Encyclopedia Astronautica
Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z

1977 Chronology

1977 - . LV Family: System 49. Launch Vehicle: System 49.
  • System 49 air-launched spaceplane design begun - . Nation: Russia.

    The Spiral project was not cancelled with the decision to proceed with the large Buran spaceplane. Instead flight test of the orbiter continued but the launcher design was rethought. The ambitious Mach 4 air-breathing first stage was abandoned in favour of launch from an existing subsonic heavy transport. The first iteration of the new design was undertaken in 1977-1978 as the AKS project at the Scientific Research Institute 'Rosa'. This used the second rocket stage and orbiter stage of Spiral, designated RUOS in this study. This design was the starting point that would evolve through the System 49 and Bizan designs, finally resulting in the MAKS of 1988.

    The System 49 design had the same arrangement as Spiral. The rocket stages and the Spiral orbiter were mounted on the back of an An-124 subsonic transport. By the time of the design, the Spiral configuration had been proven in the MiG-105-11 and BOR-4. The combined orbiter and rocket stages, weight 200 tonnes, would be launched at an altitude of 10 km and a speed of Mach 0.7. Effective velocity gain compared to a vertical launch from the ground was 270 m/s.

    The first stage would use Lox/Kerosene propellants and 2 NK-43 / 11D112 engines. The second stage was equipped with a single RD-57M / 11D57M engine burning Lox/LH2 propellants. Two rocket stage layouts were studied: a traditional tandem scheme, and a 'piston' / 'wrap around' concept, where the toroidal propellant tanks of the first stage surrounded the second stage.

    The orbiter would have a mass of 13 tonnes, and could deliver a payload of 4 tonnes to orbit in a 27 cubic metre payload compartment (dimensions 6.0 m long x 2.8 m x 1.6 m). Orbits from 120 to 1000 km altitude, and 45 to 94 degrees inclination could be achieved thanks to the flexibility of airborne launch. The orbiter was flown by a single pilot, had sufficient consumables for 5 to 12 hours of on-orbit operations, and was designed for 100 reuses. It could achieve up to 1000 km cross-range during re-entry and landed at a speed of 300 to 310 km/hr.

    The design was found to be feasible but to have little growth potential. Greater payload could only be achieved by the completely different 49M using a new super-heavy carrier aircraft and orbiter. Therefore it was succeeded in the design studies by the 'Bizan' concept.


1977 January 1 - .
  • Cardiologist Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Atkov. Cardiologists were selected for planned Salyut / Mir long-duration biomedical missions..

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-05 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Teikovo. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-09 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-07 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-06 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Drovyanaya. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-04 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-03 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Drovyanaya. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-10 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-02 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: K63.
1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL77-08 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 January 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1977 January 3 - .
  • Start assembly vertical stabilizer, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 January 4 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1977 January 5 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1977 January 6 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 888 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 9658 . COSPAR: 1977-001A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 January 6 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-02 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 2. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 9661 . COSPAR: 1977-002A. Apogee: 893 km (554 mi). Perigee: 876 km (544 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service..

1977 January 7 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Aurora / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi).

1977 January 8 - . 19:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1977 January 10 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 January 11 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1977 January 12 - . 15:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1977 January 13 - . 04:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • Auroral UV / infrared Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1977 January 14 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Boeing 747 shuttle carrier aircraft delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Boeing 747 shuttle carrier aircraft delivered to Edwards.

1977 January 14 - . 10:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 January 15 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • SSC S18 / 1 D Layer Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1977 January 15 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Colorado microchannel Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi).

1977 January 15 - . 06:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • Wisconsin Soft X-ray Survey X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1977 January 16 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Near infrared Galactic Plane Infrared astronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi).

1977 January 17 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 January 18 - . 19:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 January 19 - . 15:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1977 January 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 889 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9735 . COSPAR: 1977-003A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 January 20 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 890 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 9737 . COSPAR: 1977-004A. Apogee: 1,016 km (631 mi). Perigee: 975 km (605 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 January 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT53GM-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 January 22 - . 21:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • DLR A-GR-78 Eveline Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi).

1977 January 23 - . 19:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1977 January 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1977 January 25 - .
  • Complete aft fuselage assembly on dock, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Complete aft fuselage assembly on dock, Palmdale (STA-099).

1977 January 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: JCR. Launch Vehicle: TT-500.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1977 January 26 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Aries. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • Astro 8-1 (A8) X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi).

1977 January 27 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral/Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1977 January 28 - .
  • Simulated crew module on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 January 28 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • NATO 3B - . Mass: 701 kg (1,545 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NATO 3. Spacecraft: NATO 3. Completed Operations Date: 1993-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 9785 . COSPAR: 1977-005A. Apogee: 37,421 km (23,252 mi). Perigee: 37,079 km (23,039 mi). Inclination: 10.5000 deg. Period: 1,511.50 min.

    A Delta booster launched the NATO III-B communications satellite into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg W in 1977-1979 over the Atlantic Ocean 20 deg W in 1979-1982 over the Atlantic Ocean 18 deg W in 1983-1986 over the Atlantic Ocean60 deg W in 1987-1993 As of 5 September 2001 located at 74.61 deg W drifting at 18.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 40.43E drifting at 18.015W degrees per day.


1977 January 28 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-26 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 January 28 - . 22:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-26 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 January 28 - . 22:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-26 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 January 28 - . 22:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-26 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 January 29 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1977 January 30 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Special Test Missile 13W, a Minuteman III, was launched from Vandenberg AFB down the Western Test Range. It deployed two Mark 12A Mod I reentry vehicles. All elements of the system performed satisfactorily. .

1977 January 31 - .
  • Enterprise (OV-101) transported to Edwards AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mockup SSME's delivered for Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 February 1 - .
  • Death of Benjamin Chidlaw - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Chidlaw. American officer. Deputy, Material Command, 1945-1949; commanded several USAF research and development organizations 1949-1955..

1977 February 1 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT132M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 February 2 - .
  • Burnup of the Salyut 4 Space Station (USSR) - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 4.

1977 February 2 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 891 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-1. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1981-02-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 9801 . COSPAR: 1977-006A. Apogee: 516 km (320 mi). Perigee: 472 km (293 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Radar calibration mission..

1977 February 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 February 4 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1977 February 5 - . 03:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 628. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • FOT-27 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 February 6 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • IMEWS 7 - . Payload: DSP Phase 2 s/n 9 / OPS 3151. Mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DSP. Spacecraft: DSP. Completed Operations Date: 1984-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9803 . COSPAR: 1977-007A. Apogee: 35,860 km (22,280 mi). Perigee: 35,620 km (22,130 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,433.30 min. Second generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly seven years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg W in 1977-1979; over the Indian Ocean 70 deg E in 1979-1984..

1977 February 6 - . 20:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1977 February 7 - .
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate start.

1977 February 7 - . 04:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1977 February 7 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 24 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko. Backup Crew: Berezovoi, Lisun. Support Crew: Kozelsky, Preobrazhensky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 66. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Kozelsky, Lisun, Preobrazhensky. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 24. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 17.73 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9804 . COSPAR: 1977-008A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    Soyuz 24 docked with Salyut 5 and brought repair equipment and equipment for a change of cabin atmosphere. This special apparatus was designed to allow the entire station to be vented through the EVA airlock. Because of this the planned EVA was cancelled. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. The crew changed the cabin air anyway, then returned to earth. The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterised as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50 day mission.


1977 February 7 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ozone / La / ne Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: MO-UK. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1977 February 7 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1977 February 7 - . 23:26 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1977 February 8 - . 17:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3.
  • SSC S22 Auroral Arc Auroral mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1977 February 8 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • DLR A-GR-79 Silvia Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi).

1977 February 9 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 892 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9812 . COSPAR: 1977-009A. Apogee: 427 km (265 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 February 9 - . 17:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Auroral/Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1977 February 10 - .
  • Midfuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 February 10 - . 00:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S-310. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • VLF / HF Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1977 February 10 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1977 February 11 - . 04:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1977 February 11 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1977 February 11 - . 13:18 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1977 February 11 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Atomic oxygen Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1977 February 11 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-17 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 9829 . COSPAR: 1977-010A. Apogee: 38,214 km (23,745 mi). Perigee: 2,176 km (1,352 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 718.50 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1977 February 11 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • SSC S21 / 2 TRIGGER Aurora mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: NASA, SSC. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1977 February 12 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1977 February 13 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1977 February 14 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1977 February 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated.

