kapsel/P068. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: France. Agency: BMW, CNES. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Dial MIKA. Decay Date: 1974-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4345 . COSPAR: 1970-017B. Apogee: 1,638 km (1,017 mi). Perigee: 310 km (190 mi). Inclination: 5.4000 deg. Period: 104.56 min. Engineering package; monitored launch vehicle performance. .

1970 March 11 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF22. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT24F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 March 11 - . 22:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • X-ray RMC X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi).

1970 March 12 - . 21:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1970 March 13 - .
  • Wernher von Braun made NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees, von Braun. Program: Apollo. Wernher von Braun was sworn in as NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. He left MSFC on March 1 and was succeeded as MSFC Director by Eberhard F. M. Rees..

1970 March 13 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Mikhailovich Samokutyayev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Samokutyayev. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on..

1970 March 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/Trident.
  • RMP-B-16 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1970 March 13 - . 06:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Electron beam Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi).

1970 March 13 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 326 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 74. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4346 . COSPAR: 1970-018A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1970 March 13 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC.

1970 March 14 - . 03:34 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 March 14 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31A. Launch Pad: LC31A/Truck. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1.
  • Sheltered Base research and development mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1970 March 15 - .
  • Definition studies for a second Orbital Workshop (Skylab II). - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Flight: Skylab B. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    Definition studies for a second Orbital Workshop (Skylab II) were under study. Mission objectives would respond to the following major objectives: continued development and expansion of the ability to live, work, and operate effectively in space; exploitation of space for practical benefits through the observation of Earth and its environment; and the use of space for scientific research.


1970 March 15 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • DLR A-BB4-28 Eva Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi).

1970 March 16 - . 02:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Musca. Launch Vehicle: Kookaburra.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 38 km (23 mi).

1970 March 17 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-03 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1983-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4349 . COSPAR: 1970-019A. Apogee: 635 km (394 mi). Perigee: 537 km (333 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 March 18 - .
  • Shonin on report - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Shonin, Tereshkova, Titov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    Nikolayev and crew go to Sochi. Tereshkova is back from sick leave, and she goes there as well. Kamanin meets with Shonin, the topic: many bad reports he has received of Shonin's behaviour since Soyuz 6. He tells him to watch out, or he'll end up on a five-year flight suspension like Titov.


1970 March 18 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • DLR A-BB4-29 Gerda Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 665 km (413 mi).

1970 March 18 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 327 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 8. Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1970-09-11 . Decay Date: 1971-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4351 . COSPAR: 1970-020A. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1970 March 18 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • X-ray BCS Sco X-1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1970 March 19 - .
  • X-24 Flight 10 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 919 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13533 m. Flight Time - 424 sec..

1970 March 19 - .
  • Cosmonaut tours - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Leonov, Shatalov. Leonov is going on a propaganda tour to Japan, and Shatalov to Cuba..

1970 March 19 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: RTG. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi).

1970 March 19 - . 03:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.33 / 17.04 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 March 19 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: RTG. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi).

1970 March 19 - . 03:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: RTG. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1970 March 19 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: RTG. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1970 March 19 - . 05:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: RTG. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1970 March 19 - . 10:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.35 / 17.06 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1970 March 19 - . 15:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • Ultraviolet Schmidt Objective Prism Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1970 March 20 - . 23:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M.
  • NATO 1 - . Payload: NATO IIA. Mass: 243 kg (535 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Skynet. Spacecraft: NATO 1. Completed Operations Date: 1977-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4353 . COSPAR: 1970-021A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 13.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    The first of two communications satellites built for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) by the Philco-Ford Corporation under a SAMSO contract was launched from Cape Canaveral aboard a NASA Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/ Delta booster. Inserted into synchronous orbit on 23 March, the satellite was turned over to the Supreme Headquarters Allied Forces Europe (SHAFE) on 19 May. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 18 deg W in 1970-1972; over the Americas at 100-110 deg W in 1977-1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 101.97 deg W drifting at 0.023 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 100.55W drifting at 0.016W degrees per day.


1970 March 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 96 km (59 mi).

1970 March 22 - . 02:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • DLR S-CR-21 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1970 March 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT63B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 March 23 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ferdinand 22 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NTNF. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1970 March 24 - .
  • Only nine of 16 cosmonaut-finalists cleared by the KGB and Communist Party - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Dedkov, Dzhanibekov, Fefelov, Illarionov, Isaulov, Kozlov, Vladimir, Popov, Romanenko.

    Kamanin reports that only nine of 16 cosmonaut-candidates that completed the arduous selection process have been cleared by the KGB and Communist Party for actual acceptance for cosmonaut training. He feels this makes the whole time-consuming selection process a waste of time. The VVS is reluctant to submit officers as cosmonaut candidates, fearing that if they fail the vestibular table tests they will not only be rejected as cosmonauts, but be unable to return to flight duty with the Air Force. The result is a final selection of dullards, who are not intellectual, or literary, or sports enthusiasts, who are poor readers and not really interested in spaceflight or cosmonautics. The final decree has been issued reorganising TsUKOS as GUKOS.


1970 March 24 - . 19:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 March 24 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • X-ray Survey X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1970 March 25 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • SAMSO and NASA signed a Memorandum of Understanding that defined the roles and responsibilities for a Titan Ill/Centaur coordinating group which would acquire Titan III launch vehicles for Viking. - .

1970 March 25 - . 07:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • E field Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1970 March 26 - .
  • Gagarin Monument in Moscow. - . Nation: Russia. The Chernov design has been selected for the Gagarin Monument in Moscow..

1970 March 26 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT25M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 March 26 - . 03:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • E field Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1970 March 26 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150 MI.
  • JHU Aurora 8 Aeronomy / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 March 26 - . 04:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi).

1970 March 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-10 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 March 27 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRO 10.36 Plasma / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1970 March 27 - . 07:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island LE1. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2J.
  • AFP-437 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,074 km (667 mi).

1970 March 27 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 328 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4355 . COSPAR: 1970-022A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 March 27 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2.
  • ISRO-12.05 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1970 March 28 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Pakistan. Agency: SUPARCO. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1970 March 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 March 30 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • SAMSO published the Minuteman Rebasing Task Force Report that offered an analysis and cost projections of several optional solutions to the problem of maximizing Minuteman system survivability. - .

1970 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 March 31 - . Launch Site: Malmstrom AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • Minuteman II Retrofit at Wing I, Malmstrom AFB, Montana, was completed. - .

1970 March 31 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT23F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 1 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • SAMSO's Minuteman Booster Program Office was integrated into the Ballistic Missile Defense Targets Division of the Deputy for Reentry Systems. - . The merger combined all SAMSO activities supporting the Army's Safeguard Systems Test Targets Program (SSTTP) under the Deputy for Reentry Systems..

1970 April 1 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg.
  • Headquarters Air Force Western Test Range (AFWTR) was inactivated and Headquarters Space and Missile Test Center (SAMTEC) was activated at Vandenberg AFB. - .

    The 6595th Aerospace Test Wing at Vandenberg was reassigned from SAMSO to SAMTEC. The 6555th Aerospace Test Wing at Patrick AFB, Florida, was redesignated the 6555th Aerospace Test Group and assigned to the 6595th Aerospace Test Wing as part of the reorganization that brought AFSC range and launch operations at Vandenberg under a single command for the first time.


1970 April 1 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 HRV. LV Family: Rook. Launch Vehicle: Jabiru 2.
1970 April 2 - .
  • X-24 Flight 11 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 919 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17892 m. Flight Time - 435 sec..

1970 April 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 2 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S66 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1970 April 3 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C57 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1970 April 3 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • Auroral substorm Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 557 km (346 mi).

1970 April 3 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 329 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4357 . COSPAR: 1970-023A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 April 3 - . 09:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • Sodium hexaflouride Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 April 3 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 4 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi).

1970 April 4 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S28 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1970 April 6-10 - .
  • Swigert, Apollo 13 backup pilot, began intensive training to replace Mattingly - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM.

    Astronaut John L. Swigert, Jr., Apollo 13 backup command module pilot, began intensive training as a replacement for Thomas K. Mattingly II. The Apollo 13 prime crew had undergone a comprehensive medical examination after German measles had been contracted by Charles M. Duke, Jr., a member of the Apollo 13 backup crew. Mattingly had not shown immunity to the rubella virus and it was feared that he might become ill during the Apollo 13 flight.


1970 April 6 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1970 April 7 - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • Spiral spaceplane programme stalled - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Dementiev, Frolov, Goreglyad, Kutakhov, Mikoyan, Titov. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    Kamanin reviews the Spiral manned spaceplane program with Goreglyad, Frolov, and cosmonaut Titov. Work on the KLA orbiter began in 1961-1962. In the following eight years Kamanin has tried to push the leadership many times to accelerate the project, but without result. Still, the work is proceeding, albeit very slowly. Mikoyan has decided the first phase of the project will use rocket launch only - the air-breathing winged first stage will only be introduced later. Afanasyev has finally responded to the project, only to declare that the KLA must be not only for military missions, but serve as a transport shuttle for civilian space missions as well. Dementiev is holding the whole project up because he doesn't want to overburden the aircraft design bureaux and factories. And Kutakhov won't push the program without Dementiev's support.


1970 April 7 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • Solar ultraviolet echelle Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1970 April 7 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 330 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1979-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 4360 . COSPAR: 1970-024A. Apogee: 543 km (337 mi). Perigee: 514 km (319 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Possible navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 250..

1970 April 8 - . 08:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • Nimbus 4 - . Payload: Nimbus D. Mass: 620 kg (1,360 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 4362 . COSPAR: 1970-025A. Apogee: 1,099 km (682 mi). Perigee: 1,088 km (676 mi). Inclination: 100.1000 deg. Period: 107.10 min.

    A Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/Agena D space booster lifted NASA's Nimbus 4 meteorological satellite into orbit from Vandenberg. This was the 400th launch.. of the Thor booster that was originally developed by the Air Force as an intermediate range ballistic missile (IRBM) in the 1950s. Environmental research. Primary experiments consisted of an image dissector camera system for providing daytime cloudcover pictures both in real-time and recorded modes, temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for measuring daytime and nighttime surface and cloudtop temperatures as well as the water vapor content of the upper atmosphere, infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) for measuring the emission spectra of the earth/atmosphere system, satellite infrared spectrometer (SIRS) for determining the vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor in the atmosphere, a monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) for detecting solar UV radiation, a backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) detector for monitoring the vertical distribution and total amount of atmospheric ozone on a global scale, a filter wedge spectrometer (FWS) for accurate measurement of IR radiance as a function of wavelength from the earth/atmosphere system, a selective chopper radiometer (SCR) for determining the temperatures of six successive 10-km layers in the atmosphere from absorption measurements in the 15-micrometer CO2 band, and an interrogation, recording, and location system (IRLS) for locating, interrogating, recording, and retransmitting meteorological and geophysical data from remote collection stations. The spacecraft performed well until April 14, 1971, when attitude problems started. The experiments then operated on a limited time basis until September 30, 1980.

  • TOPO 1 - . Payload: Topo A. Mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USA TOPO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: TOPO. USAF Sat Cat: 4363 . COSPAR: 1970-025B. Apogee: 1,087 km (675 mi). Perigee: 1,084 km (673 mi). Inclination: 100.0000 deg. Period: 107.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1970 April 8 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 331 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4364 . COSPAR: 1970-026A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 April 8 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Vela 12 - . Payload: Vela 6A / OPS 7044. Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. Decay Date: 1992-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 4366 . COSPAR: 1970-027A. Apogee: 121,227 km (75,326 mi). Perigee: 101,261 km (62,920 mi). Inclination: 61.2000 deg. Period: 6,691.00 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • Vela 11 - . Payload: Vela 6B / OPS 7033. Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. Decay Date: 1992-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 4368 . COSPAR: 1970-027B. Apogee: 119,313 km (74,137 mi). Perigee: 103,570 km (64,350 mi). Inclination: 57.4000 deg. Period: 6,707.90 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..

1970 April 9 - .
  • State Commission is held to review issues of the Soyuz 9 flight. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    All is ready for a flight in April, but the Communist Party resolution says the flight has to wait for May. The Soyuz ECS is designed to only operate for five days, but will have to operate 3 to 4 times longer for this mission. Various problems are identified and reviewed. Mishin wants to accept a carbon dioxide level in the cabin atmosphere double the percentage considered acceptable earlier. Plans are made for a quick flight of the crew after the long duration mission to Moscow for extensive physical examinations.


1970 April 10 - .
  • Documentary film on the Soyuz 6-7-8 missions - . Nation: Russia. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8. Kamanin previews the documentary film 'Launch after Launch' on the Soyuz 6-7-8 missions..

1970 April 10 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 641. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 11 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 April 11 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 332 - . Mass: 775 kg (1,708 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4369 . COSPAR: 1970-028A. Apogee: 736 km (457 mi). Perigee: 727 km (451 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.40 min. Military navigation satellite..

1970 April 11 - . 19:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: LUT3. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo 13 - . Call Sign: Odyssey. Crew: Haise, Lovell, Swigert. Backup Crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young. Support Crew: Brand, Kerwin, Lousma. Payload: Apollo CSM 109 / Apollo LM 7 / ALSEP / S-IVB-508. Mass: 28,790 kg (63,470 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand, Duke, Haise, Kerwin, Lousma, Lovell, Mattingly, Swigert, Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 5.95 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4371 . COSPAR: 1970-029A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.31 min.

    Apollo 13 (AS-508) was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 2:13 p.m. EST April 11, with astronauts James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr., aboard. The spacecraft and S-IVB stage entered a parking orbit with a 185.5-kilometer apogee and a 181.5-kilometer perigee. At 3:48 p.m., onboard TV was begun for five and one-half minutes. At 4:54 p.m., an S-IVB burn placed the spacecraft on a translunar trajectory, after which the CSM separated from the S-IVB and LM Aquarius. (The crew had named lunar module 7 Aquarius and CSM 109 Odyssey.) The CSM then hard-docked with the LM. The S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system made an evasive maneuver after CSM/LM ejection from the S-IVB at 6:14 p.m. The docking and ejection maneuvers were televised during a 72-minute period in which interior and exterior views of the spacecraft were also shown.

    At 8:13 p.m. EST a 217-second S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system burn aimed the S-IVB for a lunar target point so accurately that another burn was not required. The S-IVB/IU impacted the lunar surface at 8:10 p.m. EST on April 14 at a speed of 259 meters per second. Impact was 137.1 kilometers from the Apollo 12 seismometer. The seismic signal generated by the impact lasted 3 hours 20 minutes and was so strong that a ground command was necessary to reduce seismometer gain and keep the recording on the scale. The suprathermal ion detector experiment, also deployed by the Apollo 12 crew, recorded a jump in the number of ions from zero at the time of impact up to 2,500 shortly thereafter and then back to a zero count. Scientists theorized that ionization had been produced by 6,300 K to 10,300 K (6,000 degrees C to 10,000 degrees C) temperature generated by the impact or that particles had reached an altitude of 60 kilometers from the lunar surface and had been ionized by sunlight.

    Meanwhile back in the CSM/LM, the crew had been performing the routine housekeeping duties associated with the period of the translunar coast. At 30:40 ground elapsed time a midcourse correction maneuver took the spacecraft off a free-return trajectory in order to control the arrival time at the moon. Ensuring proper lighting conditions at the landing site. The maneuver placed the spacecraft on the desired trajectory, on which the closest approach to the moon would be 114.9 kilometers.

    At 10:08 p.m. EST April 13, the crew reported an undervoltage alarm on the CSM main bus B, rapid loss of pressure in SM oxygen tank No. 2, and dropping current in fuel cells 1 and 3 to a zero reading. The loss of oxygen and primary power in the service module required an immediate abort of the mission. The astronauts powered up the LM, powered down the CSM, and used the LM systems for power and life support. The first maneuver following the abort decision was made with the descent propulsion system to place the spacecraft back in a free-return trajectory around the moon. After the spacecraft swung around the moon, another maneuver reduced the coast time back to earth and moved the landing point from the Indian Ocean to the South Pacific.

  • Apollo 13 LM - . Call Sign: Aquarius. Payload: Apollo LM 7. Mass: 15,192 kg (33,492 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 5.95 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4371 . COSPAR: 1970-029x. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.31 min.

1970 April 12 - . 19:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1970 April 13-June 15 - .
  • Apollo 13 - "Hey - we've got a problem here" - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM Electrical.

    "Hey, we've got a problem here." The message from the Apollo 13 spacecraft to Houston ground controllers at 10:08 p.m. EDT on April 13, initiated an investigation to determine the cause of an oxygen tank failure that aborted the Apollo 13 mission. Additional Details: here....