1977 February 15 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 893 - . Payload: GVM DS-U2-IK s/n 1. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: GVM DS-U2-IK. Completed Operations Date: 1977-02-15 . Decay Date: 1984-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 9833 . COSPAR: 1977-011A. Apogee: 1,656 km (1,028 mi). Perigee: 354 km (219 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 105.20 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1977 February 15 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Auroral NO Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1977 February 15 - . 14:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • CAL X-ray study X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1977 February 15 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • NRL XR X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1977 February 15 - . 18:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • SSC S21 / 3 TRIGGER Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 February 15 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 February 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT27GM-2 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 February 16 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1977 February 16 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 46 Aeronomy / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi).

1977 February 17 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • JHU UVS (Sirius B) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1977 February 17 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi).

1977 February 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • First inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct first inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 5 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 19 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3H.
  • Tansei 3 - . Payload: MS T3. Mass: 230 kg (500 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tansei. Spacecraft: Tansei. USAF Sat Cat: 9841 . COSPAR: 1977-012A. Apogee: 3,802 km (2,362 mi). Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 134.10 min.

    Tentative name before launching: MS-T3. Launching organization: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Radio frequencies: 136.725 MHz, tracking; 400.500 MHz, telemetry. Active life: two weeks. Function: (1) Test of the overall p erformance of the newly developed launch vehicle, M-3H-1. (2) Experiment of magnetic stabilization. (3) Observation of ultraviolet radiation.


1977 February 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • LUX / ASE Wolter I Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1977 February 20 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • DLR A-GR-80 Georgine Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi).

1977 February 21 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1977 February 21 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • JHU UVT F9 (Alpha Centauri) Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1977 February 21 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 894 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 9846 . COSPAR: 1977-013A. Apogee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Perigee: 963 km (598 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 February 21 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Ultraviolet Extinction Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1977 February 22 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Second inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct second inert captive flight, Edwards (3 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4MK - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Decay Date: 1977-03-30 . High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1977 February 23 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: N-1.
  • Kiku 2 - . Payload: ETS 2. Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ETS. Spacecraft: ETS. Completed Operations Date: 1990-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9852 . COSPAR: 1977-014A. Apogee: 35,860 km (22,280 mi). Perigee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,439.70 min.

    Engineering test satellite. Engineering Test Satellite Type II (ETS II), Kiku 2. Launch by N launch vehicle no 3. Geographical longitude of the geostationary orbit: 130 deg E. Preliminary experiments to acquire technologies to launch,track, and control geostationary satellites. P ropagation experiment of millimetre and quasi-millimetre waves. Characteristics: Weight at launch 245 kg. Configuration: cylindrical. Height 191 cm including antenna. Diameter 141 cm. Attitude control: spin stabilization. Expected life at least 6 months. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 130 deg E in 1977-1990 As of 5 September 2001 located at 16.93 deg E drifting at 0.930 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 85.65W drifting at 0.986W degrees per day.


1977 February 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1977 February 24 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 February 25 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Third inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct third inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 28 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 25 - .
1977 February 26 - .
  • Salyut 5 jettisons earth return capsule - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: KSI. Spacecraft: KSI. The Earth Return Capsule serial number 11F76-0505 was successfully recovered. During the 1990's it was auctoned off at Sotheby's for $48,875..

1977 February 26 - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Hydac.
  • STRESS BETTY Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 February 26 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Auroral NO Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1977 February 26 - . 21:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 895 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 11. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1992-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9853 . COSPAR: 1977-015A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 433 km (269 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.30 min.

1977 February 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1977 February 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Fourth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct fourth inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 11 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 March 1 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 March 2 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Fifth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct fifth inert captive flight, Edwards (1 hour, 39 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 March 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT57GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 March 2 - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Hydac.
  • STRESS CAROLYN Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 3 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 896 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9857 . COSPAR: 1977-016A. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 March 4 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1977 March 5 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • Auroral Aurora / ionosphere / fields mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi).

1977 March 6 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 7 - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Hydac.
  • STRESS DIANNE Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 7 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 8 - .
  • Discovery of Uranus' Rings - . Nation: USA.

1977 March 8 - . 00:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. Launch Pad: A-15A Pad 2. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • STRESS DIANNE Probe - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1977 March 8 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. Launch Pad: A-15A Pad 2. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • STRESS DIANNE Probe - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1977 March 8 - . 04:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVB.
  • Pitch angles Test / aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 700 km (430 mi).

1977 March 9 - . LV Family: Alfa. Launch Vehicle: Alfa.
  • Switzerland definitively ended its nuclear-tipped rocket program. - . Nation: Switzerland. Switzerland ratified the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and ended its under-funded nuclear program..

1977 March 9 - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Auroral NO Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1977 March 9 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 191 km (118 mi).

1977 March 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 897 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9860 . COSPAR: 1977-017A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 March 10 - . 23:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • Palapa 2 - . Payload: Palapa A2. Mass: 574 kg (1,265 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 333. Spacecraft: HS 333. Completed Operations Date: 1986-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9862 . COSPAR: 1977-018A. Apogee: 35,867 km (22,286 mi). Perigee: 35,843 km (22,271 mi). Inclination: 7.6000 deg. Period: 1,439.60 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 80 deg E in 1977-1986? As of 5 September 2001 located at 64.27 deg W drifting at 0.845 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 69.73E drifting at 0.893W degrees per day.


1977 March 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1977 March 12 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1977 March 13 - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Hydac.
  • STRESS ESTER Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 13 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 24B.
  • OPS 4915 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 48 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1977-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 9863 . COSPAR: 1977-019A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 141 km (87 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1977 March 13 - . 21:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1977 March 13 - . 23:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. Launch Pad: A-15A Pad 2. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • STRESS ESTHER Probe - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1977 March 13 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. Launch Pad: A-15A Pad 3. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • STRESS ESTHER Probe - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi).

1977 March 14 - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Hydac.
  • STRESS FERN Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 14 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • DLR K-NA-83 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1977 March 14 - . 23:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. Launch Pad: A-15A Pad 2. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • STRESS FERN Probe - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi).

1977 March 15 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. Launch Pad: A-15A Pad 2. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • STRESS FERN Probe - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1977 March 15 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1977 March 16 - .
  • Wings on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 March 16 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • DLR A-GR-81 Christ. Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

1977 March 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 17 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 17 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 898 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 9871 . COSPAR: 1977-020A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 898 - . Payload: Nauka?. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft Bus: Nauka. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 9887 . COSPAR: 1977-020D. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.77 min.

1977 March 18 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 18 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1977 March 18 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 19 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Auroral Oxides Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1977 March 20 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV.
  • MSV-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

    The third and final flight of the MSV (materials screening vehicle) program was successfully launched on an Athena D booster from Wallops Flight Center, Virginia, through adverse weather. Three small reentry vehicles gathered data on nosetip materials and designs.


1977 March 20 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna A. LV Family: Aries. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • DLR K-AR-82 Porc. F2 Magnetospheric mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, NASA. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1977 March 21 - .
  • Orbiter 1/4-scale model on dock, Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 March 21 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • CMB spectrum Submillimeter radio astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1977 March 22 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1977 March 23 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1977 March 24 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-36 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 9880 . COSPAR: 1977-021A. Apogee: 38,042 km (23,638 mi). Perigee: 2,288 km (1,421 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.30 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.


1977 March 24 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1977 March 24 - . 20:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 624. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-28 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 24 - . 20:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 624. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-28 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 24 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 899 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-O. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 9883 . COSPAR: 1977-022A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 503 km (312 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Replaced Cosmos 437. Possible ELINT satellite..

1977 March 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1977 March 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 27 - . 03:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S-210. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • NO / O3 / Ne Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1977 March 28 - . 15:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 28 - . 19:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1977 March 28 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1977 March 29 - . 00:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 March 29 - . 02:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1977 March 29 - . 03:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1977 March 29 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 900 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-O Oval. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 1979-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 9898 . COSPAR: 1977-023A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 457 km (283 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1977 March 30 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-29 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 30 - . 13:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-29 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 March 31 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 546 km (339 mi).

1977 April 1 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 April 2 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1977 April 3 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1977 April 4 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 April 5 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-27 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 27. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 9903 . COSPAR: 1977-024A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 844 km (524 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1977 April 5 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 901 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 18. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1978-06-29 . Decay Date: 1978-06-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 9905 . COSPAR: 1977-025A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1977 April 6 - .
  • Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 April 6 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1977 April 6 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1977 April 7 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 902 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 9908 . COSPAR: 1977-026A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 April 8 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Auroral extreme ultraviolet Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1977 April 11 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 903 - . Payload: Oko #6. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2014-08-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 9911 . COSPAR: 1977-027A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 4,559 km (2,832 mi). Inclination: 67.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 7 - 163 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 April 11 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S-210. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • NO / O3 / Ne Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1977 April 12 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1977 April 13 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 April 14 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 April 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 April 15 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1977 April 16 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • JHU FOT 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1977 April 18 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1977 April 19 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: VOLNA. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1977 April 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 904 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 9930 . COSPAR: 1977-028A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 April 20 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • ESA-Geos 1 - . Payload: ESA GEOS 1. Mass: 573 kg (1,263 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ESA-Geos. Spacecraft: ESA-Geos. USAF Sat Cat: 9931 . COSPAR: 1977-029A. Apogee: 38,214 km (23,745 mi). Perigee: 2,939 km (1,826 mi). Inclination: 26.6000 deg. Period: 734.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1977 April 21 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Solar ultraviolet / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi).

1977 April 22 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1977 April 23 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: VOLNA. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1977 April 25 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1977 April 26 - .
  • Birth of Samantha Cristoforetti - . Nation: Italy. Related Persons: Cristoforetti. Italian pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on..

1977 April 26 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 905 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 6. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 9937 . COSPAR: 1977-030A. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 90.30 min.

    Sixth Yantar second generation reconnaissance test flight and first completely successful flight. Both small SpK film capsules successfully recovered during course of flight, as was the main OSA cabin with its camera, computer, and main film cannisters. First full duration Yantar flight.


1977 April 27 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SSME Tests resumed - . Nation: USA. 25 tests will be run on two engines over the next year..

1977 April 27 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 906 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-2. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1980-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9938 . COSPAR: 1977-031A. Apogee: 515 km (320 mi). Perigee: 464 km (288 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Released 1 Romb radar calibration subsatellite. Possible partially failed spacecraft bus..

1977 April 28 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-07 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 19. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 9941 . COSPAR: 1977-032A. Apogee: 38,201 km (23,736 mi). Perigee: 2,169 km (1,347 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 718.10 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1977 April 28 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7 AC.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1977 April 29 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 April 30 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: VOLNA. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1977 May - .
  • Council of Chief Designers reconsiders Yantar Soviet reconnsat designs - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Orlets-1, Orlets-2, Yantar-2K, Yantar-4K1, Yantar-4K2, Yantar-4KS1, Yantar-6K, Yantar-6KS.

    Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The planned Yantar-6K series, in development since 1969, were overweight and behind schedule. A meeting of the Council of Chief Designers at TsSKB reviewed alternative approaches. It was decided that three variants of the Yantar-2K were to be developed, one of them the high resolution Yantar-4K.


1977 May 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 20.0 N x 61.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 May 2 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 May 3 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: VOLNA. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1977 May 4 - . 13:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 May 5 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle ejection seat tests - . Nation: USA. Another test series is held at Holloman at speeds of zero to 725 kph in support of the impending ALT shuttle glide tests..

1977 May 5 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 907 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9944 . COSPAR: 1977-033A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 May 6 - . 15:59 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1977 May 7 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1977 May 8 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1977 May 9 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1977 May 10 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 May 11 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 May 12 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • DSCS II-07 - . Payload: DSCS II F-7 / OPS 9437. Mass: 565 kg (1,245 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DSCS II. Spacecraft: DSCS II. Completed Operations Date: 1981-12-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10000 . COSPAR: 1977-034A. Apogee: 36,894 km (22,924 mi). Perigee: 36,759 km (22,840 mi). Inclination: 15.8000 deg. Period: 1,489.60 min.

    A Titan IIIC launched a pair of DSCS II satellites into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 12 deg W in 1977-1979; over the Atlantic Ocean 5 deg W in 1979; over the Pacific Ocean 140 deg E in 1980-1981 As of 28 August 2001 located at 152.07 deg W drifting at 12.959 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.37W drifting at 12.959W degrees per day.

  • DSCS II-08 - . Payload: DSCS II F-8 / OPS 9438. Mass: 565 kg (1,245 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DSCS II. Spacecraft: DSCS II. Completed Operations Date: 1990-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10001 . COSPAR: 1977-034B. Apogee: 37,343 km (23,203 mi). Perigee: 37,061 km (23,028 mi). Inclination: 15.5000 deg. Period: 1,509.00 min.

    A Titan IIIC launched a pair of DSCS II satellites into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 175 deg E in 1977-1979 over the Atlantic Ocean 12 deg W in 1979-80 over the Pacific Ocean 175 deg E in 1980-1983 over the Pacific Ocean180 deg E in 1983-1986 over the Atlantic Ocean 1 deg W in 1986-1989 As of 3 September 2001 located at 143.55 deg W drifting at 17.451 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 13.13E drifting at 17.445W degrees per day.


1977 May 13 - . 13:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 49 km (30 mi).

1977 May 14 - .
  • Death of Petr Vasilyevich Dementiev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dementiev. Russian politician. Minister of Aviation Industry 1953-1977. Supporter of Chelomei..

1977 May 14 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1977 May 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1977 May 17 - .
  • Cosmonaut Viktor Ivanovich Bukreyev dies at age of 28 -- Aircraft crash. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bukreyev. Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977. Flew for Gromov Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission..

1977 May 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 May 17 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 908 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 10007 . COSPAR: 1977-035A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 May 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES TDV-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    TDV-1, the first of three technology development vehicle flights in CY 1977, was successfully launched from Vandenberg AFB to the Kwajalein missile range on a Minuteman I booster. It successfully conducted complex experiments dealing with nosetip materials, aerodynamics, and electronics.


1977 May 18 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapani Tonneo. LV Family: OTRAG. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG.
  • Otrag Flight 1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi). Four-module test vehicle, 6 m long. Propulsion test. Reached 20 km altitude. 100% successful..

1977 May 18 - . 13:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • ABRES Density / TDV-1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1977 May 19 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 909 - . Payload: DS-P1-M. Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. USAF Sat Cat: 10010 . COSPAR: 1977-036A. Apogee: 2,111 km (1,311 mi). Perigee: 985 km (612 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 117.00 min. Target for IS ASAT systems tests..

1977 May 20 - .
  • Nose landing gear doors on dock, Palmdale(STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 21 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1977 May 23 - . 12:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 910 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1977-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10014 . COSPAR: 1977-037A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. ASAT interceptor. Failed to intercept Cosmos 909. Deorbited using on-board engine..

1977 May 23 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
  • Canyon 7 - . Payload: Canyon Improved / OPS 9751. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Canyon. Spacecraft: Canyon. USAF Sat Cat: 10016 . COSPAR: 1977-038A. Apogee: 35,855 km (22,279 mi). Perigee: 35,679 km (22,169 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,435.10 min.

1977 May 24 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1977 May 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • K? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 May 25 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1977 May 25 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 911 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 10019 . COSPAR: 1977-039A. Apogee: 999 km (620 mi). Perigee: 965 km (599 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1977 May 25 - . 22:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-30 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 May 25 - . 23:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-30 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 May 25 - . 23:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 643. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-30 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 May 26 - .
  • Aft payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 912 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10021 . COSPAR: 1977-040A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1977 May 26 - . 21:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Intelsat 4A F-4 - . Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Intelsat 4. Spacecraft: Intelsat 4A. Completed Operations Date: 1989-08-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10024 . COSPAR: 1977-041A. Apogee: 36,075 km (22,415 mi). Perigee: 35,969 km (22,350 mi). Inclination: 7.8000 deg. Period: 1,448.20 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 34.5 deg W in 1977-1983 over the Atlantic Ocean 21.5 deg W in 1983-1989 As of 28 August 2001 located at 153.30 deg E drifting at 2.976 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 121.69W drifting at 3.003W degrees per day.