1970 April 13 - .
  • Tenth anniversary of the Gagarin Centre. - . Nation: Russia. A big celebration is held at Star City on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the founding of the Gagarin Centre..

1970 April 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 13 - . 12:34 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Safeguard M1-1 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 April 15 - .
  • Apollo 13 swings behind the moon - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 13.

    At 00:21:35 GMT Apollo 13 passed behind the moon, out of radio contact with earth. Flying high above the lunar surface, the crew reached a distance of 401,056 km from the center of the earth, an all-time altitude record. At 02:40:39 GMT the cold, exhausted, and ailing crew conducted a completely manual 4 minute 23 second burn of the LM descent engine to reduce the coast time back to earth and moved the landing point from the Indian Ocean to the South Pacific. Additional Details: here....


1970 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 15 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 333 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4373 . COSPAR: 1970-030A. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 April 15 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 2863 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 26 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1970-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4375 . COSPAR: 1970-031A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 111.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1970 April 16 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 07:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 08:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • X-ray spectra / Ozone X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 17 - .
  • Apollo 13 Review Board established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13. NASA Hq. established an Apollo 13 Review Board to investigate the Apollo 13 accident..

1970 April 17 - .
  • Landing of Apollo 13 - . Return Crew: Haise, Lovell, Swigert. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Haise, Lovell, Swigert. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13.

    About four hours before reentry on April 17, the service module was jettisoned and the crew took photographs and made visual observations of the damaged area. About one hour before splashdown the command module was powered up and the lunar module was jettisoned. Parachutes were deployed as planned, and the Odyssey landed in the mid-Pacific 6.4 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima at 1:07 p.m. EST (18:07 GMT). The astronauts were picked up by helicopter and transported to the recovery ship less than an hour after splashdown.


1970 April 17 - . 18:07 GMT - .
  • Safe splashdown of Apollo 13 - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 13.

    About four hours before reentry, the service module was jettisoned and the crew took photographs and made visual observations of the damaged area. About one hour before splashdown the command module was powered up and the lunar module was jettisoned. Parachutes were deployed as planned, and the Odyssey landed in the mid-Pacific 6.4 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima at 18:07 GMT April 17. The astronauts were picked up by helicopter and transported to the recovery ship less than an hour after splashdown.


1970 April 18 - .
  • Kamanin considers the Apollo 13 mission. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3, Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13.

    He believes it was a 'true test' of American technical capability in space. The saving of the American astronauts demonstrated the robust redundancy in the American Saturn V - Apollo design, as compared with the Soviet N1-L3. The latter, Kamanin remarks, is a bad launch vehicle, boosting a bad spacecraft. Kamanin sees the Soviet science fiction film Solaris - and finds it too fantastic for his taste.


1970 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 20 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02.
  • S02C4 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF24. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT48F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 608. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 21 - . 06:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 21 - . 20:42 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Particles Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 139 km (86 mi).

1970 April 22 - .
  • X-24 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 981 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17587 m. Flight Time - 408 sec..

1970 April 22 - .
  • Lenin's 100th birthday - no Soviet space spectacular as expected. - . Nation: Russia. On the occasion of Lenin's 100th birthday, Kamanin notes what a great force in world history and civilisation Lenin represented..

1970 April 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 22 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 23 - .
  • Mishin proposes crews for Soyuz 10 and 11. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov, Khrunov, Kolodin, Kubasov, Mishin, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Sevastyanov, Shatalov, Shonin, Volkov, Volynov, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11.

    Two months after first raising the issue, Mishin has proposed crews for the flights to the DOS station, still planned to occur before the end of the year. Mishin is still pushing Feoktistov, who Kamanin believes is not only seriously ill, but immoral, being on his second wife. Kamanin now has 20 spacecraft crews, but they will have to wait six years or more for a trip to space at the current mission rate. Mishin's proposed DOS crews are as follows: 1 - Shatalov, Yeliseyev, Rukavishnikov; 2 - Shonin, Kubasov, Kolodin; 3 - Volynov, Feoktistov, Patsayev; 4 - Khrunov, Volkov, Sevastyanov.


1970 April 23 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • USAF V141D re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). SAMSO resumed Athena test launches from the Utah Launch Complex at Green River, Utah, after a seven-month pause for remodeling the facilities so that the longer, heavier, improved Athena H test missile could be launched from them. .

1970 April 23 - . 00:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M.
  • Intelsat 3 F-7 - . Mass: 293 kg (645 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 3. Completed Operations Date: 1972-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4376 . COSPAR: 1970-032A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min.

    Stationed at 341 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 19 deg W in 1970-1971 Last known longitude (1 January 1972) L 139.45 deg E drifting at 0.022 deg E per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1970 April 23 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 334 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 31. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-08-10 . Decay Date: 1970-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4378 . COSPAR: 1970-033A. Apogee: 458 km (284 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 April 24 - . LV Family: DF-3. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 1.
  • DFH-1 satellite launch authorised. - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Spacecraft: DFH-1. Mao personally authorises the launch..

1970 April 24 - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island LE2. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2J. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 4.
  • SDP test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). ASAT test, Thor collided with satellite.

1970 April 24 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi).

1970 April 24 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 24 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Ae170? X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi).

1970 April 24 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. LV Family: DF-3. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 1.
  • DFH Mao 1 - . Payload: DFH 1. Mass: 173 kg (381 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-1. USAF Sat Cat: 4382 . COSPAR: 1970-034A. Apogee: 2,162 km (1,343 mi). Perigee: 434 km (269 mi). Inclination: 68.4000 deg. Period: 111.60 min.

    The final campaign to launch China's first satellite began on April 1, 1970, when two DFH-1 satellites and the CZ-1 rocket arrived by train at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre. This was over a year after the first attempt in 1969. Ren Xinmin was project leader and Qi Faren was leader of the DFH-1 experiment team. On April 2 Premier Zhou Enlai called a special meeting in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing for a final readiness review of the satellite and the launch vehicle. Zhou wanted special guarantees that the satellite would transmit the march 'The East is Red' from orbit.

    On the morning of April 24, 1970, the first and second stages of CZ-1 were loaded with propellant and stacked. The satellite was mated to the spin-stabilized solid-propellant third stage, and the launcher entered the final eight hours of launch preparation. Weather forecast for the launch at 9:30 p.m. called for clouds at above 7,000 meters and a wind speed of less than 4 to 5 meters per second.

    The historic launch came at 9:35 p.m. local time (13:35 UTC). Upon hearing the command "ignition", a launch controller pressed the button to start the rocket engines. The three-stage CZ-1, which was 29.46 meters tall and had a maximum diameter of 2.25 meters, lifted off the launch pad with a thrust of 104 tonnes. Liftoff weight of the CZ-1 was 81.5 tonnes. Rocket expert Shen Jianan recounted that "..as soon as I saw the liftoff on the TV screen inside the bunker, I ran outside. I could only see the beautiful rocket lighting up the night sky and streaking towards the southeast. I ran back inside to listen to the transmissions. Broadcasting on the speaker were status reports like 'capturing target', 'nominal tracking', 'nominal flight', 'nominal second and third stage separation'..." Thirteen minutes after launch, at 9:48 p.m., mission control announced "...satellite and rocket stage separation, satellite enters orbit...the bunker was filled with cheers".

    China became the fifth nation after the former Soviet Union, the United States, France and Japan to achieve an indigenous space launch capability. At 9:50 p.m., the National Broadcasting Bureau announced the acquisition of the tune 'East is Red' from the satellite loud and clear. In the following days, the People's Central Broadcasting radio and newspapers in Beijing announced and printed worldwide times of DFH-1 and CZ-1 third stage passages, and directions of travel in the sky. Senior officials in Beijing dispatched a chartered plane to JSLC to bring back Qi and other scientists. In the International Labour Day celebration on May 1, Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou warmly welcomed them at the Tiananmen Square.


1970 April 24 - . 22:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 335 - . Payload: DS-U1-R s/n 1. Mass: 295 kg (650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U1-R. Completed Operations Date: 1970-06-20 . Decay Date: 1970-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4380 . COSPAR: 1970-035A. Apogee: 401 km (249 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Studied spectral range of the UF..

1970 April 25 - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • Spiral project not raised with General Staff. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dementiev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    Kamanin has been working for seven years on operation and improvement of the TsEZ Central Experimental Facility of he VVS. This includes the Volchok trainer, which simulates launch to orbit; the centrifuge facility; and numerous special test stands. The facility employs 120 engineers and 300 technicians. Later the Spiral project is discussed by the General Staff. It has been two weeks since Kutakhov promised to clarify Minister Dementiev's position on the project, but he never did talk to him. What is Kamanin expected to tell the cosmonauts training for the program? He is also trying to get a flight plan and press kit together in preparation for the Soyuz 9 mission, but there is no Central Committee resolution allowing this work. The KGB and Central Committee want to keep everything secret.


1970 April 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF22. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT57F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 25 - . 17:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 336 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4383 . COSPAR: 1970-036A. Apogee: 1,486 km (923 mi). Perigee: 1,463 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.40 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 339 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 4. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4386 . COSPAR: 1970-036D. Apogee: 1,469 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,445 km (897 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 342 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 7. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4389 . COSPAR: 1970-036G. Apogee: 1,468 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,310 km (810 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 113.60 min.
  • Cosmos 343 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 8. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4390 . COSPAR: 1970-036H. Apogee: 1,468 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,375 km (854 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.
  • Cosmos 340 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 5. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4387 . COSPAR: 1970-036E. Apogee: 1,470 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,407 km (874 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 338 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 3. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4385 . COSPAR: 1970-036C. Apogee: 1,518 km (943 mi). Perigee: 1,468 km (912 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.80 min.
  • Cosmos 337 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 2. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4384 . COSPAR: 1970-036B. Apogee: 1,552 km (964 mi). Perigee: 1,468 km (912 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.20 min.
  • Cosmos 341 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 6. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 4388 . COSPAR: 1970-036F. Apogee: 1,469 km (912 mi). Perigee: 1,342 km (833 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.

1970 April 26 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 27 - .
  • Soyuz 9 book. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Titov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Kamanin works at his dacha on his proposed book on Soyuz 9 (to be ghost-written by Mikahil Debrov). Debrov will be in Japan in May, while Kamanin must go to Tyuratam for the Soyuz 9 mission. Titov is trying to get his flight ban lifted..

1970 April 27 - .
1970 April 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • RAO Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Noctilucent sampler Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1970 April 28 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-04 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 4. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2004-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4393 . COSPAR: 1970-037A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 534 km (331 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 April 29 - .
  • Intrigues at Star City. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Kuznetsov, Nikolai F, Leonov. Leonov is briefed for his trip to Japan. Meanwhile Kamanin has to fight off the intrigues of Kuznetsov against Beregovoi as deputy director of cosmonaut training..

1970 April 29 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 30 - .
  • Pressure on cosmonauts for more public relations tasks. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Dedkov, Dzhanibekov, Fefelov, Illarionov, Isaulov, Kozlov, Vladimir, Popov, Romanenko.

    Kamanin notes that the 27 April decree has selected only nine new cosmonauts from 300 pilot and 100 engineer candidates. He believes at least 30 should have been selected. Currently there are only 18 active cosmonauts, but Kamanin feels he needs at least 100, just to cover all the public relations appearance demands made on them.


1970 May 1 - .
1970 May 1 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg.
  • The 6595th Space Test Group and 6595th Missile Test Group were organized and assigned to the 6595th Aerospace Test Wing at Vandenberg AFB. - . This completed the reorganization of SAMSO missile and space launch units that had begun with the establishment of the Space and Missile Test Center (SAMTEC) on 1 April..

1970 May - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Recruit.
  • Flight test 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1970 May 1 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Noctilucent sampler Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 May 3 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Chemical release / fields mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1970 May 4 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • DC-3 drop tests - . Nation: USA. NASA conducted drop tests of a 1/10 scale model of Faget's 'DC-3' straight-wing shuttle design. The model was 4 m long, weighed 270 kg, and was dropped from 3,700 m altitude. Recovery was by parachute..

1970 May 5 - .
  • Tereshkova promoted to colonel. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kutakhov, Shatalov, Tereshkova.

    Kamanin notes that on 30 April decree number 0635 of the Ministry of Defence promoted Tereshkova to Colonel. She has risen in rank from Lieutenant to Colonel in only eight years, a record result for a woman (it normally takes more than ten years). Many within the VVS opposed the promotion, but Kamanin feels she deserves it and has served her country well on the Committee of Soviet Women. Later Kamanin has a filmed interview as part of a Riabchikov television project. Shatalov's trip to Cuba has proceeded well - he met Castro several times. Kutakhov is in the hospital.


1970 May 5 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT64B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 May 5 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC14. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • LRL ACS-1B [or 0822] X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1970 May 6 - .
1970 May 6 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1.
  • Electron density Test / plasma / fields mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi).

1970 May 7 - .
  • Tereshkova's political duties. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tereshkova. Tereshkova did well at a meeting of Soviet Women commemorating the 25th Anniversary of the Defeat of Fascist Germany. She is to attend similar functions on 8 and 9 May..

1970 May 7 - . 01:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1970 May 7 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1970 May 8 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 May 8 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1970 May 9 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Greely. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1970 May 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 11 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1970 May 12 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 344 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 81. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4401 . COSPAR: 1970-038A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Failure of SA-10B camera on 42nd orbit..

1970 May 13 - .
  • DOS crew assignments - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11. Mishin and Kamanin sign a decree setting out the DOS crew assignments. The first DOS will not be orbited earlier than May-June 1971, probably even later. Kamanin played tennis with the Soyuz 9 crew..

1970 May 13 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • LRL ACS-4 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi).

1970 May 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 13 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 795 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13594 m. Flight Time - 513 sec..

1970 May 14 - .
  • Docking a second Orbital Workshop to Skylab 1 seen to be difficult. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Flight: Skylab B. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    The feasibility of docking a second Orbital Workshop to Skylab 1 had been under consideration. However, the practical problems that would be engendered by such an operation were formidable. They included such items as docking loads, docking control, flight attitude of tandem Skylabs, consumables, and in-orbit storage of Skylab 1.


1970 May 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 May 15 - .
  • Soviet view on space cooperation conference. - . Nation: Russia. Program: ASTP. Kamanin meets with Muravev, who attended a Congress for Joint US-USSR Space Cooperation in America. He told of protests in America against Nixon's aggression in Cambodia..

1970 May 15 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Facility construction was completed at the Titan III launch pad, Space Launch Complex 4 East (SLC-4E) at Vandenberg. - . The new facilities provided a temperature and humidity controlled environment for payloads that were to be flown aboard the Titan III launch vehicles..

1970 May 16 - .
  • A VVS Military Soviet is held for Soyuz 9. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. The three crews all passed their examinations, physicals, and have been certified as having completed their training..

1970 May 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • RAO Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 May 16 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • ROADRUNNER Infrared Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1970 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 erected on launch pad 110 west. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3. US reconnsat detects N1 being installed on the pad. It remained there, without payload, at least through 4 June..

1970 May 18 - .
  • VPK reviews Soyuz 9 readiness. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Serbin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Launch is set for 31 May with an 18 day mission duration. Afterwards Serbin asks why the Soviet Union is not conducting more manned spaceflights. Kamanin tells him, because no more spacecraft have been built. And why no spacecraft, Serbin asks. Kamanin replies that GUKOS, the General Staff, and Mishin were all opposed to production of 10 additional Soyuz ships for military flights.


1970 May 19 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew departs for Baikonur. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    Kamanin leaves for Tyuratam at 09:00 with 13 others aboard an Il-18 from Chkalov Airfield. The group included the 'space family' - Nikolayev, his wife Tereshkova, and their daughter Aleuka - with extensive photographic and film coverage. After the 10 hour flight, Kamanin goes to the 'Alley of Heroes' at Area 17 of the cosmodrome. Here each crew plants a tree before departing for space. The 11 first trees planted have all grown well, and are now 6 m tall with large crowns. Sevastyanov plants the 22nd tree. After a meeting of the State Commission, everyone watches an Italian movie, 'The Owl Appears at Day' - a story of murder in Sicily, terror against women, and the corruption of the Mafia (apparently a remake of the classic 'M').


1970 May 20 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew preparations at Baikonur - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    Soyuz 9 is planned to launch at 24:00. A new feature is that the crews' sleeping hours have been modified to put them in synch with the shifts at ground control over the long mission. The cosmonauts spent all day at Area 17, preparing the flight plan and logs. It is 28 degrees in the shade, and Kamanin plays tennis with the crews in the late afternoon. In the evening the American film 'One Million Years BC' is shown. Kamanin found the struggle between the savages interesting.


1970 May 20 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 345 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4403 . COSPAR: 1970-039A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 May 20 - . 21:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • KH-4B 1110 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1110 / Agena D 1656 / OPS 4720. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1970-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4405 . COSPAR: 1970-040A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. KH-4B. The overall image quality is less than that provided by recent missions and 2,000 feet of S0-349.
  • OPS 8520 - . Payload: EHH B19. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: P 11. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1974-03-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4406 . COSPAR: 1970-040B. Apogee: 499 km (310 mi). Perigee: 490 km (300 mi). Inclination: 83.1000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Radar monitoring; may or may not have existed!!!..

1970 May 21 - .
  • Dysentery in the Tyuratam garrison threatens cosmonauts. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    The Soyuz 9 crew trains with the bungee arrangements they'll have to exercise with twice a day while in space. They will have to work constantly in order to fight off the effects of sustained zero-gravity. Dysentery has broken out in the Tyuratam garrison. The cosmonauts are given prophylactic measures so that they won't get the bug. A Zenit spy satellite is launched from Area 2. There is some damage to the pad that will require repair, but nothing substantial. The OK is given for Soyuz 9 to launch from the pad. That evening the movie is West German - 'What does a woman do, when her husband disappears?'. At 23:00 the Soyuz 9 crew views the night sky, spotting constellations and guide stars.


1970 May 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT55F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 May 21 - . 02:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1970 May 21 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1970 May 21 - . 11:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 May 22 - .
  • Delays in Soyuz 9 preparation. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    The diet for the long-duration flight is reviewed. The cosmonauts will have four meals a day, totalling 2800 kcal, with 105 g of protein, 102 g fat, 342 g carbohydrates, and 847 g water. Meanwhile problems have been found with Soyuz 9's electrical system - the launch will have to be delayed. Some points in the electrical harnesses, which should have a 38 V capacity, are measuring greater than 60 V. This will have to be fixed, then the spacecraft put through its vacuum chamber test, then fuelling, and finally integration with the booster. Mishin is still not at the cosmodrome - he is managing the launch from Moscow. The result: neither the spacecraft or the booster are ready for an April launch, perhaps not even by the end of May. Of 20 members of the State Commission, only Kamanin and two others are actually at the launch site. This never would have happened in Korolev's time...


1970 May 22 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 May 22 - . 11:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy / Barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1970 May 22 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63. FAILURE: First stage failed 112 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • DS-P1-Yu s/n 36 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu. Mass: 330 kg (720 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 May 24 - .
  • Cosmonauts recreate. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    Kamanin, the cosmonauts, and other VVS officers spend the day at the lake 7 km from the Tyuratam liquid oxygen plant. An asphalt road leads to the recreation area. They play tennis, chess, and billiards. The artificial lake was made by diverting water from the Syr Darya river.


1970 May 25 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew ready for flight. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    They have completed their physical tests and trained with the survival kit. Nikolayev and Sevastyanov were caught smoking just the day before the launch. Kamanin has a serious discussion with them, for this was completely prohibited. Kamanin would replace them with the backup crew, but it is too late for that.


1970 May 25 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 May 26 - .
  • Soyuz 9 State Commission. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Fuelling of Soyuz 9 is to begin at 07:00 on 27 May. Launch will be at 24:00 on 2 June..

1970 May 26 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 May 26 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • SAPSUCKER Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1970 May 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 May 26 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Strypi.
  • BIRDSEED I Duck Plasma gun - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 May 26 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1970 May 26 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Falling Sphere - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 May 27 - .
  • Cosmonauts go fishing. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. A meeting is held at 11:00 at Area 2 in memory of Gagarin. Then the cosmonauts go fishing at the 'Lox Lake' with a television and film crew. Kamanin plays billiards with Mishin..

1970 May 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT65B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 May 27 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi).

1970 May 27 - . 15:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 May 28 - .
  • Pace quickens at Baikonur. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. The big shots (Afanasyev and others) are finally showing up, just in order to see the launch. The crew completes preparation of the flight log. At night they do more stellar navigation training, including use of new electronic binoculars..

1970 May 29 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 May 30 - .
  • Soyuz 9 final inspection. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    The backup crews were to train in the Soyuz 9 spacecraft from 10:00, followed by the prime crew at 12:00, but Mishin didn't allow the backups to start until 11:00. Inspectors have found 15 discrepancies in the spacecraft, 3 to 4 of them serious (including incorrect mounting of the crew head rests, unusable photographic equipment).


1970 May 30 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/Trident.
  • RMP-B-17 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1970 May 31 - .
  • Go-ahead for Soyuz 9 launch. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Soyuz 9 State Commission meets at Area 31 at 11:00. That evening the spacecraft will be integrated with the booster, with roll-out to the pad scheduled for the following morning at 05:00. At 17:00 the cosmonauts give a formal interview to the Russian 'Parade' magazine. After that they hold a general press conference.


1970 June - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1F.
  • Development of engines for N1F authorised - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: L3M. Spacecraft: L3M-1970.

    Full go-ahead to develop a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen high energy upper stage for the N1F. The multi-engine Block Sr would have a propellant mass of 66.4 tonnes. In July Kuznetsov was given authorisation to design substantially improved versions of the N1 lower stage rocket engines. The N1 that would utilise these engines was designated the N1F and would have a payload to a 225 km orbit of 105,000 kg.


June 1970 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Independent studies of NASA's shuttle ordered. - . Nation: USA.

    The new NASA Administrator, James Fletcher, had found that the NASA internal estimates of the cost to develop and operate the space shuttle were treated by the Office of Management of the Budget with great scepticism. Therefore he authorised several independent studies. Lockheed was to report on how the shuttle could reduce payload costs. Aerospace Corporation was to make an independent estimate of the cost of developing and operating the shuttle. Mathematica was to use these studies to make a definitive report comparing the cost of the shuttle with that of using existing expendable boosters.

    The Mathematica study would become notorious, for it forecast enormous savings in the use of the shuttle. It became very influential in government and congressional circles in shifting opinion to support the project. This, as NASA Administrator Low would dryly comment later, was 'unfortunate'. All earlier studies for the USAF and NASA, notably a RAND study in 1970, showed no cost advantage for reusable boosters when research and development costs were taken into account. RAND had concluded that a manned space station supported by expendable boosters would be cheaper, and more flexible and useful.

    Fletcher also directed NASA to take US Air Force requirements for the shuttle into account. The US Defence Department's requirements included the ability to carry 18 m long payloads, and deliver a mass of 18,000 kg to a polar orbit from Vandenberg AFB, or 30,000 kg to a low earth orbit from Cape Canaveral. The 4.5 m diameter for the payload bay was a NASA requirement, established by the planned diameter of future space station modules. 18 m x 4.5 m also corresponded to the dimensions of a liquid hydrogen tank with a mass of 30,000 kg, the lowest-density payload imaginable. The USAF also wanted an 1800 to 2400 km cross range on re-entry, and an initial operational capability of December 1977.

    The Aerospace Corporation study of NASA Phase A proposals concluded that the weight of a shuttle's thermal protection system would vary in relation to the fourth root of the required cross range. Aerospace also believed that sequential ignition of the booster and orbiter was a better approach than the triamese-type all-engines running at lift-off. It also declared that the USAF's desired operational date was unrealistic -- the earliest a shuttle could be available was mid to late 1979.


1970 June 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • NASA completes Shuttle Phase A evaluations - . Nation: USA.

    After over 200 man-years of NASA and contractor effort, the Agency reached the following conclusions at the end of Phase A:

    • The common orbiter/booster engine planned would have to have a lower thrust then proposed, with more used per booster. This was due to the need for the orbiter to have several engines instead of one or two in order to give it abort capabilities in the event of a single engine failure. It was recommended that a 180,000 kgf engine be developed for the shuttle instead of the 230,000 kgf previously planned.
    • Lifting body configurations were not suited for the launch vehicle application. This was due to the required complex internal arrangement of tanks and equipment within the curving hull, difficulty of fabricating the airframe and tanks, and poor subsonic lift/drag performance.
    • Variable geometry wings were not desirable, since they resulted in a heavier weight to body area ratio during re-entry, and thereby more re-entry heating problems. They also required complex mechanical and pneumatic/hydraulic systems for operation, which meant more maintenance, more complexity, and extra failure modes. There considerable advantages - a lower spacecraft weight fraction and the highest lift/drag in subsonic flight - did not offset these disadvantages.
    As a result of these conclusions, NASA published its specification for the Phase B Integral Launch and Recovery Vehicle Shuttle System on 1 June. The requirements in this specification were:
    • Two-stage-to-orbit, vertical takeoff, horizontal landing configuration
    • Initial operational capability by the end of 1977
    • 6,800 kg payload to a 500 km, 55 deg inclination orbit when launched from Cape Canaveral
    • 4.6 m x 18.3 m payload bay
    • Two orbiter alternates were to be proposed by the contractors, one with a 370 km cross-range (NASA requirement), one with a 2784 km cross range (USAF requirement). This implied a minimum L/D for the high cross-range vehicle of 1.8, and a total heat load 5 to 7 times greater than the low cross-range alternative.
    • Seven-day orbital mission capability.
    • Go-around capability on landing in case of a missed approach. This implied the use of airbreathing engines. Phase A studies showed that use of gaseous H2 from the orbiter's tanks as fuel for such engines drastically reduced the orbiter weight compared to use of conventional JP-4 jet fuel housed in separate tanks.
    • Design to be capable of 25 to 70 launches a year, with a turnaround time of two weeks
    • G-forces limited to 3G on ascent
    • Two crew housed in a pressure cabin without spacesuits
    • 43 hour countdown time after assembly
    • Stage separation without the use of rocket devices
    • No in-flight refuelling allowed
    • Capable of landing under FAA Category 2 conditions on a 3,000 m runway
    • All systems fail-operational - e.g. they would remain operational after any single component failure, and remain fail-safe for crew survival even after two subsystem failures
    • Quick safeing of vehicle systems after landing
    • No propellant cross-feed allowed between booster and orbiter

1970 June 1 - .
  • The British government, assisted by Air Force Systems Command's Space and Missile Systems Organization (SAMSO), began development of Skynet II, an advanced satellite communications system. - . Spacecraft: Skynet.

1970 June 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: UK S27. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 June 1 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Strypi. Launch Vehicle: Strypi VI.
  • MTV-I Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 June 1 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 9 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko, Grechko. Support Crew: Lazarev, Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 17. Mass: 6,590 kg (14,520 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Grechko, Lazarev, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 17.71 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4407 . COSPAR: 1970-041A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts.. Additional Details: here....

1970 June 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 17 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. First M2-F3 flight. Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 218 sec..

1970 June 2 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 2 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Shatalov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    At 09:00 the State Commission members and 36 military officers board an aircraft to return to Moscow. Kamanin, the Soyuz 9 back-up crews, Kuznetsov, Shatalov, and 14 other officers board an Il-18 for the flight to mission control at Yevpatoriya. Conversation aboard the flight is about the weather, football - nothing about space. After four hours the plane arrives at Saki. The first communications session with Soyuz 9 is with Issuriysk at 15:40. In a three-minute conversation the crew confirms that all is normal. At 19:00 the first of the daily landing commission meetings takes place. This commission's role is to assess the flight status and to establish contingency plans for the next day in case an emergency return to earth is required.

    In the evening Kamanin calls Tereshkova, and promises to tell Nikolayev that she and Aleuka were fine, worried, to kiss him, and the looked forward to meeting him on his return. On 8 June Aleuka will be six years old, and Tereshkova would like to fly to Yevpatoriya to give her a surprise communications session with her father. At 21:25 Kamanin relays the news from his family to Nikolayev during a pass over Yevpatoriya. Kamanin observes that the tracking station is not suited to serve as mission control over a long spaceflight. There is no transport, and no recreational facilities. The only diversions are gymnastics, chess, and billiards. Furthermore there seem to be a lot of unnecessary staff at the command point.


1970 June 2 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 June 2 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • JHU UVT F5 (Jupiter) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 June 2 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 June 3 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 3 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    All is normal aboard Soyuz 9. At 10:00 there is an operational management meeting. There are worries the crew did not engage and disengage the orientation engines at the time scheduled for an engine burn. Kamanin defends the crew -- this was not a mistake, it took the crew 50 minutes to go through the same exercises that took 30 minutes on the ground, and therefore they were delayed in being able to conduct the manoeuvre. There is a television communications session in the evening. The crew looks all right, but Sevastyanov's face is visibly swollen.


1970 June 4 - .
  • Meteor-2 authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2.

    Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On standardised weather satellite system' was issued. The resolution also ordered VNIIEM to develop a parallel design of another meteosat for the hydrology office alone. This was not put into production.


1970 June 4 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 4 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova, Tregub. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    There are a total of 500 staff at Yevpatoriya for the mission, including 53 representatives from the VVS, 6 military cosmonauts, and 3 civilian cosmonauts. Mishin returns to Moscow, leaving Tregub in his place. In the afternoon there is a problem with the control of the spacecraft's solar cells. On the 47th orbit Sevastyanov reports that one solar panel is energised, but only generating 26 amps. This could only mean that the automatic control of the solar panels was not working. On the second day the crew had to engage and disengage the solar batteries 12 times manually. After the 15th manual session it became clear that the mission could last only eight days before the batteries would run down. In the orbit of Soyuz 9 in June, the night lasts 40 minutes. On the previous flight, in October, it lasted only 10 minutes and this would not have been a problem. The crew is told to revolve the spacecraft at 0.5 deg/sec around the long axis. By this method the spacecraft remains fully oriented towards the sun, and the batteries don't have to work so long on the night passes. The cosmonauts do not report any unpleasant sensations from the rotation. At the 23:25 communications sessions the cosmonauts report that their appetites are good and they are sleeping well.


1970 June 5 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 5 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    At 08:40 Kamanin discusses the solar battery problem in a communications section with the cosmonauts. Telemetry shows the system is generating 25.6 to 26.0 V. There will be an emergency situation if the voltage drops to 23 to 24 V - in that case the crew must land within 1.5 orbits of the earth, or two hours. They would likely have to land out of tracking range of Soviet units. The crew gets the spacecraft back into its solar orientation roll on the sixth attempt. At 18:00 clear communications are again obtained with the capsule via Vesna (Khabarovsk and Alma Alta). Nikolayev reports that when oriented to the sun, the system generates 26 V instead of the 31 V it should be generating. A long technical discussion ensues. It is finally decided that the automatic system is actually working correctly, but that Sevastyanov is confusing the ammeter and voltmeter readings (which are displayed on one instrument). Later Kamanin talks to Tereshkova. She will fly via An-24 to Yevpatoriya on 7 June with her daughter.


1970 June 6 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 6 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    At an 08:30 communications session Filipchenko reports to the tracking vessel Komarov that all is OK, everything normal, they are eating well. At 22:15 alarming telemetry is received that indicates that the temperatures in the fuel tanks are getting high due to the extended time of continuous exposure to the sun. They drop slightly after two minutes in shadow.


1970 June 6 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • TITMOUSE Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 June 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Strypi.
  • BIRDSEED I Egret Plasma gun - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 June 6 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Falling Sphere - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 June 7 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 7 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    Soyuz 9's environmental control system is working well. Tereshkova and her daughter arrive at the command point at 14:40 after landing at the airfield at 12:00. The landing commission meets in the evening to consider contingency landings. It is reported that the crew is medically in better shape on Day 6 than Day 1, according to telemetry. In fact they are doing so well, extension of the flight to 20 days duration is discussed. Between 20:00 and 20:30 Tereshkova and her daughter communicate via radio and television with Nikolayev aboard Soyuz 9.


1970 June 7 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1970 June 7 - . 07:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C48 / 1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 June 8 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 8 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. During the day Tereshkova has a meeting with a Young Pioneers Group. In the evening she and Nikolayev enjoy another communications session together..

1970 June 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1970 June 8 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT72B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 June 9 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 9 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Tereshkova and her daughter return to Moscow. The landing commission meets at 20:00. The cosmonauts' activity level seems to be declining - they are drinking little water and their oxygen consumption has declined..

1970 June 9 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • ABRES RVTO-1A-7 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1970 June 10 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 10 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gorbatko, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. This is the first day 'off' for the Soyuz 9 crew on their long duration flight. No experiments are scheduled and radio communications will be minimised. The crew plays chess via radio with Gorbatko..

1970 June 10 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 346 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4409 . COSPAR: 1970-042A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 11 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 36 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Glide landing study. Maximum Speed - 809 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 202 sec..