1977 May 27 - .
  • Complete systems installation MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Complete systems installation/final acceptance, MPTA-098, transport from Downey to Seal Beach.

1977 May 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 May 28 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT58GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 May 30 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 913 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-2. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10028 . COSPAR: 1977-042A. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Released 21 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1977 May 31 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 31 - .
  • SRB 1/4-scale model, burnout and maximum q config - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 31 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 May 31 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 914 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10030 . COSPAR: 1977-043A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 914 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft Bus: Nauka. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10046 . COSPAR: 1977-043E. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.41 min.

1977 June 1 - . 21:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-31 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 June 1 - . 21:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 616. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-31 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 June 2 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT34GM-1 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 June 3 - .
  • Cosmonaut Aleksandr Ivanovich Lysenko dies at age of 32 -- Aircraft crash. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lysenko. Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1977. Flying Research Institute named for Gromov of GKOOP. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission..

1977 June 3 - .
  • Ship MPTA-098 from Seal Beach, Calif., to NSTL - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 June 4 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1977 June 5 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2U.
  • AMS 2 - . Payload: DMSP 5D S-2/Star 37S S/N 15003 / OPS 5644. Mass: 450 kg (990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DMSP Block 5D. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D. USAF Sat Cat: 10033 . COSPAR: 1977-044A. Apogee: 849 km (527 mi). Perigee: 788 km (489 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 101.30 min.

    An LV-2F booster launched the second DMSP Block 5D satellite into orbit from Vandenberg AFB, California. The launch was marred by a series of anomalies which put the satellite in a retrograde orbit and a spinning condition. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.


1977 June 6 - . 22:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Javelin.
  • Ballistics test - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1977 June 7 - .
  • Complete integrated checkout of Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete integrated checkout and hot-fire ground test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 June 8 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • Ionosphere mission? - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1977 June 8 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 915 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10038 . COSPAR: 1977-045A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 June 9 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • SAO XR X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi).

1977 June 10 - . 03:06 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • Heatpipe 2 Technology mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1977 June 10 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 916 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10040 . COSPAR: 1977-046A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 62.7000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1977 June 11 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1977 June 12 - . 23:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1977 June 13 - . 15:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1977 June 14 - . 13:14 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1977 June 15 - .
  • Wernher von Braun dies in Alexandria, Virginia, of cancer. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun.

1977 June 15 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SRB Drop test - . Nation: USA. An unloaded shuttle solid rocket motor is dropped from an NB-52 in a test of the parachute recovery system..

1977 June 16 - .
  • Death of Wernher von Braun - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: von Braun. German-American chief designer, leader of the 'Rocket Team'; developed the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and the Saturn rockets that took US to the moon. He made the idea of space travel popular in the 1950's and a reality in the 1960's..

1977 June 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 610. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 610. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 610. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 610. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 610. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    Special Test Missile 14W-1, a Minuteman , III booster, was launched from Vandenberg AFB down the Western Test Range. It had been scheduled for launch on 5 May as STM 14W, but had been aborted because of a failure in the Stage I safe and arm device. The first stage motor was replaced for the launch on 16 June.


1977 June 16 - . 01:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 917 - . Payload: Oko #7. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10059 . COSPAR: 1977-047A. Apogee: 36,143 km (22,458 mi). Perigee: 4,196 km (2,607 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 717.50 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 245 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 June 16 - . 10:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • GOES 2 - . Payload: GOES B. Mass: 627 kg (1,382 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: GOES. Spacecraft: GOES. USAF Sat Cat: 10061 . COSPAR: 1977-048A. Apogee: 36,080 km (22,410 mi). Perigee: 35,985 km (22,360 mi). Inclination: 14.1000 deg. Period: 1,448.70 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 75 deg W in 1977-1978 over the Americas at 100-110 deg W in 1979-1984 over the Americas at 112-114 deg W in 1984-1990 over the Atlantic Ocean 60 deg W in 1990-1992 over the Pacific Ocean 135 deg W in 1992-1995; over the Pacific Ocean 177 deg W in 1995-on. As of 4 September 2001 located at 147.59 deg W drifting at 3.154 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 1.58W drifting at 3.141W degrees per day.


1977 June 17 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Signe 3 - . Mass: 102 kg (224 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Signe. Spacecraft: Signe. Decay Date: 1979-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10064 . COSPAR: 1977-049A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 449 km (278 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. This marked the first time the Kapustin Yar cosmodrome was opened to capitalist countries. 20 French specialists worked on the satellite..

1977 June 17 - . 07:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 918 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1977-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 10065 . COSPAR: 1977-050A. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi). Perigee: 125 km (77 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. ASAT interceptor. Failed to intercept Cosmos 909. Deorbited using on-board engine..

1977 June 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 1 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. First manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (55 minutes, 46 seconds).

1977 June 18 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 919 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 19. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1978-05-16 . Decay Date: 1978-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10070 . COSPAR: 1977-051A. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1977 June 19 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1977 June 20 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1977 June 21 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • SPAR 4 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1977 June 22 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 920 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10086 . COSPAR: 1977-052A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 June 23 - .
  • Deliver first SSME to NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 June 23 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/SVS.
  • NTS 2 - . Mass: 431 kg (950 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF, USN. Program: Navstar. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NTS. Spacecraft: NTS. USAF Sat Cat: 10091 . COSPAR: 1977-053A. Apogee: 20,256 km (12,586 mi). Perigee: 20,115 km (12,498 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 718.10 min.

    An Atlas booster and a Global Positioning System Stage Vehicle launched Navigation Technology Satellite 2 into orbit from Vandenberg AFB, California. This was the first use of the GPS Stage Vehicle. Navigation Technical Satellite; GPS precursor. Operated 50% satisfactorily -- still operating 25 years later.


1977 June 24 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle MPTA shipped to National Space Technology Laboratories - . Nation: USA. The test article of the shuttle orbiter's aft structure is mated to External Tank MPTA-ET (ET number one) and three prototype SSME engines..

1977 June 24 - .
  • Deliver MPTA-098 to NSTL - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 June 24 - . 05:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-37 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1993-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10092 . COSPAR: 1977-054A. Apogee: 4,564 km (2,835 mi). Perigee: 106 km (65 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 134.90 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1977 June 24 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 921 - . Payload: Tselina-D Mass model. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 10095 . COSPAR: 1977-055A. Apogee: 651 km (404 mi). Perigee: 587 km (364 mi). Inclination: 75.8000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Launch vehicle test. Dummy payload. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1977 June 25 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1977 June 26 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Final launch of an Atlas/Agena booster/upper stage - . Nation: USA. Final launch of an Atlas/Agena booster/upper stage combination from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 11 October 1 960)..

1977 June 27 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 27 - . 11:48 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Atomic oxygen Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1977 June 27 - . 12:06 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • O2 / ne Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1977 June 27 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIID.
  • KH-9 no. 13 - . Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KH-9. Spacecraft: KH-9. Decay Date: 1977-12-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10111 . COSPAR: 1977-056A. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 155 km (96 mi). Inclination: 97.0000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-9 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 2 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle, Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Second manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (1 hour, 2 minutes).

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT134M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 June 29 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-28 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Decay Date: 1993-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10113 . COSPAR: 1977-057A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Continuation of experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth. Acquisition of meteorological information required for use in the operational weather service. .

1977 June 30 - .
  • Originally planned full up Spiral flight - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Original planned date for flight test of Spiral with airbreathing hypersonic first stage..

1977 June 30 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 June 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 922 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10115 . COSPAR: 1977-058A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 July - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Buran draft project reviewed by expert commission - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran.