1970 June 11 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 11 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky, Gorbatko, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz, Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Things are proceeding normally aboard Soyuz 9. Shatalov and Yeliseyev prepare to depart for the Crimea to train for use of the big solar and stellar telescopes planned for the DOS station. The 15-20 day course will be attended by all 12 DOS cosmonauts. The training plan for DOS is discussed, with a May 1971 flight date as the objective. Kamanin discusses smoking with Bykovsky and Gorbatko - they have to stop.


1970 June 12 - .
1970 June 12 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Blue Streak. Launch Vehicle: Europa I. FAILURE: Payload fairing failed to separate.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Europa F-9 / STV 3 - . Mass: 249 kg (548 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: STV. Decay Date: 1970-06-12 . COSPAR: F700612A. Apogee: 2,000 km (1,200 mi).

1970 June 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 347 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 35. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-11-13 . Decay Date: 1971-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 4411 . COSPAR: 1970-043A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 48.3000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 June 13 - .
  • Apollo 13 Review Board publishes result of investigation. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 13.

    The explosion was found to have been caused by a bare-wire heating element within the fuel cell liquid oxygen tank. The element itself had burnt off its insulation through a combination of unimplemented specification changes early in the programme coupled with unauthorised procedures during ground testing. Additional Details: here....


1970 June 13 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 13 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    The Soyuz 9 crew has completed their 12th day but are beginning to get tired. They are making mistakes (for example putting the television camera on the wrong setting). The landing commission decides to constantly monitor the weather at potential landing sites from 14 June onwards so that a quick landing decision can be made if necessary.


1970 June 13 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 348 - . Payload: DS-U2-GK s/n 2. Mass: 357 kg (787 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-GK. Completed Operations Date: 1970-07-25 . Decay Date: 1970-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4413 . COSPAR: 1970-044A. Apogee: 598 km (371 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Conducted complex geophysical studies of the upper atmosphere. Air density, auroral investigations..

1970 June 14 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 14 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. The crew seems better today. Landing is planned for between June 16 and 19 (on June 16 the crew will beat the US spaceflight endurance record). The crew says everything is excellent..

1970 June 15 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 15 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    The first communications session begins alarmingly - contact could not be made with the crew for the first three minutes they were in radio range. But then they came through, and said everything was all right and their condition was excellent. At 12:00 Sevastyanov accidentally engages the ASP automatic landing system. This removes the first lock on the system, which is then armed so that it will be activated by a signal from the barometer at an altitude of 11 km above the earth. It is said not to be dangerous, but Filipchenko made the same mistake on Soyuz 7. Kamanin had asked Mishin to put a lock on the ASP switch to prevent this from happening, but he did nothing. At 12:30 the State Commission arrives. At 17:30 Mishin has his first communications session with the crew. There are problems with the environmental control system - the carbon dioxide level is up to 8.5 mm, and the oxygen level down to 160 mm. The crew is told to turn off ECS cartridge number 2 and use number 3. By 23:00 it is clear that cartridge 2 was working badly - oxygen pressure is up to 170 mm, carbon dioxide down to 4. 5 mm. Nikolayev hints to Mishin that he would like to use the two day reserve of consumables aboard to extend the mission to 20 days. Kamanin is opposed to the idea - this would be a dangerous adventure. The whole point of a reserve is that it is never used except in case of an emergency.


1970 June 15 - . 15:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar ultraviolet / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 June 16 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Development of TKS ferry for Almaz authorised. Soyuz 7K-TK cancelled - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TK, TKS.

    Decree 437-160 'On creation of the TKS and termination of the 7K-TK' was issued. In 1969 Chelomei proposed replacement of the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK with his own transport-supply spacecraft 11F72 (transportnovo korablya snabzheniya - TKS). This would consist of the same 11F74 VA landing capsule used on the Almaz station, together with a new 11F77 functional-cargo block (funktsionalno-gruzovovo blok, FGB). This would transport three crew and sufficient supplies for 90 day operation of the Almaz.


1970 June 16 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 16 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Nikolayev, Ryazanskiy, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    All is normal aboard Soyuz 9, except that one of the local telemetry commutators in Ryazanskiy's system has failed. The telemetry data involved is not critical to the flight, and Mishin and Ryazanskiy allow the flight to continue. Mishin is considering extending the flight to 19 or 20 days. To do this the crew will have to stretch their rations. Kamanin finds himself out of the decision loop, 'as usual'. The landing commission wants to complete the flight as scheduled on the 287th orbit.


1970 June 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 14 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1051 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18593 m. Flight Time - 432 sec..

1970 June 17 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 17 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Andrei, Kerimov, Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Today the Soyuz 9 crew set a new space endurance record. Everything is normal aboard the spacecraft, except for the failed telemetry commutator and the engaged ASP switch. What would now be needed, notes Kamanin, are new Soyuz spacecraft to extend the duration in space gradualy to 30, 40, 50, and then 60 days. But there are no new spacecraft - Kamanin's plan for construction of an additional ten Soyuz was blocked. Grechko and others in the leadership want a big greeting ceremony for the crew in Moscow, but Kamanin only wants the crew in the hands of the doctors for the first 10 to 12 days after the flight. At 15:00, Mishin and Kerimov, following their bosses' orders from Moscow, announce that they want to extend the flight to 20 days.


1970 June 17 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 June 17 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 June 17 - . 12:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 349 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4416 . COSPAR: 1970-045A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 18 - .
  • Soyuz 9 Day 18 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Bushuyev, Karas, Kerimov, Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tsybin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Final Landing Commission meeting is held. The primary landing site is 50 km west of Karaganda. Visibility there is 10 km, winds 6-10 m/s. Mishin wants to land 50 km further wesst, near a city with passenger train service. It is finally agreed to land there, at 71 deg 31' E, but that will mean that an emergency ballistic re-entry (in the event of a guidance system failure) would bring the capsule down in the Aral Sea. That in turn means additional recovery forces, consisting of three amphibious vehicles, three helicopters, five naval cutters, and 15 scuba divers have to be alerted and prepared. The Politburo approves the landing, and the plan to fly the cosmonauts to Chkalovsky Airfield, followed by ten days in the hospital. Mishin and Kerimov discussed having the traditional cosmonaut greeting at Vnukovo Airport, but they'll have to forget such extravaganzas in the years to come, when only long-duration missions are planned. Meanwhile the crew is well, preparing for landing. They secure the BO living module, stow items in the SA re-entry vehicle that are to be returned to earth. There is a communications pass at 08:00 to 08:30. Afanasyev, Karas, Chertok, Bushuyev, Tsybin, and other members of the State Commission now arrive at Yevpatoriya.


1970 June 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: UK S27. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 June 19 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz 9 - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Goreglyad, Leonov, Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    At 13:00 it was reported that the landing site was ready, 12 to 15 km visibility, 5-7 m/s winds. At 14:00 it is officially ordered that the landing commence. There are 150 technicians in the hall of mission control for the landing. Nikolayev reports the start of the retrofire burn of the TDU. Retrofire and seperation of the spacecraft modules is normal. The PVO radar at Turtsiy picks up the Soyuz at 83 km altitude and follows it down to the point of parachute deployment. Two helicopters sight the parachute and follow the capsule to landing. Within a minute after the capsule has landed General Goreglyad and Colonel Popov are already at the hatch. Following landing Leonov advises that the crew is all right. However the cosmonauts' condition after landing is awful. It is painful and difficult for them to get up. They fall down in their first tortured attempts at walking. They have to be dragged along by the arms. At 16:30 an Il-18 leaves from Saki for Moscow with the cosmonauts aboard. Both of the cosmonauts looked very ill aboard the plane. They had to be supported by Shatalov and Yeliseyev to get down the stairs in Moscow. Nikolayev departs from his prepared speech to the Sate Commission, and says 'Comrade Chairman! The orders for flight aboard the spacecraft Soyuz 9 were fulfilled and we await further orders!' After the report hey are rushed to the doctors.

    It is obvious to the Soviets that they were seriously mistaken about the effects of zero-G on human beings (Mishin thought flights of three to four months would be no problem). Kamanin recites again his belief in the need for more long solo Soyuz flights, how the leadership has blocked such flights, and the general lack of support for manned space. He even had to fight to allow the Soyuz 9 crew to go straight to the hospital and their loved ones, rather than attending ceremonies.


1970 June 19 - . Launch Site: Minot AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The first flight of Minuteman III (LGM-30G) missiles was turned over to the 741st Strategic Missile Squadron of SAC's 91st Strategic Missile Wing at Minot AFB, North Dakota. - .

    Force Modernization involved refurbishment of Minuteman facilities to accommodate the Minuteman III configuration missile. Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) also had its depot facilities ready to repair Minuteman III systems as of 19 June - this was the first time in the history of U.S. missile systems that initial operational capability (IOC) of a major new weapon system and depot repair capability were achieved simultaneously.


1970 June 19 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT28M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 June 19 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
  • OPS 5346 - . Payload: AFP-720 Rhyolite 1. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft: Rhyolite. USAF Sat Cat: 4418 . COSPAR: 1970-046A. Apogee: 33,685 km (20,930 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 28.2000 deg. Period: 588.90 min. First launch of Rhyolite geostationary ELINT satellite. Reportedly left in transfer orbit; other sources indicate a successful mission. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean..

1970 June 19 - .
1970 June 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT27M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 June 21 - . Launch Site: Teikovo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 June 21 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1970 June 22 - .
  • Grechko meets with the cosmonauts. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Andrei, Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. They push for production of ten additional Soyuz spacecraft, necessary trainers for the L1 and L3, more female-crew flights, and complain of lack of support from GUKOS (who agree with Mishin's approach of total automation of spacecraft)..

1970 June 22 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 June 22 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1970 June 23 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew still ill. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. The cosmonauts still appear ill, with pulses of 90 to 100 and temperatures of 37.8 deg C. They reported that earth's gravity felt to them like 3 to 4 G's after landing. They are adapting to gravity only very slowly..

1970 June 23 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-05 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 5. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 4419 . COSPAR: 1970-047A. Apogee: 872 km (541 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • Safeguard M1-1A Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 June 24 - . 04:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 June 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT73B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 June 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP R-16 PL70-11 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 June 25 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 6820 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 27 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1970-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4422 . COSPAR: 1970-048A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 144 km (89 mi). Inclination: 108.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1970 June 26 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew improving. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. The Soyuz 9 crew are still suffering from the effects of their flight, but getting better each day. Tereshkova was taken ill last night..

1970 June 26 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF22. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT59F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 June 26 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-14 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4430 . COSPAR: 1970-049A. Apogee: 39,172 km (24,340 mi). Perigee: 459 km (285 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 703.10 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 June 26 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 350 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4425 . COSPAR: 1970-050A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 June 26 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1970 June 27 - .
  • Soviet flights should not exceed 25 days duration. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Smirnov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The crew is recovering slowly. It is recommended to Smirnov that the Soviet Union not plan any spaceflights over 20 to 25 days duration, and that a new series of Soyuz spacecraft be built to extend experience in long-duration flight..

1970 June 27 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • ASE 1D-XRT Cygnus Loop X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 June 27 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 351 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 38. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-10-13 . Decay Date: 1970-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 4427 . COSPAR: 1970-051A. Apogee: 467 km (290 mi). Perigee: 270 km (160 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 June 27 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1970 June 27 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 June 27 - . 17:27 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • SpE fine scale Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1970 June 29 - .
  • Additional Soyuz flights requested. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kutakhov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Kamanin pleads with Kutakhov for construction of at least 3 to 4 new Soyuz spacecraft, and necessary improvements to Star City facilities..

1970 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 June 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-07 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 June 30 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew still very weak. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9.

    Ten days after their 18-day flight, the Soyuz 9 crew can still only work 3 to 4 hours a day. They can only take two short walks daily and tire quickly. Their pulse, temperature, blood pressure fluctuate from day to day, often being in the range of ill people. Meanwhile the head army physician examines Tereshkova, and prescribes a one-week spa cure.


1970 June 30 - .
  • Original plan for tests of Spiral - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Original planned date for first flight tests of Spiral with rocket first stage..

1970 June 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 July 1 - .
  • Tactical Satellite Communication (TACSATCOM) reached interim operational capability, consisting of the Tactical Communications Satellite (TACSAT I) and the Lincoln Experimental Satellite LES-6. - . Spacecraft Bus: HS 308. Spacecraft: TACSAT. TACSAT I was initially designed to demonstrate the feasibility of handling tactical communications by satellite. The tests had been so successful with both satellites that tri-service traffic was added for relay through the system..

1970 Jul - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Thiokol Chemical Corporation was selected as a second source contractor for the Minuteman III third stage propulsion system. - . The other manufacturer of the motors was the Aerojet General Solid Rocket Company. Thiokol already produced the first-stage solid-propellant motors for Minuteman III, and Aerojet built Stage II motors..

1970 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Recruit.
  • Flight test 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi).

1970 July 1 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 2 - . 06:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150 MII.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1970 July 3 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew feted at Kremlin. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Nikolayev and Sevastyanov finally attend their post-flight reception at the Kremlin - over 900 people are there to greet them..

1970 July 3 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1970 July 3 - . 19:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S63 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 4 - .
  • Cutler-Hammer, Inc., was awarded a contract for the design and development of an L-band microwave radiometer for use in the Skylab Program. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab. The radiometer would measure brightness and temperature of the terrestrial surface of the Skylab ground track..

1970 July 5 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1970 July 6 - .
  • Soyuz 9 press conference preparations. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Keldysh, Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Kamanin and the Soyuz 9 cosmonauts meet with Keldysh and Mishin to prepare for a press conference, to be carried live on television..

1970 July 6 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Phase B Contracts - . Nation: USA.

    Phase B contracts were issued for preliminary design for a space shuttle to two industrial teams - McDonnell Douglas and Martin Marietta; and North American Rockwell and General Dynamics. The specifications were as laid out in the NASA specificaiton on 1 June. In addition, both teams were mandated to study, as a baseline, alternate orbiters, consisting of the MSC-002 straight-wing Faget configuration for the low cross-range alternative, and a delta wing configuration for the high cross-range alternative. The booster configuration, on the other hand, was left up to the contractors.

    Engine contracts were let to Pratt and Whitney, Rocketdyne, and Aerojet. The engine specification called for a Lox/LH2 engine with a bell nozzle, capable of gimballing plus/minus 7 deg, producing 188,000 kgf at sea leval and 216,000 kgf at altitude. The booster engines would be equipped with a 6:1 expansion nozzle, and the orbiter with a two-position nozzle to bring the expansion ratio up to 120:1 at altitude. The engine had to throttle between 50% and 115% of the rated thrust (the latter rating for abort engine-out situations). The engine was to be equipped with a digital engine controller and be compact and reusable.


1970 July 6 - . 16:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 6 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 July 6 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 7 - .
  • Cosmonaut jet flight training. - . Nation: Russia.

    On this typical training day 16 cosmonauts are flying, four in the morning aboard a MiG-21, 12 in the afternoon aboard L-29's. It is difficult to schedule these training flights, since the cosmonaut training unit is co-located with an aviation transport brigade and repair centre.


1970 July 7 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts (ASSC) - . Nation: USA.

    NASA Huntsville, dissatisfied with the shuttle concepts being pursued by NASA Houston, let contracts to Chrysler and Lockheed for alternate technical approaches to the configuration dictated to Phase B contractors by NASA Houston. Later a further contract was let to a Grumman/Boeing team. In all, 29 configurations of partially reusable to fully-reusable vehicles were explored. The baseline engine for these studies had a thrust of 250,000 kgf and a two-position bell nozzle.


1970 July 7 - .
  • Birth of Robert Louis Behnken - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Behnken. American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-123, STS-130..

1970 July 7 - . 01:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1970 July 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 352 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4446 . COSPAR: 1970-052A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 July 8 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S63 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 8 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 July 9 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF24. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT66F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 July 9 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 353 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4455 . COSPAR: 1970-053A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 July 9 - . 17:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 July 10 - .
  • Indian General Lal tours space facilities. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. The press conference behind them, Nikolayev and Tereshkova leave for Leningrad, and then on to Sochi for recuperation. General Lal from India tours Soviet space facilities. Smirnov proposes cooperation with India in space technology development..

1970 July 10 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. Launch Vehicle: Skylark.
  • X-ray spectra / Ionos X-ray astronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1970 July 11 - .
  • Soyuz 9 cosmonauts meet with Communist Party leaders. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Sevastyanov notes how small the earth appears from space, the same observation made by Gagarin and the American astronauts..

1970 July 11 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test. Impacted in Mexico. - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

    An Athena test missile launched from Green River, Utah, toward the White Sands Missile Range veered off course and landed some 200 miles inside Mexico. This led to a halt in Athena launches from Green River until the cause of the malfunction could be determined. Went off course and impacted in Mexico.


1970 July 13 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1970 July 14 - .
1970 July 14 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT71B-2 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 July 14 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6.
  • X-ray RMC X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1970 July 14 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 July 15 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • Extreme ultraviolet OGS Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 July 16 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew presses for new Soyuz series. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Karas, Maksimov, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz 7K-S. Sevastyanov and Nikolayev visit GUKOS, and press for construction of a new Soyuz series. Karas and Maksimov say it would interrupt development of the 7K-S. The cosmonauts argue that the Soyuz 7K-OK is now proven, while the 7K-S exists only on paper..

1970 July 16 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1970 July 17 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 37 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 803 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 252 sec..

1970 July 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT30M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 July 19 - . Launch Site: Leba. LV Family: Meteor sounding rocket. Launch Vehicle: Meteor-2K.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Poland. Agency: PIHM. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1970 July 20 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1970 July 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 18 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 708 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 228 sec..

1970 July 21 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1970 July 22 - . 20:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1970 July 23 - .
  • Consultations with leadership on MKBS intensify: Meeting with SA Afanasyev on MKBS; Preliminary discussion of the main provisions for the development of the MKBS (in TsKBEM). - . Related Persons: Mishin, Afanasyev, Sergei, . Spacecraft: , MKBS. (Mishin Diaries 2-300).

1970 July 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    Flight Test Missile 970, a Minuteman I (LGM-30B), was the 300th Minuteman missile launched from Vandenberg AFB and the first missile launched in support of the Army's Safeguard System Test Targets Program (SSTTP). Since the first Minuteman missile was fired on 28 September 1962, 165 LGM-30Bs, 50 LGM-30AS, 75 Minuteman lis and 10 Minuteman Ills had been launched from Vandenberg.


1970 July 23 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • KH-4B 1111 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1111 / Agena D 1654 / OPS 4324. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1970-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4477 . COSPAR: 1970-054A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 59.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-4B. The overall image quality is good..

1970 July 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S56A / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M.
  • Intelsat 3 F-8 - . Mass: 270 kg (590 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 3. Completed Operations Date: 1970-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4478 . COSPAR: 1970-055A. Apogee: 36,599 km (22,741 mi). Perigee: 33,877 km (21,050 mi). Inclination: 12.1000 deg. Period: 1,408.20 min.

    Unusable orbit. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). As of 28 August 2001 located at 175.58 deg E drifting at 7.155 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 110.93W drifting at 7.169E degrees per day.


1970 July 24 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S65 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 July 24 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1970 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 25 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 26 - .
  • Organize the work of designers (those needed and useful) for blocks Sr, S and MKBS. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Chertok, Bushuyev, Bushuyev, Feoktistov, Okhapkin. Spacecraft: , MKBS. Okhapkin, Bushuyev Chertok, Bezverby, Kolyako, Feoktistov, Timchenko, Legostaev - have to involved. (Mishin Diaries 2-300).

1970 July 26 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 July 26 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 July 26 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1970 July 27 - .
  • Titov in trouble again. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Titov. Titov has been in another automobile accident, and has again been prohibited from driving..

1970 July 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 27 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • ESRO S65 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 July 27 - . 04:37 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 July 27 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • MAP II Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1970 July 28 - .
  • X-24 Flight 15 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 996 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17678 m. Flight Time - 388 sec..

1970 July 28 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew tours Leningrad - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Kamanin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, and their families take a train to Leningrad. There they do some sightseeing, visit the television tower, and make a local television appearance..

1970 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 July 28 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
  • Cosmos 354 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1970-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4481 . COSPAR: 1970-056A. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi). Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1970 July 28 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). The final flight test missile in the basic Minuteman III research and development program was launched from Vandenberg AFB. Twenty-five missiles had been launched in the program - eleven from Vandenberg and fourteen from Cape Canaveral. .

1970 July 29 - .
  • DOS plans laid out at Monino Space Conference. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK.

    The Fourth Military-Scientific VVS Space Conference at Monino. The VPK has finally approved completion of space stations DOS #1 and #2. They are designed to support 70 to 80 days of inhabited flight. They will be launched by a Proton UR-500K, then followed 8-10 days later by a Soyuz 7KS launched by an R-7. After thirty days aboard the station, the first crew will return. A few days later a second crew will be launched to man the station. The 7KS version of the Soyuz will have an internal hatch for transfer of the crew from the spacecraft to the station. There will be no solo Soyuz flight to test the crew's response to a 30-day mission before the first DOS flight. DOS#1 is scheduled for launch in February 1971, to coincide with the 24th Meeting of the Communist Party of the USSR. Kamanin knows it actually can't be any earlier than May 1971, but nevertheless the cosmonauts are required to train so that they will be ready by 1 February.


1970 July 30 - .
  • Soyuz 9 crew debrefing. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Nikolayev and Sevastyanov fly to Sochi to write out their post-flight debriefing. Mishin won't accept that there are problems with sustained zero-G flight, since that would wreck the assumptions on which he has based his DOS station plans. Kamanin believes a series of 30, 50, then 50-plus day flights are needed to investigate and prove human adaptation to space.


1970 July 30 - .
  • Death of Dan Able Kimball - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kimball. American businessman, Vice President of Sales at General Tire, before becoming Head of Aerojet, 1944-1969, transforming it from an undisciplined group of rocket enthusiasts to the second largest US rocket engine manufacturer..

1970 July 30 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 July 30 - . 12:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 July 30 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1970 July 31 - .
  • Titov's privileges at risk. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Titov.

    Kamanin meets with Titov. In his nine-year cosmonaut career, Titov has had ten major disciplinary incidents. Kamanin tells him this is the last time -- one more incident, and he will be removed from the General Staff Academy, stripped of his titles, and lose his benefits. He doesn't seem to take Kamanin seriously - to the world, he is still Cosmonaut#2, the second man in orbit...


1970 August 1 - .
  • Middle East preoccupies VVS leadership. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kutakhov.

    Kutakhov flies to Egypt, but before leaving tells Kamanin he is not happy with his draft decree on future space plans. In Egypt, four MiG-21's with Russian pilots aboard have been shot down by Israel, killing two of the pilots. These are the first Russian casualties in the Middle East. July 1970 has been the worst month for safety in the history of the VVS - 20 aircraft losses and crashes (previous record - 16 in July 1964).


1970 August 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 Aug - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: V-1000. Launch Vehicle: 1Ya2TA.
  • Ion 2 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1970 August 3 - .
  • Centrifuge for Cosmonaut Training Centre - . Nation: Russia.

    A meeting is held to try to finally get the IF-16 centrifuge into the state plan. The Americans has several centrifuges of this size, Russia not one. It has to be purchased abroad, with the choice being either a French or Swedish model. The Swedish model is preferred, but there is not enough money in the state plan for the hefty 12 million rouble asking price. The entire space budget his year will be limited to 700 million roubles - the money for the centrifuge will have to be found within that at the expense of something else...


1970 August 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT61F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 627. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • PEM-1 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 August 3 - . 16:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 48 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 August 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • ERCS GT16L operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 4 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 August 4 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 August 5 - .
  • Beregovoi appointment challenged. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi. More flak concerning Kamanin's recommendation of Beregovoi for the post of deputy commander of the cosmonaut centre..

1970 August 5 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 August 5 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 August 6 - . 21:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1970 August 7 - .
  • Almaz program review. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS.

    Work has been underway for 5 to 6 years. The decree of the Communist Party/Ministry of Defence of 16 June 1970 finally set forth a firm flight schedule: first trials flight in fourth quarter 1971; all flight trials to be completed by the end of 1972; the design to be accepted for military service in 1973. Priorities are provided to the program that will allow VVS institutes and forces to support this schedule. The Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine (IAKM) will be especially involved in biomedical issues.


1970 August 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 7 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Intercosmos 3 - . Payload: DS-U2-IK s/n 1. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-IK. Completed Operations Date: 1970-12-04 . Decay Date: 1970-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4482 . COSPAR: 1970-057A. Apogee: 1,294 km (804 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 99.80 min. Studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere. Carried East European experiments that studied protons, electrons, alpha particles..

1970 August 7 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 355 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4484 . COSPAR: 1970-058A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 August 8 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • RTG SNA 6 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 August 8 - . 02:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • RTG SNA 6 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1970 August 9 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C58 / 2 Ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1970 August 10 - .
  • Vacations in Russia. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Borman, Kutakhov. Kutakhov returns from Egypt. Borman will visit the USSR again tomorrow. Afterwards Kamnin will head for a holiday at the spa at Chemitokvadze in the Kavkaz region..

1970 August 10 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C51 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 06:12 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 19:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 356 - . Payload: DS-U2-MG s/n 2. Mass: 357 kg (787 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-MG. Completed Operations Date: 1970-10-03 . Decay Date: 1970-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4487 . COSPAR: 1970-059A. Apogee: 573 km (356 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Studed the Earth's magnetic poles..

1970 August 11 - .
  • X-24 Flight 16 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1047 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19477 m. Flight Time - 413 sec..

1970 August 11 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT06F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 12 - . 18:26 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1970 August 12 - . 18:52 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi).

1970 August 13 - . 16:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 350.
  • ECHO I Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi).

1970 August 13 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • NRL NE3.247 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 August 14 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT31M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 16 - . 03:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • E fields Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1970 August 17 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 7 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 630. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4489 . COSPAR: 1970-060A.

    Venera 7 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Venus to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned. After aerodynamic braking, a parachute system was deployed. The capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned for 35 min. Another 23 min of very weak signals were received after the spacecraft landed on Venus. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet.


1970 August 17 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 627. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • PEM-2 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 August 18 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-08 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 18 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • 82-EV test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Heavily instrumented suborbital flight to provide data to root out causes of continuing launch vehicle failures. Heavy mass model of an unspecified spacecraft used to simulate payload...

1970 August 18 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 7874 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 28 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1970-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 4492 . COSPAR: 1970-061A. Apogee: 377 km (234 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 111.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1970 August 19 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B.
  • ESRO C48 / 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 August 19 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta M.
  • Skynet 1B - . Mass: 243 kg (535 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Skynet. Spacecraft: NATO 1. USAF Sat Cat: 4493 . COSPAR: 1970-062A. Apogee: 37,460 km (23,270 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 25.9000 deg. Period: 665.40 min.

    The second of two British Skynet I communication satellites (Skynet B) was launched from Cape Canaveral for U.S. Air Force and United Kingdom aboard a NASA Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/ Delta (DSV-3M) space booster. The spacecraft was placed in a transfer orbit prior to firing of the apogee kick motor that was to put it into a synchronous orbit over Kenya. Contact with Skynet B was lost during the firing of the apogee kick motor on 22 August and was not regained. The Skynet I satellites were part of the Initial Defense Satellite Communication System (TDSCS) program which was managed for the United Kingdom by SAMSO, with NASA providing launch vehicles and services. AKM failure left in unusable orbit. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1970 August 19 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 357 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 40. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-11-24 . Decay Date: 1970-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4495 . COSPAR: 1970-063A. Apogee: 476 km (295 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 August 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT74B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 20 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 358 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. Decay Date: 1990-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 4497 . COSPAR: 1970-064A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 334 km (207 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Identification uncertain. Possibly a Tsiklon military navigation satellite placed in incorrect orbit..

1970 August 21 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Headquarters USAF announced the termination of the Hard Rock Silo program for Minuteman. - .

1970 August 21 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Chaff - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1970 August 22 - . 04:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 August 22 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine 11D33 was late igniting and cut off early at 25 seconds after firing due to abnormal operation of the sequencer and a DC transformer failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 359 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 631. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4501 . COSPAR: 1970-065A. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Probable Venus probe failure..

1970 August 24 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Chaff - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1970 August 25 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1970 August 26 - .
  • X-24 Flight 17 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 737 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12649 m. Flight Time - 479 sec..

1970 August 26 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT43M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 26 - . 10:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • OPS 8329 - . Payload: Ferret 15. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Ferret. Decay Date: 1975-03-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 4503 . COSPAR: 1970-066A. Apogee: 499 km (310 mi). Perigee: 496 km (308 mi). Inclination: 75.0000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

1970 August 27 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 01M demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 27 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout A.
  • Transit O-19 - . Mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 4507 . COSPAR: 1970-067A. Apogee: 1,201 km (746 mi). Perigee: 946 km (587 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 106.70 min. The last Scout booster to be launched by an all-military crew was fired from Vandenberg AFB. Future Scout operations would be conducted by contractor launch teams under Air Force technical management. .

1970 August 28 - .
  • Modification to contract with McDonnell Douglas for Skylab Program work. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    MSFC issued a modification to an existing contract with McDonnell Douglas for Skylab Program work. The modification would pay for the conversion of the original OWS to be launched by a Saturn IB booster to a completely outfitted Workshop to be launched by a Saturn V. Originally the plan was to launch the second stage (S IVB) of a Saturn IB into Earth orbit. The S-IVB would be filled with fuel so that it could propel itself into orbit. Astronauts launched by a second Saturn IB would then rendezvous with the empty stage and convert it into living and working quarters. A decision was made 21 May 1969 to outfit an S-IVB on the ground and launch it ready for use on a Saturn V.


1970 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • Safeguard M1-4 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 August 28 - . 04:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 August 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-4 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 360 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4508 . COSPAR: 1970-068A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; deployed capsule..

1970 August 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 1 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
  • Canyon 3 - . Payload: Canyon 3 / Agena D / OPS 7329. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Canyon. USAF Sat Cat: 4510 . COSPAR: 1970-069A. Apogee: 39,855 km (24,764 mi). Perigee: 31,947 km (19,850 mi). Inclination: 10.3000 deg. Period: 1,441.90 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean. Last known longitude (31 December 1970) 99.01 deg W drifting at 1.490 deg W per day..

1970 September 1 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1970 September 2 - .
  • NASA canceling Apollo missions 15 and 19 because of congressional cuts - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Paine. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing.

    NASA was canceling Apollo missions 15 and 19 because of congressional cuts in FY 1971 NASA appropriations, Administrator Thomas O. Paine announced in a Washington news conference. Remaining missions would be designated Apollo 14 through 17. The Apollo budget would be reduced by $42.1 million, to $914.4 million - within total NASA $3.27 billion.


1970 September 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT75B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 September 2 - . 00:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA5B. Launch Vehicle: Black Arrow. FAILURE: Second stage shut down 13 seconds early.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Orba - . Payload: X 2. Mass: 66 kg (145 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Royal Aerospace Establishment. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: Prospero. Decay Date: 1970-09-02 . Apogee: 550 km (340 mi). Unsuccessful attempt to orbit a satellite..

1970 September 2 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 8.
  • Ionosphere / release mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1970 September 3 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2.
  • DMSP-Block-5A F2 - . Payload: DAPP 2525 / OPS 0203. Mass: 195 kg (429 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 4/5 satellites. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5A. USAF Sat Cat: 4512 . COSPAR: 1970-070A. Apogee: 837 km (520 mi). Perigee: 739 km (459 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1970 September 4 - .
  • Death of James Martin Taylor at Palmdale, California. Crash of T-38 trainer. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Taylor. American test pilot astronaut, 1965-1969..

1970 September 4 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL70-09 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 5 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1970 September 6 - .
  • Death of Hans Hueter - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hueter. German-Swiss engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2..

1970 September 7 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Leba. LV Family: Meteor sounding rocket. Launch Vehicle: Meteor-3 sounding rocket.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Poland. Agency: PIHM. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1970 September 8 - . 05:07 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D / E regions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1970 September 8 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 361 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4524 . COSPAR: 1970-071A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 September 8 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 629. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • PEM-3 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 September 8 - . 19:01 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D / E regions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 9 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. Launch Vehicle: LS-C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 September 10 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1970 September 11 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • D / E regions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • OS state trials flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 12 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Luna 16 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 406. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1970-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4527 . COSPAR: 1970-072A. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi). Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 119.00 min.

    Lunar Sample Return. Landed on Moon 20 September 1970 at 05:18:00 GMT, Latitude 0.68 S, Longitude 56.30 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 16 was launched toward the Moon from a preliminary earth orbit and entered a lunar orbit on September 17, 1970. On September 20, the spacecraft soft landed on the lunar surface as planned. The spacecraft was equipped with an extendable arm with a drilling rig for the collection of a lunar soil sample. After 26 hours and 25 minutes on the lunar surface, the ascent stage, with a hermetically sealed soil sample container, left the lunar surface carrying 100 grams of collected material. It landed in the Soviet Union on September 24, 1970. The lower stage of Luna 16 remained on the lunar surface and continued transmission of lunar temperature and radiation data. Parameters are for lunar orbit.