1977 July 1 - .
  • Death of Oskar Morgenstern - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Morgenstern. German-American economist, came to the United States in 1925, and worked at Princeton after 1938. Founded Mathematica, which provided economic analyses to government, notoriously the study that found the shuttle cheaper than expendable LVs..

1977 July 1 - . 11:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 923 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 10120 . COSPAR: 1977-059A. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 781 km (485 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min.

1977 July 2 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1977 July 3 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1977 July 4 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 924 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-O. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1981-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10129 . COSPAR: 1977-060A. Apogee: 552 km (342 mi). Perigee: 513 km (318 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Replaced Cosmos 436. Possible ELINT satellite..

1977 July 5 - .
  • Start fabrication aft fuselage, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Discovery (OV-103).

1977 July 6 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1977 July 7 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 925 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 12. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10134 . COSPAR: 1977-061A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

1977 July 8 - .
  • Deliver second main engine to NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 July 8 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 926 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsikada. USAF Sat Cat: 10137 . COSPAR: 1977-062A. Apogee: 1,016 km (631 mi). Perigee: 969 km (602 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Civilian naval navigation satellite..

1977 July 9 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1977 July 10 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1977 July 11 - . 14:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1977 July 12 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1977 July 12 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 927 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10139 . COSPAR: 1977-063A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 12 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S-210. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • E / B / ne / ISIS-2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1977 July 13 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 928 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10141 . COSPAR: 1977-064A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 949 km (589 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 July 14 - .
  • Deliver third main engine to NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 July 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: UK S22. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 July 14 - . 10:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • Himawari 1 - . Payload: GMS 1. Mass: 670 kg (1,470 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Himawari. Spacecraft: Himawari. Completed Operations Date: 1989-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10143 . COSPAR: 1977-065A. Apogee: 36,148 km (22,461 mi). Perigee: 36,005 km (22,372 mi). Inclination: 11.1000 deg. Period: 1,451.00 min.

    Geostationary meteorological satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 140 deg E in 1977-1981; over the Pacific Ocean 160 deg E in 1981-1984; over the Pacific Ocean 140 deg E in 1984; over the Pacific Ocean160 deg E in 1984-1989 As of 29 August 2001 located at 10.47 deg W drifting at 3.675 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 112.63E drifting at 3.690W degrees per day.


1977 July 15 - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Buran draft project reviewed by expert commission - . Nation: Russia. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. A critical step in any Soviet project, this approved the design and paved the way for development to begin..

1977 July 16 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1977 July 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 929 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16101. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 199.62 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10146 . COSPAR: 1977-066A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

    First test of TKS manned shuttle. Maneuvered extensively. TKS-VA capsule returned to earth August 16, 1977. Deorbited February 2, 1978.
    Maneuver Summary:
    214 km X 261 km orbit to 215 km X 279 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    207 km X 261 km orbit to 208 km X 264 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    208 km X 260 km orbit to 209 km X 267 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    192 km X 222 km orbit to 219 km X 232 km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
    219 km X 232 km orbit to 303 km X 327 km orbit. Delta V: 51 m/s
    303 km X 327 km orbit to 312 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    312 km X 319 km orbit to 314 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    284 km X 294 km orbit to 290 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
    288 km X 300 km orbit to 286 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    285 km X 303 km orbit to 439 km X 447 km orbit. Delta V: 84 m/s
    437 km X 448 km orbit to 335 km X 437 km orbit. Delta V: 31 m/s
    335 km X 437 km orbit to 337 km X 438 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    337 km X 438 km orbit to 90 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 100 m/s
    Total Delta V: 193/293 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1977 July 18 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • DM-1 Shuttle SRB development static firing - . Nation: USA. The first firing of a shuttle Solid Rocket Booster motor..

1977 July 18 - .
  • 2-minute firing of SRB at Brigham City, Utah - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Conduct 2-minute firing of SRB at Brigham City, Utah, Thiokol (2.4 million pounds of thrust).

1977 July 19 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 930 - . Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-1. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1980-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 10149 . COSPAR: 1977-067A. Apogee: 515 km (320 mi). Perigee: 482 km (299 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Radar calibration mission..

1977 July 19 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

1977 July 20 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 931 - . Payload: Oko #8. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oko. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10150 . COSPAR: 1977-068A. Apogee: 36,549 km (22,710 mi). Perigee: 3,770 km (2,340 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Replaced Cosmos 665. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 July 20 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 932 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10153 . COSPAR: 1977-069A. Apogee: 358 km (222 mi). Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1977 July 22 - .
  • Deliver forward payload bay doors, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Deliver forward payload bay doors, on dock, Palmdale (STA-099).

1977 July 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 933 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-1. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1978-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10157 . COSPAR: 1977-070A. Apogee: 431 km (267 mi). Perigee: 369 km (229 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Radar calibration mission..

1977 July 23 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 3 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 13L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10159 . COSPAR: 1977-071A. Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min.

    Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 35 deg E in 1977-1980 As of 30 August 2001 located at 44.45 deg E drifting at 0.191 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 49.63E drifting at 0.221E degrees per day.


1977 July 24 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1977 July 25 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1977 July 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 3 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Third manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (59 minutes, 50 seconds).

1977 July 26 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S-310. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • VLF / plasma / B Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi).

1977 July 27 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • SAO XR X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1977 July 27 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Wolter I X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1977 July 27 - . 18:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 934 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10164 . COSPAR: 1977-072A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 28 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: V-825. Launch Vehicle: V-825.
  • Intercept - . Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1977 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Hydac.
  • HAVE JEEP IV Reentry test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAMSO. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

    SRK-11, the first of two sounding rocket flights designated HAVE JEEP IV, was launched from Roi-Namur Island in the Kwajalein missile range on an Honest John-Nike Hydac booster. It conducted experiments with CDM (Continuously Dispensed Masker). The experiments were a qualified success. A


1977 July 29 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 935 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10168 . COSPAR: 1977-073A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 July 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 July 31 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1977 August 1 - . 23:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1977 August 2 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1977 August 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT60GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 August 3 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 936 - . Payload: Bion no. 4. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.60 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10172 . COSPAR: 1977-074A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Biological research. Scientists from the U.S.S.R., the U.S., Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic conducted experiments in physics and biology on the mission. The biosatellite was recovered at 51 deg 53 min N, 61 deg 30 min E, near Kustanay in Central Asia after remaining in orbit for 18.5 days. Additional Details: here....


1977 August 3 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 622. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 August 4 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SRB Drop test - . Nation: USA. An unloaded shuttle solid rocket motor is dropped from an NB-52 in a test of the parachute recovery system..

1977 August 4 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. FAILURE: First stage engine steering unit failure at T+40.1 seconds. Failed Stage: 1.
  • TKS VA s/n 009L/P - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L/P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1977-08-04 . Spacecraft lost in booster explosion..
  • TKS VA s/n 009P/P - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009P/P. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Almaz. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA.

    A repeat test of the VA capsules from LVI-1 of a month earlier were atop the Proton (VA's 009P and 009L). However the booster failed at 49 seconds after launch. The SAS launch escape system pulled the top capsule (009P) away from the exploding Proton rocket and it was successfully recovered. The lower capsule was lost with the booster.


1977 August 5 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 August 6 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Sherman. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1977 August 7 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Sherman. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1977 August 8 - .
1977 August 9 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar ultraviolet Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1977 August 10 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT59GM-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 August 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4MKM - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Decay Date: 1977-08-30 . High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1977 August 10 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1977 August 10 - . 12:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S-210. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • NO airglow Aurora mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1977 August 11 - . 21:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 4 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct first free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 21 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: KORO. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • No. 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: AN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Sphere - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: KORO. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • No. 4 - . Nation: USA. Agency: AN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: KORO. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • No. 5 - . Nation: USA. Agency: AN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 12 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • HEAO 1 - . Payload: HEAO A. Mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HEAO. Spacecraft: HEAO. Decay Date: 1979-03-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10217 . COSPAR: 1977-075A. Apogee: 447 km (277 mi). Perigee: 429 km (266 mi). Inclination: 22.7000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. High Energy Astronomical Observatory; surveyed sky in X-ray band. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1977 August 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Sphere - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 15 - . 23:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1977 August 16 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: KORO. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • No. 10 - . Nation: USA. Agency: AN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 16 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: KORO. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • No. 9 - . Nation: USA. Agency: AN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 16 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 3H.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1,294 km (804 mi).