1970 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 10C.
  • TVC test - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1970 September 14-18 - .
  • Skylab Orbital Workshop critical design review. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    An Orbital Workshop critical design review was conducted at McDonnell Douglas, Huntington Beach. Personnel from NASA Hq, MSC, KSC, MSFC, and McDonnell Douglas participated. The review was conducted by panels representing six different technological disciplines. Areas of potential major impact included the urine system, microbiological contamination, the water storage system, and the OWS window vibration test.


1970 September 14 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT67F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). The 81st Minuteman II (LGM-30F) missile to be fired from Vandenberg AFB became the 1,000th missile to be launched from the base since December 1958. .

1970 September 15 - .
  • Singer-General selected for a Skylab simulator. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    Singer-General Precision, Inc., Link Division, Houston, was selected for the award of a contract to design, develop, install, and support a Skylab simulator to provide astronaut and ground crew training at MSC. The simulator would serve as a ground-based trainer with controls and displays similar to those used during manned operations. It would also be operated in conjunction with the command module simulator and the Mission Control Center to provide complete mission training.


1970 September 16 - .
  • George M Low named Acting Administrator of NASA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George, Paine.

    George M Low became Acting Administrator of NASA until a successor could be chosen to replace Thomas O. Paine who had resigned to return to General Electric Company. Low served in that capacity until the appointment of James C. Fletcher as NASA Administrator in March 1971.


1970 September 16 - .
  • Cosmonaut meeting. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Tereshkova.

    Kamanin returned from summer vacation on 14 September. In his first meeting with the cosmonauts, the centrifuge problem is reviewed. The USSR has not a single centrifuge over 8 m radius, while the Americans have six in the 14-20 m range, and have begun building one with a 46 m arm. Nikolayev will tour West Germany from 4 October, and Tereshkova will be in the USA from 18 October.


1970 September 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 362 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 9. Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1970-11-24 . Decay Date: 1971-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 4536 . COSPAR: 1970-073A. Apogee: 829 km (515 mi). Perigee: 270 km (160 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1970 September 16 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). The first Minuteman III flight test missile was launched from the Eastern Test Range in the follow-on test program. .

1970 September 17 - .
  • New Gagarin book in the works. - . Nation: Russia. Kamanin works with the authors of a new Gagarin book..

1970 September 17 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 363 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4538 . COSPAR: 1970-074A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 September 17 - . 15:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1970 September 17 - . 15:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 50 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1970 September 17 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT68F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 September 18 - .
  • Luna 16 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Luna. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Luna 16 is underway. This is the latest attempt to obtain lunar soil Five previous launches failed, four due to UR-500K booster failures. Luna 15 almost made it but crashed on the moon..

1970 September 18 - . 11:39 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Winter Anomaly / Stratosphere Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1970 September 19 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 3H.
  • X-ray / ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 2,017 km (1,253 mi).

1970 September 20 - .
  • Luna 16 lands on moon. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Luna. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5.

    Luna 16 first placed itself into a 106 x 15 km lunar orbit, inclination 71 degrees. After the trajectory was measured and calculations made on earth, it was instructed to make its Phase 1 descent using a timed burn. Phase 2 began at 600 m altitude. From this point the new-design braking rocket was controlled automatically according to height and velocity as measured by radar. At 220 m altitude the main engine shut down, and small braking rockets fired. These were shut down just 2 m above the surface. At 08:18 Luna 16 successfully made a soft landing on the moon. Getting there required 68 communications sessions over nine days of flight. At 10:00 the drill obtains the soil sample and inserts it into the return capsule.


1970 September 21 - .
  • Luna 16 ascent stage heads for earth. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Luna. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5.

    At 10:43 the Luna 16 ascent stage fires, thrusting the return capsule with the lunar soil toward the earth. It will land somewhere on Soviet territory within a 1500 km radius of Dzhezkazgan. The 25 cm diameter capsule is equipped with a 10 square meter parachute. It was thought that it would take 10 to 15 launches to perfect this system, but instead it has succeeded on the sixth attempt.


1970 September 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 629. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • PEM-4 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 September 21 - . 16:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • UM Pitot 51 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1970 September 22 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 September 22 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 September 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 364 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4553 . COSPAR: 1970-075A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 September 23 - .
  • Cosmonaut training plans. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bogomolov, Bykovsky, Mishin, Popovich. Program: Salyut, Almaz, Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Soyuz Kontakt, Spiral OS.

    The training plan for DOS#1 is reviewed. The station is to be launched by February 1971. Soyuz 10 and Soyuz 11 will dock with it and crew the station for two to three months, according to Mishin's plan. This however will slow down flight test of Bogomolov's Kontakt docking system for the L3. This was to have been ready by January 1970, but it is still not ready for flight. On the other hand, the completion of the DOS station within four to five months is not possible. There are currently 12 cosmonauts in training for DOS, and ten for Soyuz flights. Popovich heads a group of 22 cosmonauts training for Almaz; and Bykovsky heads a group on lunar issues. The new trainers and simulators are on schedule; the existing ones are being heavily used.


1970 September 23 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle specifications revised - . Nation: USA.

    In response to US Air Force criticism, the payload requirement was increased to 11,500 kg (still well short of the USAF 30,000 kg requirement). The use of JP-4 jet fuel was required for the airbreathing flyback engines. The payload by was to be capable of carrying a passenger module for ferry of space station crews.


1970 September 24 - .
  • Luna 16 returns lunar soil to earth. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Luna. Spacecraft Bus: Luna Ye-8. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Luna 16 lands only 30 km from its aim point, 80 km southeast of Dzhezkazgan. There was ideal weather in the recovery area, the radio beacon worked well, and a helicopter picked up the capsule only a few minutes after landing..

1970 September 24 - .
  • Mishin has new landing scenario for L3 missions. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    Mishin's latest plan is land the L3 in the Indian Ocean after return from the moon, but Soyuz is not rated for swells over 3 to 4 balls. Also there is no money for the needed recovery forces. By comparison the Americans have made the sea their home. Their aircraft carriers give them control over 300 times more ocean area than the Soviet Union.


1970 September 24 - . LV Family: N1.
  • N1, MKBS future plans - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: , MKBS, L3M. Modernization of the N-1 (5 yrs). 1971 - Draft project - N1-L3M (N1S). 1972 - Draft project - MKBS. 1974 - Beginning of MKBS..

1970 September 24 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02.
  • S02C5 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 September 24 - . 12:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island LE2. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2J.
  • HAP / SXRE X-ray astronomy / test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 September 25 - .
  • Cosmonaut flight training. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Tereshkova.

    More controversy over Mishin and Gorshkov's new sea recovery plan for the L3. The Seregin Flight Regiment of the cosmonaut training centre flew 4002 hours in the first nine months of 1970, of which 900 were at night and 1307 were in poor weather. The cosmonauts themselves flew 1987 hours.


1970 September 25 - . LV Family: N1.
  • Definite news that the Mars expedition is off, but the MKBS ('the big girdle') is still under consideration by the military industrial commission. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: , MKBS. The N1-launched Luch communications satellite is to come in 1973 (Mishin Diaries 2-287).

1970 September 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • OT GT76B operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 September 25 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-4S. FAILURE: Fourth stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • SS - . Payload: MS-F1. Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SS. Decay Date: 1970-09-25 . Apogee: 712 km (442 mi).

1970 September 25 - . 03:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi).

1970 September 25 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69M.
  • Cosmos 365 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1970-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4556 . COSPAR: 1970-076A. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi). Perigee: 145 km (90 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System test..

1970 September 26 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 02M demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 September 27 - . 06:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • B field Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi).

1970 September 28 - .
  • Centrifuge negotiations. - . Nation: Russia. Kamanin prepares Nikolayev and Tereshkova for their trips to West Germany and the USA. A Soviet delegation goes to Sweden to negotiate a contract for purchase of a TsF-20 centrifuge..

1970 September 28 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi).

1970 September 28 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 September 29 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi).

1970 September 29 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-15 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4569 . COSPAR: 1970-077A. Apogee: 39,296 km (24,417 mi). Perigee: 492 km (305 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 706.30 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 September 30 - .
  • DOS trainer final inspection. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Nasser is dead - a blow to Soviet interests. Kamanin goes to Khrunichev to inspect the DOS-7K space station mock-up. It is to be delivered to the cosmonaut training centre on 20 October. Kamanin believes the planned 5 February launch for DOS#1, and 15 February launch for Soyuz 10, cannot be met.


1970 September 30 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • RAM C-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi).

October 1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1.
  • LC-1 at Baikonur refurbished - . Nation: Russia.

    In 1969 - 1970 LC-1 was refurbished. The refurbished complex could accommodate new versions of the Soyuz launch vehicle designed for Zenit reconnaisance satellites. The work was completed in October 1970. During the refurbishment a fire at the -32 m level in the flame pit killed four soldiers. The accident was apparently due to smoking of cigarettes in a corridor with an oxygen-rich atmosphere during liquid oxygen handling.


1970 October 1 - .
  • Death of Albert Utsch - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Utsch. German-American design engineer for McDonnell on the Mercury and Gemini spacecraft..

1970 October 1 - .
  • The British government announced the contractual awards for acquisition of Skynet II, a more advanced satellite communications system. As with Skynet I, SAMSO participated actively in the development - . Spacecraft: Skynet.

1970 October 1 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk Tomahawk.
  • Dualhawk-9 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 515 km (320 mi).

1970 Oct - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Recruit.
  • SAMS Vehicle 0 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SAND. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1970 October 1 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 366 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 4561 . COSPAR: 1970-078A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 October 1 - . 13:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR N-NA-30 Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 2 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Chaff - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1970 October 3 - .
  • DOS issues reviewed by VVS. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Kamanin meets with the General Staff to discuss issues with the DOS trainer. The issue of forming crews for the DOS program consisting only of unflown cosmonauts is debated..

1970 October 3 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM.
  • Safeguard M1-27 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 October 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT46M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 October 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-27 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 October 3 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • RAO K-2 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 October 3 - . 10:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 367 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1970-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 4566 . COSPAR: 1970-079C. Apogee: 1,022 km (635 mi). Perigee: 915 km (568 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 104.50 min. Ocean surveillance; probably used chemical batteries..

1970 October 4 - .
  • Birth of Nadezhda Ivanyeva Adamchuk - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Adamchuk. Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996. Botanist..

1970 October 5 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • MPE Barium release? Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1970 October 5 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT77B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 October 6 - .
  • Cosmonaut training centre status. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut, Almaz, Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Spiral OS.

    Kamanin reviews the work of the training centre in 1970-1971. There are 12 cosmonauts training for DOS missions; 22 for Almaz; 5 for Spiral; and a 'group' for the L3. They have flown 5000 flight hours in jet trainers. During the last two years Kamanin has increased the number of trainers and simulators available; achieved 100% of the training plan; and met the physical training requirements (all cosmonauts must accomplish a 10 km run).


1970 October 6 - .
  • Spiral spaceplane project review. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dementiev, Grechko, Andrei, Krylov, Mikoyan, Titov, Zakharov. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    Meeting with the Spiral spaceplane cosmonaut training group. Mikoyan and Dementiev (son of the MAP Minister) have been working on this project for four years. Many in the leadership (Grechko, Zakharov, Krylov, etc) are against the concept and hinder the project in any way the can. Grechko considers it 'a fantasy' and Kutakhov does not support it energetically. Engineer-Colonel Sokolov-Sokolenik is the head of the unit (having replaced Titov, who is now in staff school). The United States has hundreds of flights on the X-15, which they have taken to 90 km altitude and 7000 km/hour airspeed. In the Soviet Union, all such work has been frozen for a decade.


1970 October 6 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Chemical Trail - . Nation: USA. Agency: White Sands. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 October 6 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Chemical Trail - . Nation: USA. Agency: White Sands. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 October 6 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 3.
  • EIDI-1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 480 km (290 mi).

1970 October 6 - . 13:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR N-NA-31 Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 6 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 629. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • PEM-5 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 October 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT47M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 October 7 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Chemical Trail - . Nation: USA. Agency: White Sands. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 October 7 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Chemical Trail - . Nation: USA. Agency: White Sands. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1970 October 7 - . 09:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 October 8 - .
  • President Pompidou of France visits Baikonur - . Nation: Russia. Pompidou visited Baikonur and was shown Bion and other open projects. This was in marked contrast to the exhibit provided to De Gaulle in 1966..

1970 October 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Palma-4 Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 October 8 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6.
  • X-ray survey X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi).

1970 October 8 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 368 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4571 . COSPAR: 1970-080A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Bion precursor mission. Conducted biological investigations and study of the physical characteristics of outer space..

1970 October 8 - . 13:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR N-NA-32 Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 8 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR N-NA-33 Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 8 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 369 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 42. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1971-01-22 . Decay Date: 1971-01-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4573 . COSPAR: 1970-081A. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 268 km (166 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 October 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA4. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Castor.
  • SPED II re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1970 October 9 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 370 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4576 . COSPAR: 1970-082A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 October 10 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1970 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Palma-4 Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1970 October 12 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 371 - . Mass: 775 kg (1,708 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4578 . COSPAR: 1970-083A. Apogee: 728 km (452 mi). Perigee: 722 km (448 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Military navigation satellite..

1970 October 12 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR N-NA-34 Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 13 - . 00:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • DLR S-CR-22 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi).

1970 October 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 18 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. First supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1261 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20696 m. Flight Time - 411 sec..

1970 October 14 - .
  • Contacts on join USA/USSR docking system. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Keldysh, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Program: ASTP. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM.

    Communist Party Meeting at the cosmonaut centre. Keldysh calls later. Six specialists are to be sent to the United States to discuss design of a common USA/USSR docking system. Kamanin yet again goes through the correct answers and prepared speeches to be given to the press by Nikolayev and Sevastyanov on their visit to West Germany.


1970 October 14 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • X-ray RMC X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 October 14 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Intercosmos 4 - . Payload: DS-U3-IK s/n 2. Mass: 320 kg (700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U3-IK. Completed Operations Date: 1971-01-08 . Decay Date: 1971-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4580 . COSPAR: 1970-084A. Apogee: 656 km (407 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 93.70 min. Investigation of the ultra-violet and x-radiation of the sun and its effect on the structure of the Earth's upper atmosphere. Payload included East European experiments to study solar ultraviolet and X-ray effects on upper atmosphere..

1970 October 14 - . 16:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1970 October 15 - . 11:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-06 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 6. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1999-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4583 . COSPAR: 1970-085A. Apogee: 443 km (275 mi). Perigee: 441 km (274 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 October 16 - .
  • Mishin seems to have lost his fight for a water landing on L3 missions. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Andrei, Mishin, Shatalov. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    All will have to be on dry land. 500 million roubles would have been necessary to fund the sea forces, and the risk to the crews would have been greater. Kamanin sees the whole bogus controversy as a diversionary tactic of Mishin's to take attention away from the fact that the L3 spacecraft is in fact nonexistent - as is its N1 rocket. An additional 300 million roubles are needed to achieve a 'flying' N1. A completely new solution to the lunar landing problem needs to be worked out. Shatalov worked today with Grechko to lay out the program for French President Pompidou's visit to the Baikonur cosmodrome. Pompidou wants to see two live rocket launches, and Shatalov will show him the Soyuz spacecraft.


1970 October 16 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S53 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1970 October 16 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 372 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 4588 . COSPAR: 1970-086A. Apogee: 787 km (489 mi). Perigee: 767 km (476 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

1970 October 17 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1970 October 19 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S58 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC, ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 20 - . LV Family: N1.
  • Mishin reviews the work and configurations of the Lox/LH2 (S and Sr) upper stages for the N1 necessary to achieve various programs. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Chelomei, . Spacecraft: , MKBS, MAVR, Almaz, Salyut, LK, L3M.

    Mishin reviews the work and configurations of the Lox/LH2 (S and Sr) upper stages for the N1 necessary to achieve various programs (Mishin Diaries 2-293). Here was see evidence for several previously hinted-at but poorly-documented projects: the Lunar Orbital Station (N1+Almaz), the MAVR manned Mars-Venus-Flyby Spacecraft: AM Isaev - about speeding work on the engine 11D56. AM Lyulka - about speeding work on the engine 11D57.
    1. S, Sr - LOS (lunar orbital station?) SNTV satellite for direct TV broadcasting, MAVT (MAVR?), DOS-II (later Mir).
    2. S + Sr - L3M, Mavr, MKBS
    3. S + S + Sp - L3M, MKBS, Mavr and others.
    4. NII - DOS (20t - indecipherable) - this apparently refers to later plans to dump Chelomei's Proton vehicle and go back to the original plan to use the NII (consisting of the second and third stages of the N1) for this earth orbit payload class.
    5. N1S => 110 t (the low earth payload for this version of the improved N1). (Mishin Diaries 2-293).