1977 August 17 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1977 August 18 - . 19:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 August 18 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi).

1977 August 19 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Production Verification Missile 14, a Minuteman III, was launched from Vandenberg AFB down the Western Test Range. It successfully tested two Mark 12A reentry vehicles. .

1977 August 20 - . 14:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • Voyager 2 - . Payload: Voyager 2 [Star-37E]. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Outer planets. Type: Outer planets probe. Spacecraft Bus: Voyager. Spacecraft: Voyager. USAF Sat Cat: 10271 . COSPAR: 1977-076A.

    A Titan HIE launched NASA's Voyager I spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Jupiter flyby 7/9/79, Saturn flyby 8/26/81, Uranus flyby 1/24/86, Neptune flyby 8/25/89. Solar system escape trajectory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).


1977 August 22 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1977 August 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: KORO. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • No. 21 - . Nation: USA. Agency: AN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 August 23 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1977 August 24 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 937 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1978-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10278 . COSPAR: 1977-077A. Apogee: 444 km (275 mi). Perigee: 424 km (263 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Ocean monitoring..

1977 August 24 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 938 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10281 . COSPAR: 1977-078A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 August 24 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 939 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 129. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10282 . COSPAR: 1977-079A. Apogee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Perigee: 1,432 km (889 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 943 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 133. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10289 . COSPAR: 1977-079E. Apogee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Perigee: 1,450 km (900 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 944 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 134. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10290 . COSPAR: 1977-079F. Apogee: 1,470 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.20 min.
  • Cosmos 945 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 135. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10291 . COSPAR: 1977-079G. Apogee: 1,490 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,463 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 946 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 136. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10292 . COSPAR: 1977-079H. Apogee: 1,510 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,463 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.70 min.
  • Cosmos 942 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 132. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10288 . COSPAR: 1977-079D. Apogee: 1,532 km (951 mi). Perigee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.
  • Cosmos 941 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 131. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10287 . COSPAR: 1977-079C. Apogee: 1,463 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 940 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 130. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10286 . COSPAR: 1977-079B. Apogee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Perigee: 1,394 km (866 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.40 min.

1977 August 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: JCR. Launch Vehicle: TT-500.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1977 August 25 - . 23:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2313.
  • Sirio 1 - . Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: CNR. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Sirio. Spacecraft: Sirio. Completed Operations Date: 1989-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10294 . COSPAR: 1977-080A. Apogee: 35,869 km (22,287 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 9.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.40 min.

    Experimental commsat. SIRIO (Satellite Italiano Ricerca Industriale Orientata). Launch time 2350:00 GMT. Geographical longitude of geostationary orbit 15 deg W. SIRIO is a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite. Characteristics of satellite: Weight at launch 398 kg, in orbit 218 kg. Configuration - cylindrical, height 1.981m, diameter 1.433 m, nominal life two years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 15 deg W in 1977-1981; over the Atlantic Ocean 25 deg W in 1981-1983; over the Indian Ocean 65 deg E in 1983-1985 As of 4 September 2001 located at 86.65 deg E drifting at 0.265 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 75.38E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.


1977 August 26 - .
  • Deliver wings on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 August 27 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 947 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10299 . COSPAR: 1977-081A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 August 29 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1977 August 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-5 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 August 30 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-38 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1993-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10315 . COSPAR: 1977-082A. Apogee: 38,159 km (23,710 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 677.50 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.


1977 August 31 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Super Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 September - .
  • X-24C cancelled - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24C. Budget overruns were apparent and NASA agreed to cancel further X-24C work. But given the stories of similar USAF test aircraft in the 1980's, perhaps the project merely went deep black..

1977 Sep - . Launch Site: Teikovo. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 Sep - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Oka. Launch Vehicle: Oka.
  • First launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1977 September 1 - . 21:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1977 September 2 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • Active ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Los Alamos. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi).

1977 September 2 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 948 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 5. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10319 . COSPAR: 1977-083A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1977 September 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES TDV-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    TDV-2, the second of three technology development vehicle flights in CY 1977, was successfully launched from Vandenberg AFB to the Kwajalein missile range on a Minuteman I booster. It successfully conducted complex experiments dealing with nosetip materials, aerodynamics, and electronics. A P 06-L star traffic decoy was successfully tested on the same flight.


1977 September 3 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi).

1977 September 3 - . 14:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 September 5 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE.
  • Voyager 1 - . Payload: Voyager 1 [Star-37E]. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL. Class: Outer planets. Type: Outer planets probe. Spacecraft Bus: Voyager. Spacecraft: Voyager. USAF Sat Cat: 10321 . COSPAR: 1977-084A. A Titan HIE launched NASA's Voyager I spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Jupiter flyby 3/5/79, Saturn flyby 11/12/80. Solar system escape trajectory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1977 September 6 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 949 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 7. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10326 . COSPAR: 1977-085A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min.

    Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance state acceptance test flight. Completely successful and led to acceptance of Yantar-2K into Red Army service in 1978. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission.


1977 September 6 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 September 7 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 September 8 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1977 September 9 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 46 km (28 mi).

1977 September 10 - .
  • Deliver external tank MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Deliver external tank MPTA-098 (Martin Marietta) to NSTL.

1977 September 10 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 September 12 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • Active ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Los Alamos. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi).

1977 September 12 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. Launch Pad: LC29/pad?. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Chevaline warhead test launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 September 13 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 5 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle, Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Second free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 28 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 September 13 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 950 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 10351 . COSPAR: 1977-086A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 September 13 - . 19:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 951 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10352 . COSPAR: 1977-087A. Apogee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Perigee: 962 km (597 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 September 13 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914. FAILURE: Vehicle exploded, probably SRM case.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • OTS 1 - . Mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ECS/OTS. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Decay Date: 1977-09-13 . Orbital Test Satellite; failed to orbit..

1977 September 14 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Feng Bao 1.
  • DDDS test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1977 September 14 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT35GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 September 14 - . 12:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 10.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy / extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1977 September 15 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: S-210. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1977 September 16 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 952 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1977-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10399 . COSPAR: 1977-088B. Apogee: 990 km (610 mi). Perigee: 911 km (566 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 104.10 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1977 September 16 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 953 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10359 . COSPAR: 1977-089A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 September 17 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1977 September 18 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 954 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1978-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10361 . COSPAR: 1977-090A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 251 km (155 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered; re-entered over Canada, spreading radioactive debris..

1977 September 19 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1977 September 20 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 955 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 13. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10362 . COSPAR: 1977-091A. Apogee: 501 km (311 mi). Perigee: 493 km (306 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.60 min.

1977 September 20 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 2 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10365 . COSPAR: 1977-092A. Apogee: 35,938 km (22,330 mi). Perigee: 35,663 km (22,159 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min.

    Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1977-1978 As of 5 September 2001 located at 65.77 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.61E drifting at 0.200W degrees per day.


1977 September 21 - .
  • Nuclear-nonproliferation pact - . Nation: International. Nuclear-proliferation pact, curbing spread of nuclear weapons, signed by 15 countries, including U.S. and U.S.S.R. .

1977 September 21 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: S-310. Launch Vehicle: S-310.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1977 September 22 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Prognoz 6 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 506. Mass: 910 kg (2,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Prognoz. Spacecraft: Prognoz. USAF Sat Cat: 10370 . COSPAR: 1977-093A. Apogee: 172,867 km (107,414 mi). Perigee: 25,331 km (15,739 mi). Inclination: 88.3200 deg. Period: 5,681.95 min.

    Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.


1977 September 23 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Misurkin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Misurkin. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 4th Army (Rostov-on-Don; North-Caucasian VO).

1977 September 23 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 6 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Third free flight , ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 15.