1970 October 20 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 373 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1980-03-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4590 . COSPAR: 1970-087A. Apogee: 1,103 km (685 mi). Perigee: 510 km (310 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. ASAT target. Maneuvered twice to provide target for Cosmos 374 and 375 interceptors..

1970 October 20 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 October 20 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Zond 8 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 14. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.17 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4591 . COSPAR: 1970-088A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min.

    Final circumlunar flight; successfully recovered October 26, 1970. The announced objectives were investigations of the moon and circumlunar space and testing of onboard systems. The spacecraft obtained photographs of the earth on October 21 from a distance of 64,480 km. The spacecraft transmitted flight images of the earth for three days. Zond 8 flew past the moon on October 24, 1970, at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and colour photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. The spacecraft used a new variant of the double-dip re-entry, coming in over the north pole, bouncing off the atmosphere, being tracked by Soviet radar stations as it soared south over the Soviet Union, then making a final precision re-entry followed by splashdown at the recovery point in the Indian Ocean.


1970 October 21 - . Launch Site: Wake Island. LV Family: Super Chief. Launch Vehicle: Super Chief I.
  • Diagnostic Test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1970 October 21 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 October 21 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1970 October 21 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 October 21 - . 15:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1970 October 22 - . 08:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 3.
  • EIDI-2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 480 km (290 mi).

1970 October 22 - . 14:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR N-NA-35 Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 22 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF25. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT69F (Salvo) operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Space and Missile Test Center (SAMTEC) supported the first salvo launch of two Minuteman II missiles from Vandenberg AFB. This was the third simultaneous launch of Minuteman missiles from Vandenberg. .

1970 October 22 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT70F (Salvo) operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Space and Missile Test Center (SAMTEC) supported the first salvo launch of two Minuteman II missiles from Vandenberg AFB. This was the third simultaneous launch of Minuteman missiles from Vandenberg. .

1970 October 23 - .
  • Mishin still fighting for an ocean landing for the L3. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. He has recruited some cosmonauts and admirals to fight for the concept..

1970 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 October 23 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 374 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1970-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4594 . COSPAR: 1970-089A. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 531 km (329 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 374 on second orbit. Blown up on instructions from ground..

1970 October 23 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 23B.
  • OPS 7568 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 29 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1970-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 4596 . COSPAR: 1970-090A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Inclination: 111.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1970 October 23 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 627. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 October 24 - .
  • Cosmonauts oppose ocean landing for the L3. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. 18 VVS officers and cosmonauts meet to discuss the L3 water landing issue. Kamanin is to draft a letter against the concept to Mishin and Afanaseyev..

1970 October 26 - .
  • Gagarin documentary. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gagarin. Leningrad Television is making a program about Gagarin. People are coming out of the woodwork that knew him or claimed to have known him. New facts are expected to emerge..

1970 October 26 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT78B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 October 27 - .
  • X-24 Flight 19 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1446 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21763 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1970 October 27 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S67 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1970 October 28 - .
  • Chelomei's 'war' with Korolev and Mishin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Chelomei, Mishin, Serbin, Smirnov. Program: Almaz, Salyut, Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, LK-1, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-L1.

    Kamanin meets with Chelomei. Chelomei discusses his 'war' with Korolev and Mishin. Korolev interfered with, and then finally took the manned lunar flyby project from Chelomei. Now Mishin is doing the same thing with Almaz. Chelomei had already invested five years in development of Almaz, and was on the way to producing a good space station. Then Mishin pushes him out of the way and seizes his production line to build the DOS-7K. DOS#1 is actually Almaz#5, nothing more than a bad copy of Chelomei's station. Serbin and Smirnov do not trust Mishin, which is why they have only authorised him to build four DOS stations. Serbin, Smirnov, and Afanasyev have visited Chelomei, and told him to accelerate work on the Almaz, using three shifts 24 hours a day.

    Kamanin notes the second hijacking in Turkey of a Soviet airliner in the last two weeks.


1970 October 28 - .
  • Cosmonauts learn of NASA techniques. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Nikolayev and Sevastyanov return from their tour of the USA, They learned a lot about the technology, management, and training techniques of the American space program. Nikolayev leaves immediately for another tour of Czechoslovakia..

1970 October 28 - .
  • Zond 8 recovered, demonstrates Mishin's L3 ocean landing trajectory. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L1, Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    Zond 8 is recovered only 15 minutes after splashdown by the vessel Taman. Of five Zonds recovered, this was the only one to fly over the north pole. The remainder re-entered over the south pole. The reason for this was the need to fly over tracking stations on Soviet territory in order to get trajectory updates that allowed a precise landing after the second plunge into the atmosphere. This was the reason Mishin now wants a water landing for the L3. The dilemma is that after a first dip into the atmosphere over the North Pole, tracking for a precision landing is possible, but then the spacecraft cannot land on Soviet territory. Re-entering first over the South Pole means that no trajectory updates are available, but then the spacecraft can land only imprecisely somewhere on Soviet territory.

    15 L1's were completed, of which only five ever returned to earth. With this successful final recovery, the programme is cancelled. The main cause of the project's failure was the unreliability of the UR-500K rocket.


1970 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Sprint ABM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Safeguard M1-9 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1970 October 28 - . 16:23 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Structure Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 October 29 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2.
  • ESRO S67 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi).

1970 October 30 - .
  • Shatalov and Yeliseyev selected for first space station flight. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10.

    Shatalov and Yeliseyev are selected as the prime crew to man DOS#1. This selection is made even though they have both made two flights already and other cosmonauts have been waiting six years with no flight assignment. The choice is due to the role of the pilot, who it is felt must have prior docking experience. Kamanin reviews the training schedule for the pair, plus a tour of India they will have to make before the flight.


1970 October 30 - .
  • More MKBS military applications (possibly as a communications station with submerged submarines) are mentioned. - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: , MKBS. More MKBS military applications (possibly as a communications station with submerged submarines) are mentioned (Mishin Diaries 2-294): "Chembrovsky - On the application of long waves (1 km) to the MKBS". (Mishin Diaries 2-294).

1970 October 30 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 375 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1970-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 4598 . COSPAR: 1970-091A. Apogee: 1,986 km (1,234 mi). Perigee: 579 km (359 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 111.20 min.

    ASAT interceptor. Intercept on second orbit. Blown up on instructions from ground. Dual launch of interceptors was intended to help ground staff perfect computational methods for quick-response launches when orbital methods of target were not precisely known.


1970 October 30 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 376 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 4599 . COSPAR: 1970-092A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 October 31 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L. Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Despite decision to cancel immediate manned circumlunar flights after Apollo 8, the remaining two L-1 spacecraft were kept in reserve for support of the L3 lunar landing program and possible later manned flights. They were never used..

1970 October 31 - . 10:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 November 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 19 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 690 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 236 sec..

1970 November 2 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT51M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 November 3 - .
  • Birth of Jeanette Jo Epps - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Epps. American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on..

1970 November 3 - . 21:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1970 November 4 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • STM-1W research and development mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). The first Minuteman III follow-on R&D flight test missile was launched from Vandenberg AFB. .

1970 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 6 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT52M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 November 6 - . 03:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 November 6 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • IMEWS 1 - . Payload: DSP Phase 1 s/n 1 / OPS 5960. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. Completed Operations Date: 1973-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 4630 . COSPAR: 1970-093A. Apogee: 36,128 km (22,448 mi). Perigee: 25,840 km (16,050 mi). Inclination: 16.4000 deg. Period: 1,197.90 min.

    An Air Force Titan IIIC launched the 500th satellite to be placed in orbit successfully by a vehicle launched from Cape Canaveral. First generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite; placed in incorrect subsynchronous orbit. One account claimed that it exhausted its propellant before it could be put into operation, but a 2007service history chart showed that is was considered operational for three years, well beyond its planned life.


1970 November 7 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 96 km (59 mi).

1970 November 8 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • FOT GT79B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 November 9 - .
  • Cosmonauts have perfect flight safety record since Gagarin's crash. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. The cosmonaut's Seregin Regiment has now flown 4500 hours without an accident. The safety record for the VVS was 18,000 hours between crashes in 1969, 22,000 in 1970 so far..

1970 November 9 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • OFO 1 - . Payload: OFO 1 / RM 1. Mass: 133 kg (293 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: OFO. Decay Date: 1971-05-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4690 . COSPAR: 1970-094A. Apogee: 518 km (321 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 37.4000 deg. Period: 92.60 min.

    Orbiting Frog Otolith. The satellite carrying the OFO-A experiment remained in orbit for almost seven days. Recovery of the spacecraft was not planned. The payload was the Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP). The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of microgravity on the otolith, a sensory organ that responds to changes in an animal's orientation within the Earth's gravitational field. Two bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were used as experimental subjects in the flight experiment. Additional Details: here....

  • RM-1; RMS - . Payload: RM/FW4S. Mass: 46 kg (101 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: RM. Decay Date: 1971-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 4692 . COSPAR: 1970-094B. Apogee: 526 km (326 mi). Perigee: 303 km (188 mi). Inclination: 37.4000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Radiation Meteoroid. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1970 November 10 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02.
  • S02C6 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 10 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 November 10 - . 14:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Luna 17 - . Payload: Ye-8 s/n 203. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Ye-8. Decay Date: 1970-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4691 . COSPAR: 1970-095A. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 141.0000 deg. Period: 116.00 min.

    Luna 17 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards the Moon and entered lunar orbit on November 15, 1970. Luna 17 landed on Moon 17 November 1970 at 03:47:00 GMT, Latitude 38.28 N, Longitude 325.00 E - Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains). The payload, the Lunokhod 1 unmanned rover, rolled down a ramp from the landing stage and began exploring the surface. Lunokhod was intended to operate through three lunar days but actually operated for eleven lunar days (earth months). The operations of Lunokhod officially ceased on October 4, 1971, the anniversary of Sputnik 1. By then it had traveled 10,540 m and had transmitted more than 20,000 TV pictures and more than 200 TV panoramas. It had also conducted more than 500 lunar soil tests. Parameters are for lunar orbit.


1970 November 11 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 11 - . Launch Site: Bershet. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 11 - . Launch Site: Teikovo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 11 - . Launch Site: Teikovo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 11 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • X-ray Survey X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1970 November 11 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 377 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4695 . COSPAR: 1970-096A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 November 12 - .
  • Meeting DF Ustinov (Smirnov, Keldysh Afanasiev, Serbin, Stroganov, Kommissarov, Tsarev, Kerimov and others, on acceleration of N1 after 1973 for MKBS. - . Related Persons: Mishin, Keldysh, Ustinov, Afanasyev, Sergei, Smirnov. Spacecraft: , MKBS.

    Meeting at 12:00 - DF Ustinov (Smirnov, Keldysh Afanasiev, Serbin, Stroganov, Kommissarov, Tsarev, Kerimov and others.) ... 2) MKBS - Accelerate after 1973. It is necessary to accelerate the draft resolution on the MKBS and associated activities - EYaRD, reusable transport spacecraft. (Mishin Diaries 2-299)


1970 November 12 - . Launch Site: Gladkaya/Krasnoyarsk. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 November 12 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo.
  • Lunar ultraviolet Ozone Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1970 November 13 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle specifications revised - . Nation: USA. Further minor changes were made as a result of the NASA 90-day review in October..

1970 November 13 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 23 Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1970 November 14 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 03M demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 November 16 - .
  • Nikolayev-Tereshkova marital problems a VVS management issue - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Tereshkova.

    Kamanin has a difficult and unpleasant conversation with Tereshkova. She and her mother have written to generals in the chain of command over Kamanin several times about Nikolayev's bad behaviour. This was never mentioned to Kamanin. He doesn't know what to do about the quarrels between the 'space couple'.


1970 November 16 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Particles Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1970 November 17 - .
  • Indecision on DOS profile; Almaz station accelerated. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Khrunov, Kutakhov, Mishin, Shatalov, Volynov, Yeliseyev. Program: Almaz, Salyut. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1.

    It is decided to send only Volynov and Khrunov to the FAI Congress in India. Shatalov and Yeliseyev are too busy with training on the DOS-7K simulator. Luna 17 has landed on the moon with the Lunokhod lunar rover, another success. DOS#1 is behind schedule for the planned 5 February 1971 launch. It still has not been decided, which will launch first - Soyuz 10 or the DOS station. Such indecision makes it very difficult to train the crews! The simulators for Soyuz, L3, DOS, and Almaz are all now in full use for crew training. Kamanin discusses with engineers construction of a pool for EVA training (25 m wide and 12 m deep). Kutakahov is opposed to the project. Chelomei has been ordered to accelerate the first Almaz launch to 1972, if he can resist the continuous attacks by Mishin. Mishin has become very accomplished, on the N1/L3 program, in spending huge amounts of money with no result.


1970 November 17 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 378 - . Payload: DS-U2-IP s/n 1. Mass: 710 kg (1,560 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-U2-IP. Completed Operations Date: 1971-09-13 . Decay Date: 1972-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4713 . COSPAR: 1970-097A. Apogee: 1,742 km (1,082 mi). Perigee: 234 km (145 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Studied the ionosphere and charged particle flows..

1970 November 17 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 November 18 - .
  • Luna 17 lands on moon. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei. Program: Luna. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Luna 17 / Lunokhod have landed on the Sea of Storms on the moon. Chelomei is assisting Kamanin in securing funds for the water basin for zero-G training, further simulators, etc..

1970 November 18 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 November 18 - . 21:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
  • KH-4B 1112 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1112 / Agena D 1658 / OPS 4992. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1970-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 4721 . COSPAR: 1970-098A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-4B. The forward camera failed on pass 104 and remained inoperative throughout the rest of the mission..
  • SRV 827 - . Payload: SRV 1112-1. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: P 11. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1977-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4722 . COSPAR: 1970-098xx. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 83.2000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.
  • OPS 6829 - . Payload: EHH B20. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1977-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4722 . COSPAR: 1970-098B. Apogee: 505 km (313 mi). Perigee: 493 km (306 mi). Inclination: 83.1000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Radar monitoring..

1970 November 19 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • VLF fields Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1970 November 19 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • XRB anisotropy X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1970 November 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 20 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1456 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20604 m. Flight Time - 432 sec..

1970 November 20 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 November 20 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 November 20 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 November 20 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1970 November 20 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Mass spectrometer Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1970 November 20 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1970 November 20 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1970 November 20 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • UM Pitot 52 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1970 November 21 - . 23:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Trailblazer test vehicle. Launch Vehicle: Trailblazer 2.
  • AFCRL TB2-3 Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi).

1970 November 22 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1970 November 23 - .
  • First lunar rover. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Luna. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Lunokhod 1 is ready to go on its first lunar drive..

1970 November 24 - .
  • DOS ECS delays. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    A gala is held at the Soviet Army Theater on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Zhukovskiy Flight Academy. There is also a meeting of the Central Chess Club of the USSR to honour the first space-earth chess match played during the Soyuz 9 flight. Even Spasskiy is there. IMBP has advised the environmental control system for DOS#1 will not be ready in time to support a 5 February launch.


1970 November 24 - . Launch Site: Grand Forks AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • The Wing VI Minuteman II Retrofit program was completed at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. - .

1970 November 24 - .
  • Headquarters AFSC announced that SAMSO had proposed the development of a navigation system employing several clusters of satellites and ground stations (Program 621B). - . Spacecraft: Navstar. When developed, the system would provide three-dimensional position and velocity information for users..

1970 November 24 - . 02:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Bullpup Apache.
  • Aeronomy / Barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NSF. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1970 November 24 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 379 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 1. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 4,683.78 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4760 . COSPAR: 1970-099A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    LK moon lander test using the T2K version. First use of the Soyuz 11A511L booster modified especially for this purpose. The spacecraft made a series of engine burns, simulating the lunar landing profile. After 3.5 days in orbit, the first burn was made in imitation of a descent to the lunar surface after separation of the Block D lunar crasher stage. The orbit changed from 192 km X 233 km to 196 km X 1206 km orbit; delta V: 263 m/s. After 4 days in orbit, a large manoeuvre was made simulating the ascent from the lunar surface. The orbit was changed from 188 km X 1198 km to 177 km X 14,041 km; delta V: 1518 m/s. These main manoeuvres were followed by a series of small adjustments simulating rendezvous and docking with the LOK. The LK tested out without major problems and decayed from orbit on September 21, 1983.


1970 November 24 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 380 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 26. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-11-26 . Decay Date: 1971-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4762 . COSPAR: 1970-100A. Apogee: 1,520 km (940 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 November 24 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 November 24 - . 22:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • X-ray crystal spectrometer Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1970 November 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 20 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 859 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1970 November 25 - .
  • NASA Administrator discussed significance of Russian unmanned lunar probes to Apollo. - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8.