1977 September 23 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 24B.
  • OPS 7471 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 49 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WS-117. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1977-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10374 . COSPAR: 1977-094A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 96.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1977 September 24 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 956 - . Payload: Tselina-D Mass model. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1982-06-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 10375 . COSPAR: 1977-095A. Apogee: 864 km (536 mi). Perigee: 355 km (220 mi). Inclination: 75.8000 deg. Period: 96.80 min. Launch vehicle test. Dummy payload. Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1977 September 24 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Iroquois. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois.
  • DMSP CHEM Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1977 September 24 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Paiute Tomahawk.
  • DMSP MS SP Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1977 September 24 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 17 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-E-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1979-01-16 . Decay Date: 1979-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10376 . COSPAR: 1977-096A. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 466 km (289 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Investigation of energetic charged and neutral particles and micrometeorite fluxes in circumterrestrial space. .

1977 September 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1977 September 26 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1977 September 27 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 77 km (47 mi).

1977 September 28 - . 15:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Talos Castor.
  • SPIRE I Infrared background mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1977 September 29 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Proton 8K82K launch vehicle completes its state trials tests and is accepted into service. - . Nation: Russia.

    Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.


1977 September 29 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 6 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125 s/n 5L. Mass: 19,824 kg (43,704 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 6. Duration: 1,763.71 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10382 . COSPAR: 1977-097A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments; further testing of station design, on-board system and equipment. Soyuz 25 docking unsuccessful. EVA 20 Dec 1977 to examine forward docking port (no damage). EVA 29 July 1978 to retrieve externally mounted experiments (micrometeorites, biopolymers, radiation plates, materials tests). Soyuz 33 failure to dock due to propulsion failure April 1979. Soyuz 34 launched unmanned to provide replacement vehicle June 1979. EVA August 15 to dislodge 10 m diameter KRT-10 radio telescope from aft docking collar. Repair mission Soyuz T-3 December 1980 (temperature control hydraulics). Repair mission Soyuz T-4 March 1981 (stuck solar array). Salyut ejected a module on May 31 (perhaps retained Soyuz Orbital Module). Kosmos 1267 docks 19 June 1981. Commanded to reentry using Kosmos 1267 propulsion system over Pacific July 29 1982. Additional Details: here....


1977 September 29 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi).

1977 September 30 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • SRB Hydroburst test - . Nation: USA. A flight-representative shuttle Solid Rocket Booster was subjected to water pressure until the casing burst..

1977 September 30 - .
  • Complete mate vertical stabilizer, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Complete mate vertical stabilizer, Palmdale (STA-099).

1977 September 30 - . 01:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur. FAILURE: Atlas failure - gas generator hot gas leak.. Failed Stage: 1.
1977 September 30 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 957 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10385 . COSPAR: 1977-098A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1977 October 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1977 October 2 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • SAO XR / Italy XR X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1977 October 3 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1977 October 4 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 October 5 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1977 October 7 - . 16:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1977 October 8 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1977 October 9 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 25 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Kovalyonok, Ryumin. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 42. Mass: 6,860 kg (15,120 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Romanenko, Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 25. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.03 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10401 . COSPAR: 1977-099A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6..

1977 October 10 - . 16:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1977 October 11 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 958 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10403 . COSPAR: 1977-100A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1977 October 11 - .
1977 October 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 7 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle, Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Fourth free flight, ALT, first tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 October 13 - . 21:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • T / NL 3A Dagmar Aurora mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 536 km (333 mi).

1977 October 13 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 788 km (489 mi).

1977 October 14 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Sherman. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1977 October 15 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1977 October 16 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: INTA-300. Launch Vehicle: Fulmar.
  • Wind / T Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi).

1977 October 16 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 2.
  • Sodium release Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1977 October 17 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1977 October 18 - .
  • Charles Kowal's Discovery of 2060 Chiron - . Nation: USA.

1977 October 19 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 590 km (360 mi).

1977 October 19 - . 18:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 October 20 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1977 October 21 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • S19 Guidance test - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi).

1977 October 21 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 959 - . Payload: DS-P1-M. Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. Decay Date: 1977-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10419 . COSPAR: 1977-101A. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi). Perigee: 146 km (90 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. ASAT target for Cosmos 961 interceptor..

1977 October 22 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • ISEE 1 - . Payload: ISEE A. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ISEE. Spacecraft: ISEE. Decay Date: 1987-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10422 . COSPAR: 1977-102A. Apogee: 137,806 km (85,628 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 3,441.00 min. International Sun-Earth Explorer. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • ISEE 2 - . Payload: ISEE B. Mass: 166 kg (365 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ISEE. Spacecraft: ISEE. Decay Date: 1987-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10423 . COSPAR: 1977-102B. Apogee: 137,765 km (85,603 mi). Perigee: 406 km (252 mi). Inclination: 13.5000 deg. Period: 3,438.50 min. International Sun-Earth Explorer. .

1977 October 24 - . 18:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 43 km (26 mi).

1977 October 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 October 25 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/1?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 960 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-O. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10430 . COSPAR: 1977-103A. Apogee: 546 km (339 mi). Perigee: 502 km (311 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. Replaced Cosmos 870. Possible ELINT satellite..

1977 October 25 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Vertikal' K65UP.
  • Vertikal'-6 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1977 October 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 8 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Fifth free flight, ALT, final tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 1 second), Enterprise (OV-101), concrete Runway 04.

1977 October 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35.
  • First UR-100NU launch. Joint flight trials launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 October 26 - . 05:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 961 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1977-10-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10434 . COSPAR: 1977-104A. Apogee: 1,421 km (882 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 66.4000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. ASAT interceptor. Succeeded in intercept of Cosmos 959. Deorbited using on-board engine..

1977 October 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. LV Family: MMR-06. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1977 October 28 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 October 28 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-08 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 18. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 10455 . COSPAR: 1977-105A. Apogee: 38,508 km (23,927 mi). Perigee: 1,840 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1977 October 28 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1.
  • Transat O-11 - . Mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Transit. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 10457 . COSPAR: 1977-106A. Apogee: 1,097 km (681 mi). Perigee: 1,059 km (658 mi). Inclination: 89.7000 deg. Period: 106.80 min. Modification of first APL-built operational Transit for 'related experiments'..

1977 October 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 962 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 10459 . COSPAR: 1977-107A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 962 km (597 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 October 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 October 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 Nov - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-17VTO.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1977 November 2 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • T / NL 1B Aurora mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi).

1977 November 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Production Verification Missile 15, a Minuteman III, was launched from Vandenberg AFB down the Western Test Range. It successfully tested two Mark 12A reentry vehicles. .

1977 November 4 - .
  • Deliver aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 November 5 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 97 km (60 mi).

1977 November 7 - .
  • Forward RCS on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 November 7 - .
  • Start final assembly Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1977 November 8 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29B. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Chevaline warhead test launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 9 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1977 November 10 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1977 November 11 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Aries. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • TEM-1 ABM infrared sensor technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1977 November 12 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1977 November 13 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES TDV-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 November 13 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • FWIF I Aeronomy / aurora / solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1977 November 14 - .
  • Kamanin still keeping his diary. - . Nation: Russia. Kamanin looks back at celebrations for the 60th Anniversary of the October Revolution. He notes that Soyuz 25 failed to dock..

1977 November 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • First ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. First ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 21 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 15 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: HJ Hydac.
  • WIDEBAND Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1977 November 16 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Second ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Second ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 17 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 17 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Third ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Third ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 17 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 17 - . 21:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 718 km (446 mi).

1977 November 17 - . 21:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: INTA-300. Launch Vehicle: Fulmar.
  • Electrons / Ions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi).

1977 November 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 37 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 19 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1977 November 21 - . LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Buran development plan approved - . Nation: Russia. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran.

    The government decree 1006-323 set out the development plan. The flight test plan was for first launch of the booster in 1983, with the payload being an unmanned OK-ML-1 mock-up of the orbiter. This would not have a heat shield and remain attached to the booster. A second mock-up, OK-ML-2, would be used on the second launch, but be separated from the vehicle after burnout. However it would also be without heat shield, and be expended. The first flight Buran was to fly unpiloted in 1984. Manned flights were to be routine by the 1987 seventieth anniversary of the Soviet Union.


1977 November 22 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1977 November 23 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • Meteosat 1 - . Mass: 697 kg (1,536 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteosat. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1985-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10489 . COSPAR: 1977-108A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,437.60 min.

    European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 0135 GMT. Reached definitive position, 0 deg longitude over the Gulf of Guinea, on 7 December. Launched by United States Delta rocket. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at E-4 deg W in 1977-1981; 8E-12 deg E in 1981-1984; 2E-6 deg E in 1984-1985 As of 29 August 2001 located at 51.23 deg E drifting at 0.354 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 11.52E drifting at 0.055W degrees per day.


1977 November 24 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 963 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 10491 . COSPAR: 1977-109A. Apogee: 1,206 km (749 mi). Perigee: 1,179 km (732 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1977 November 25 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1977 November 26 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1977 November 27 - . LV Family: Spiral 50-50. Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • MiG 105-11 first air-drop - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. The first air-drop launch from a Tu-95K (used previously for Kh-20 air to surface missile tests) was made from an altitude of 5,000 m, with landing on skids on a beaten earth air strip..

1977 November 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 November 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Kosmos launch failure - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN.

1977 November 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 30 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT135M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 December 1 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Glushko uninterested in further lunar base work - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bushuyev. Spacecraft: Buran, LEK, Lunokhod LEK, LZhM, LZM.

    Bushuyev tells Chertok that the lunar base work did not interest Glushko. The VPK Military-Industrial Commission was only interested in duplicating the American shuttle, not in any other ventures in space. With the N1-Sr booster, Russia could have had a six man lunar base established with 8 to 10 launches in the late 1970's. Bushuyev died on 26 October 1978, having seen his dream completely tossed away.


1977 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi).

1977 December 3 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 December 4 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 964 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10498 . COSPAR: 1977-110A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 December 5 - . 02:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: INTA-300. Launch Vehicle: Fulmar.
  • HLC 2B Auroral mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi).

1977 December 5 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 6 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT36GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 December 6 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • Dayside Cusp Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1977 December 7 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1977 December 8 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 965 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: Taifun-2. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10501 . COSPAR: 1977-111A. Apogee: 516 km (320 mi). Perigee: 465 km (288 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Released 24 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1977 December 8 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/MSD.
  • NOSS 2 - . Payload: PARCAE 2 / OPS 8781. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS. USAF Sat Cat: 10502 . COSPAR: 1977-112A. Apogee: 1,169 km (726 mi). Perigee: 1,054 km (654 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Ocean surveillance; aka White Cloud type spacecraft; Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite; PARCAE..
  • SS 1 - . Payload: SSU. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS-Subsat. USAF Sat Cat: 10529 . COSPAR: 1977-112D. Apogee: 1,169 km (726 mi). Perigee: 1,054 km (654 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Deployed from NOSS 2..
  • SS 2 - . Payload: SSU. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS-Subsat. USAF Sat Cat: 10544 . COSPAR: 1977-112E. Apogee: 1,168 km (725 mi). Perigee: 1,055 km (655 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Deployed from NOSS 2..
  • SS 3 - . Payload: SSU. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NOSS. Spacecraft: NOSS-Subsat. USAF Sat Cat: 10594 . COSPAR: 1977-112F. Apogee: 1,168 km (725 mi). Perigee: 1,055 km (655 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Deployed from NOSS 2..

1977 December 9 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Complete approach and landing flight tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete approach and landing flight tests, including ferry flights, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 10 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 26 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Grechko, Romanenko. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 43. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 37.42 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10506 . COSPAR: 1977-113A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Georgi Grechko to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 27 to Earth. Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-6 scientific station..

1977 December 11 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1977 December 11 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • UIT-Prototype F1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1977 December 11 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1977 December 11 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
  • OPS 4258 - . Payload: AFP-472 AQUACADE 3. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft Bus: Rhyolite. Spacecraft: Rhyolite. USAF Sat Cat: 10508 . COSPAR: 1977-114A. Apogee: 35,855 km (22,279 mi). Perigee: 35,679 km (22,169 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,435.10 min. Third launch of Rhyolite geostationary ELINT satellite. Code name changed to Aquacade after Rhyolite name came out in trial of spy Boyce..

1977 December 12 - .
  • Start modification of Enterprise for ground vibe tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start removal for mated vertical ground vibration test modification at Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 12 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 December 12 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 966 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10510 . COSPAR: 1977-115A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 966 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft Bus: Nauka. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10538 . COSPAR: 1977-115D. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.24 min.

1977 December 13 - .
  • Complete propellant load testing, NSTL (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 December 13 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • PRECEDE Active plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1977 December 13 - . 08:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 1 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1977 December 13 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 967 - . Payload: DS-P1-M. Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft Bus: DS. Spacecraft: DS-P1-M. USAF Sat Cat: 10512 . COSPAR: 1977-116A. Apogee: 1,003 km (623 mi). Perigee: 961 km (597 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. ASAT target for Cosmos 970 interceptor..

1977 December 14 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SRB Drop test - . Nation: USA. An unloaded shuttle solid rocket motor is dropped from an NB-52 in a test of the parachute recovery system..

1977 December 14 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1977 December 14 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-03 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 3. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 10514 . COSPAR: 1977-117A. Apogee: 874 km (543 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service..

1977 December 15 - . 00:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • Sakura - . Payload: CS-1A. Mass: 676 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Program: CS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: CS-1. Spacecraft: CS-1. Completed Operations Date: 1985-11-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10516 . COSPAR: 1977-118A. Apogee: 36,176 km (22,478 mi). Perigee: 36,169 km (22,474 mi). Inclination: 10.5000 deg. Period: 1,455.90 min.

    Medium-capacity Communications Satellite for Experimental Purposes . Launch vehicle Delta 2914-137. Launch time 0047 UT. Geographical longitude on geostationary orbit: 135 deg E. CS is a spin stabilized geostationary communications satellite. Characteris tics of satellite: Weight approx 340 kg at an early stage in orbit, configuration: cylindrical, height 3.48 m, diameter 2.18m, Expected life more than three years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg E in 1977-1983 over the Pacific Ocean 150 deg E in 1984-1985 As of 25 August 2001 located at 78.79 deg E drifting at 4.904 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 94.72W drifting at 4.901W degrees per day.


1977 December 16 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1977 December 16 - . 04:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 968 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 10520 . COSPAR: 1977-119A. Apogee: 791 km (491 mi). Perigee: 765 km (475 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

1977 December 18 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1977 December 19 - . 21:36 GMT - .
1977 December 20 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 969 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10527 . COSPAR: 1977-120A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 December 21 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 970 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1977-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10531 . COSPAR: 1977-121A. Apogee: 1,138 km (707 mi). Perigee: 936 km (581 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 105.90 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 970 target. Ordered to self-destruct following interception..

1977 December 22 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1977 December 23 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 971 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10536 . COSPAR: 1977-122A. Apogee: 1,004 km (623 mi). Perigee: 975 km (605 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 December 24 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1977 December 26 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1977 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 27 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 972 - . Payload: Tselina-D Mass model. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tselina-D. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 10539 . COSPAR: 1977-123A. Apogee: 1,157 km (718 mi). Perigee: 712 km (442 mi). Inclination: 75.8000 deg. Period: 103.70 min. Launch vehicle test. Dummy payload. Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1977 December 27 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 973 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10540 . COSPAR: 1977-124A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.5000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 973 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft Bus: Nauka. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10558 . COSPAR: 1977-124D. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.61 min.

1977 December 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 December 29 - .
  • Recovery of ALHA 77005 Meteorite From The Antarctic (Mars Meteorite) - . Nation: USA.

1977 December 29 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Vandenberg AFB brush fire consumed 9,040 acres - . Nation: USA. South Vandenberg AFB brush fire consumed 9,040 acres and claimed the lives of the base commander, both fire chiefs, and a civilian bulldozer operator..

1977 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 31 - .
  • Deliver SSME envelope/electrical simulators - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Deliver SSME envelope/electrical simulators on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).


Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z
© 1997-2016 Mark Wade - Contact
© / Conditions for Use