    George M. Low, Acting NASA Administrator, discussed the significance of unmanned lunar probes Luna XVI and XVII launched by the U.S.S.R. September 12 and November 10. Luna XVI had brought lunar samples back to earth and Luna XVII had landed an unmanned Lunokhod roving vehicle on the moon's surface. Low stated in a letter to Chairman Clinton P. Anderson of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences that while the two launches were impressive their contributions to science and technology were relatively minor. Low suggested that the main lesson to be learned from the two launches specifically and the U.S. and U.S.S.R. space programs in general was that while the Soviet launch rate was increasing that of the United States was decreasing. These trends in the two countries' space programs should be a cause of concern if the United States was interested in maintaining a position of leadership in space.


1970 November 25 - .
  • TsPK Deputy Commander appointment disputed. - . Nation: Russia. Kamanin is being pressured to replace the Deputy Commander of the training centre with a non-cosmonaut officer..

1970 November 25 - . 03:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Blue Scout Jr SLV-1C.
  • Ultraviolet Telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi).

1970 November 26 - .
  • Kutakhov opposes expanded VVS role in space. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kutakhov, Nikolayev, Tereshkova. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Spiral OS.

    Kutakhov visits the cosmonaut training centre. He is still against the VVS being involved in manned spaceflight. He tells Kamanin that Kamanin's draft resolution on the use of space for reconnaissance, communications, navigation, and piloted flight is not appropriate for 1971 - more like 1980. In the evening, Kamanin talks to Nikolayev about Tereshkova's complaints. He claims that in seven years he has only had two or three of these blow-ups with her. He blames her in-laws for starting the whole thing and keeping the bad feelings going.


1970 November 26 - .
  • A meeting with LV Smirnov and MV Keldysh (Mishin Diaries 2-296) goes through a shopping list of the vast work needed to be done on MKBS - . Related Persons: Mishin, Keldysh, Smirnov. Spacecraft: , MKBS.

    On accelerating the work on MKBS:
    - Power
    - Life support systems
    - Equipment for scientific research
    - Equipment for the benefit of the national economy
    - Funding
    - Building design and experimental base
    - Development of production capacity
    - Expansion of cooperation.


1970 November 27 - .
  • VVS considers role in space. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Tereshkova. Program: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Spiral OS.

    The leaders of the VVS meet to consider the role of the Air Force in space and Kamanin's draft resolution. Frolov wants to form a VVS regiment for Almaz operations. Molzhavtsev wants to emphasize full use of unmanned satellites for support of the VVS (communications, navigation, reconnaissance). Later in the meeting V V Kuznestov discusses with Kamanin plans for a planned Nikolayev-Tereshkova-Sevastyanov trip to Egypt in January 1971. It has to be planned around opening ceremonies for the Aswan Dam.


1970 November 27 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-16 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-11-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4779 . COSPAR: 1970-101A. Apogee: 39,895 km (24,789 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 November 27 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 November 27 - . 22:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 629. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 November 28 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-1 Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 468 km (290 mi).

1970 November 29 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1970 November 30 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3C Centaur. FAILURE: Shroud failed to separate.. Failed Stage: S.
  • OAO-B - . Payload: OAO B. Mass: 2,121 kg (4,676 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: OAO. Decay Date: 1970-11-30 . COSPAR: F701130A. Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. Launch vehicle was to have put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit.

1970 Late - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3M.
  • MOL 1 - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: MOL. The first unmanned Gemini-B/Titan 3M qualification flight was planned for late 1970 at the time the program was cancelled..

1970 December 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Phase B preliminary proposals - . Nation: USA. The teams of McDonnell Douglas/Martin Marrietta and North American Rockwell/General Dynamics made their preliminary proposals under shuttle Phase B contracts..

1970 December 1 - .
  • Death of Thomas Power at Palm Springs, Riverside, CA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Power. American USAF officer, commanded Air Research and Development Command, in 1950s during development of early missiles. Commander of SAC, 1957-1964, during the crash program to deploy the Atlas, Titan, and Minuteman ICBMs..

1970 December 2 - .
  • Grechko blocking Spiral program. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dementiev, Grechko, Andrei, Kutakhov. Program: Almaz, Salyut. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Spiral OS.

    Kutahkov is now Kamanin's direct superior; Efimov has been sent to a command in Cairo. Two An-22 heavy-lift transports have crashed in Pakistan and the Atlantic (en route to Chile). Kamanin meets with Dementiev and Kazatov at MAP. DOS-7K and Almaz simulator problems and the Spiral spaceplane project are discussed. There is not even a firm program plan for Spiral. Dementiev says this is because of the coolness of Grechko and Kutakhov to the subject. They block any discussion of the matter by the Central Committee. Grechko has written on Spiral - 'this is a fanatasy. We must spend money on more concrete items'.


1970 December 2 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 381 - . Mass: 710 kg (1,560 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Ionosfernaya. USAF Sat Cat: 4783 . COSPAR: 1970-102A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 961 km (597 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min.

1970 December 2 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 December 2 - . 08:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • HISTAR Test Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1970 December 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Cosmos 382 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 2K. Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Block D. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Duration: 8,549.30 days. USAF Sat Cat: 4786 . COSPAR: 1970-103A. Apogee: 5,269 km (3,273 mi). Perigee: 2,384 km (1,481 mi). Inclination: 55.9000 deg. Period: 171.00 min.

    Test of Block D upper stage in its N1 lunar crasher configuration in earth orbit. The three maneuvers simulated the lunar orbit insertion burn; the lunar orbit circularization burn; and the descent burn to bring the LK lunar lander just over the surface. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 300km orbit to 303km X 5038km orbit. Delta V: 982 m/s
    318km X 5040km orbit to 1616km X 5071km orbit. Delta V: 285 m/s
    1616km X 5071km orbit to 2577km X 5082km orbit. Delta V: 1311 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2578 m/s.


1970 December 2 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 December 3 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 383 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4787 . COSPAR: 1970-104A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 December 4 - .
  • A ground-test version of the Saturn Workshop was shipped from the McDonnell Douglas facility at Huntington Beach, to the Michoud, Louisiana, Assembly Facility. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    It would undergo testing there until 30 December and then would be shipped to MSC for extensive ground tests. This Workshop was a version of one that would be used in the Skylab Program to accommodate teams of three astronauts for stays of up to 56 days in Earth orbit. NASA planned to launch the Skylab cluster with a Saturn V vehicle in 1972. Called a 'dynamic test article,' the Workshop model would be tested at MSC to verify its bending and vibration characteristics. The Workshop was scheduled to arrive at Michoud 17 December and at MSC 5 January.


1970 December 5 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1970 December 6 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • ESRO S69 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1970 December 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT56M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 December 7 - . 21:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVA.
  • Twilight airglow Aeronomy / x-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 770 km (470 mi).

1970 December 8 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1970 December 9 - .
  • Funds allocated to Cosmonaut Training Centre only a fraction of what is needed. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Almaz, Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS.

    Kamanin reviews 1970. It has been a good year. The Soviet Union set a duration record with the Soyuz 9 flight, Luna-16 and Lunokhod-1 conducted successful robot missions to the moon, dozens of Kosmos satellites were successfully launched. In the next year cosmonaut training will concentrate on DOS-7K, Almaz, and Soyuz 7KT. The five-year plan for the centre includes construction of 5000 square metres of new laboratories, improved simulators, completion of a water tank for EVA training, and installation of the IF-20 centrifuge. However all of this will cost 11 million roubles, and only 2 to 3 million are likely to be allocated...


1970 December 9 - .
  • Death of Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mikoyan. Russian Chief Designer, brother of Stalinís foreign minister, headed MiG design bureau, preeminent manufacturer of light Soviet fighters. Dabbled in rocketplanes and built and flew the MiG-105 Spiral spaceplane..

1970 December 10 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 384 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4791 . COSPAR: 1970-105A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..

1970 December 10 - . 16:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • DLR W-NT-36 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 December 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • RVSN Command operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 December 11 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6.
  • NOAA 1 - . Payload: ITOS A. Mass: 306 kg (674 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 4793 . COSPAR: 1970-106A. Apogee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Perigee: 1,423 km (884 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 114.80 min. Built for NASA; operated by NOAA. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..
  • CEPE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Spacecraft: CEPE. USAF Sat Cat: 4794 . COSPAR: 1970-106B. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Inclination: 101.7042 deg. Period: 114.92 min.

1970 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • RVSN Command operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 December 12 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B.
  • Explorer 42 - . Payload: SAS A. Mass: 143 kg (315 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft: SAS. Decay Date: 1979-04-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4797 . COSPAR: 1970-107A. Apogee: 570 km (350 mi). Perigee: 521 km (323 mi). Inclination: 3.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1970 December 12 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 385 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4799 . COSPAR: 1970-108A. Apogee: 980 km (600 mi). Perigee: 973 km (604 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Military navigation satellite..

1970 December 12 - . 13:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou Diamant. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant B.
  • Peole - . Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Peole. Decay Date: 1980-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4801 . COSPAR: 1970-109A. Apogee: 750 km (460 mi). Perigee: 634 km (393 mi). Inclination: 15.0000 deg. Period: 98.60 min. Gathered data from meteorological balloon system. .

1970 December 13 - .
  • Plans were underway for Kontakt test flights using 7K-OK spacecraft: 7K-OK number 18, 19 with "Kontakt". - . Related Persons: Mishin. Spacecraft: Soyuz, Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz Kontakt. (Mishin Diaries 2-299).

1970 December 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1970 December 14 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Geminids Ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1970 December 14 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). The launch of the 91st Minuteman missile, a Minuteman III, from the Eastern Test Range marked the completion of Minuteman R&D testing at the range after almost 10 years of operations. .

1970 December 15 - .
1970 December 15 - .
  • TsPK Technical Conference Opens - . Nation: Russia.

    Kamanin returns from vacation after two weeks at his dacha. Lunokhod was successsfully revived after surviving a lunar night. Venera-7 is set to soft-land on Venus. NII-TsPK holds a science/technology conference on manned spaceflight. 80 papers are presented, with 600 attendees from 39 organisations present. Kamanin talks to Mishin for the first time since the unpleasant phone call in October.


1970 December 15 - . 03:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1970 December 15 - . 05:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1970 December 15 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1970 December 15 - . 09:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1970 December 15 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 386 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4804 . COSPAR: 1970-110A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 December 15 - . 11:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Sodium-Lithium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1970 December 16 - . 04:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 387 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4806 . COSPAR: 1970-111A. Apogee: 543 km (337 mi). Perigee: 525 km (326 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Possible navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 269..

1970 December 16 - . 09:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 December 16 - . 16:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • DLR W-NT-37 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 December 17 - .
  • Public information policy for DOS/Almaz discussed. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Almaz, Salyut. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Plans for secrecy, public information policy, and arrangements for the upcoming DOS and Almaz space station flights are discussed..

1970 December 17 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 December 18 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT58M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 December 18 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 December 18 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 388 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 43. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1971-05-12 . Decay Date: 1971-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4811 . COSPAR: 1970-112A. Apogee: 505 km (313 mi). Perigee: 271 km (168 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 December 18 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 389 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2003-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4813 . COSPAR: 1970-113A. Apogee: 568 km (352 mi). Perigee: 543 km (337 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

1970 December 19 - .
  • Differences between VVS and Mishin enumerated. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Smirnov, Stroganov, Ustinov. Program: Salyut, Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz 10.

    Lunokhod-1 and Venera-7 missions continue well. The NIITsPK conference is completed, final total 88 papers. The conference has recommended a cautious build-up in manned flight durations - the next mission should be 22 days long, then 26, then 30. But Ustinov has ordered Mishin to ensure that the first flight to DOS will be 30 days long. Kamanin is categorically opposed to this. Kamanin runs through the principal differences between himself and Mishin:

    • Mishin wants to continue work on the N1-L3 moon project. Kamanin thinks the whole thing should be cancelled
    • Kamanin wants the L3 to land on Soviet territory. Mishin wants it to land in the Indian Ocean
    • Mishin wants to make the next manned flight 30 days long. Kamanin wants to limit it to 18 days
    Mishin has the Soviet Ministers (Smirnov), and the Central Committee (Ustinov, Stroganov, etc) behind him. Kamanin has only shaky support from the VVS...

1970 December 19 - . 03:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 December 20 - .
  • The payload shroud test article was successfully tested at the Plum Brook Facility of Lewis Research Center. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Skylab. Spacecraft: Apollo ATM. The purpose of the payload shroud would be to cover and protect the ATM MDA, and top portion of the AM as Skylab was launched into an Earth orbit..

1970 December 21 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para, AN/DMQ-9 - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1970 December 22 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: INTA-300. Launch Vehicle: INTA-255.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1970 December 22 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/Trident.
  • ABRES RVTO-2A-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1970 December 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 December 22 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1970 December 22 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: First stage failed 1 second after launch.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DS-P1-M s/n 1 - . Payload: DS-P1-M s/n 1. Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. Target for IS ASAT systems tests. First test of Yangel-desinged target failed to reach orbit..

1970 December 22 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1970 December 23 - .
  • Assessment of crew rescue capability for Skylab. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft Bus: Apollo CSM. Spacecraft: Apollo Rescue CSM.

    An assessment of the feasibility of providing a crew rescue capability for Skylab was conducted by KSC, MSC, and MSFC during 1970. The study culminated in a NASA Hq decision to provide a limited rescue capability should return capability fail while the CSM were docked to the OWS. The rescue vehicle for the first two manned Skylab missions would be the next CSM in flow at KSC. Should a rescue call occur, the CSM next in flow would be modified so as to permit a five- man carrying capacity. It would be launched with a two-man crew and return with the additional three astronauts.


1970 December 23 - .
  • DOS launch moved to March. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Salyut.

    A new DOS schedule is agreed by the Chief Designers. DOS#1 launch is delayed 40 days to 15 March 1971. Kamanin thinks the first half of April is more likely. He is still arguing the Soyuz 10 flight duration with Mishin - Kamanin won't accept more than 20-25 days, Mishin has been ordered to fly 30 days.


1970 December 23 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1.
  • A Minuteman I flight test missile was fired down the Western Test Range from Vandenberg AFB as part of the Safeguard System Test Targets Program (SSTTP) managed by SAMSO's Deputy for Reentry Systems. - . An Army Sprint missile intercepted the nose cone, recording its first test intercept..

1970 December 24 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-12 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 December 25 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-17 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4829 . COSPAR: 1970-114A. Apogee: 39,881 km (24,780 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 December 26 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1970 December 27 - .
  • Birth of Naoko Yamazaki - . Nation: Japan. Related Persons: Yamazaki. Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut, 1999-on. Underwent cosmonaut training in Russia, then Astronaut training in USA. NASDA.

1970 December 27 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKMR. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1970 December 28 - .
  • Birth of Oleg Germanovich Artemyev - . Nation: Latvia. Related Persons: Artemyev. Latvian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on..

1970 December 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1970 December 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 December 29 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle external tank concept studied - . Nation: USA.

    On 29 December 1970 Grumman and Boeing received contract NAS9-11160 to study two-stage-to-orbit shuttle configurations using both internal and external liquid hydrogen tanks. Reviews with NASA in January and March 1971 showed there could be significant weight, risk, and cost reductions through use of a booster with a heat-sink airframe and an orbiter equipped with an external liquid hydrogen tank.


1970 December 29 - .
  • Birth of Dr Yaroslav Ihorovych 'Yarko' Pustovyi - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Pustovyi. Ukrainian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1996-2005. Ukraine Air Force..

1970 December 29 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 December 30 - .
  • Spacecraft simulator review. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Darevskiy. Program: Almaz, Salyut, Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, LK, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    Trainer review with S G Darevskiy. It is estimated that the trainers only meet 25% to 30% of the total training needs of the cosmonauts. In the next year Kamanin wants Darevskiy to exert 75% of his effort on the Almaz simulator, 20% on the DOS-7K, and only 5% on the L3. Mishin wants zero effort on Almaz, 70% on DOS-7K, and 30% on the L3.


1970 December 30 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Pakistan. Agency: SUPARCO. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1970 December 31 - . Launch Vehicle: UR-700.
  • UR 700/LK-700/RD-270 definitively cancelled. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: LK-700. Further development work on the RD-270 engine, UR-700 launch vehicle, and LK-700 lunar landing project are cancelled following the successful Apollo lunar landing..

1970 December 31 - . Launch Site: Minot AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Force Modernization and emplacement of Minuteman III missiles were completed on the last flight of 741st Strategic Missile Squadron of SAC's 91st Strategic Missile Wing at Minot AFB, North Dakota. - . This marked the turnover of the first complete Minuteman III squadron to SAC. Formal turnover took place on 8 January 1971..


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