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1993 Chronology

1993 - . LV Family: MAKS. Launch Vehicle: MAKS-D.
  • RADEM project - . Nation: Russia. NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines..

1993 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle ASRM.
  • Shuttle using Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (development cancelled 1993). - . Nation: USA.

1993 January - .
  • EUVE completes initial "all-sky" survey - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: MMS. Spacecraft: EUVE. A Guest Observer program was initiated in February, 1993..

1993 January - .
  • XMM Project Team established. - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM.

1993 During the Year - .
  • Development of Shenzhou manned spacecraft begins - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Project 921-2, Shenzhou. The 921-1 manned capsule entered full scale development in 1993 and the 921-2 space station in 1999..

1993 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Dong Feng 5A.
  • Nation: China. Agency: XPRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 January 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1993 January 6 - . 02:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1993 January 12 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2230 - . Payload: Tsikada. Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsikada. USAF Sat Cat: 22307 . COSPAR: 1993-001A. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 969 km (602 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Civilian navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 11 of constellation. TSIKADA type spacecraft. Determination of the position of ships of the merchant marine and fishing fleet in the world's oceans and seas as part of the Tsikada space navigation system..

1993 January 13 - . 01:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-85 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2005-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 22309 . COSPAR: 1993-002A. Apogee: 39,822 km (24,744 mi). Perigee: 528 km (328 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Replaced Molniya 1-78..

1993 January 13 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-54 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Casper, Harbaugh, Helms, McMonagle, Runco. Payload: Endeavour F03 / TDRS 6 [IUS]. Mass: 21,156 kg (46,640 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Casper, Harbaugh, Helms, McMonagle, Runco. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-54. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 5.98 days. Decay Date: 1993-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 22313 . COSPAR: 1993-003A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed TDRSS 6. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-F/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS); Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer (DXS); Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) A; Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE) 02; Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE).

  • TDRS 6 - . Payload: TDRS F. Mass: 2,530 kg (5,570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: TDRS. USAF Sat Cat: 22314 . COSPAR: 1993-003B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA communications; deployed from STS-54 1/13/93. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg W in 1993; 138 deg W in 1993; 46 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 46.99 deg W drifting at 0.017 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 173.51W drifting at 0.006E degrees per day.


1993 January 14 - .
  • STS-54 - Wakeup Song: Off We Go Into the Wild Blue Yonder - . Flight: STS-54. "Off We Go Into the Wild Blue Yonder" - The Air Force Song - ..

1993 January 15 - .
  • STS-54 - Wakeup Song: Hail Purdue - . Flight: STS-54. "Hail Purdue" by Purdue Band and Glee Club. For Greg Harbaugh, a Purdue alumnus..

1993 January 15 - . 09:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1993 January 17 - .
1993 January 17 - .
  • STS-54 - Wakeup Song: Centerfield - . Flight: STS-54. "Centerfield" by John Fogerty..

1993 January 18 - .
  • STS-54 - Wakeup Song: Stardust - . Flight: STS-54. "Stardust" by Willie Nelson.

1993 January 19 - .
  • STS-54 - Wakeup Song: Ain't Misbehavin' - . Flight: STS-54. "Ain't Misbehavin'" by Eddie Higgins and Rebecca Parris.

1993 January 19 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2231 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 65.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 22317 . COSPAR: 1993-004A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1993 January 19 - .
1993 January 20 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1993 January 24 - . 05:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-16 - . Call Sign: Vulkan (Volcano ). Crew: Manakov, Poleshchuk. Backup Crew: Serebrov, Tsibliyev. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 101. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Manakov, Poleshchuk, Serebrov, Tsibliyev. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-15, Soyuz TM-16. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 179.03 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22319 . COSPAR: 1993-005A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 393 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-13. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station a crew of the thirteenth main expedition comprising the cosmonauts G M Manakov and A F Poleschuk.The Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system.


1993 January 26 - . 15:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2232 - . Payload: Oko #72. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 22321 . COSPAR: 1993-006A. Apogee: 35,870 km (22,280 mi). Perigee: 4,502 km (2,797 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 34 degree longitude of ascending node..

1993 January 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1993 January 28 - . Launch Site: Wake Island. LV Family: Talos. Launch Vehicle: HPB.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1993 February 1 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1993 February 1 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TM-15 - . Return Crew: Avdeyev, Solovyov. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev, Solovyov. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-15, Soyuz TM-16.

    Aleksandr Solovyov and Sergey Avdeyev undocked from the Mir complex aboard Soyuz TM-15 on February 1 and landed the same day in Kazakhstan after six months in space at 03:47 GMT. Soyuz TM-15's flight was an in-orbit record for a Soyuz spaceship - 188 days 21 h 39 m.


1993 February 3 - . 02:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 88 - . Payload: GPS 2A-18 / GPS SVN 22. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22446 . COSPAR: 1993-007A. Apogee: 20,359 km (12,650 mi). Perigee: 20,006 km (12,431 mi). Inclination: 54.8000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane Plane B Slot 1..

1993 February 5 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-3 Validation test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 February 7 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1993 February 8 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi).

1993 February 9 - . 02:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2233 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 22487 . COSPAR: 1993-008A. Apogee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Perigee: 951 km (590 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 5 of constellation. Replaced Cosmos 2142..

1993 February 9 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.3 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus.
  • Orbcomm OXP-1 - . Payload: Orbcomm CDS. Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: CDS. USAF Sat Cat: 22489 . COSPAR: 1993-009A. Apogee: 794 km (493 mi). Perigee: 731 km (454 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg. Period: 100.10 min. Experimental spacecraft. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Air dropped in Mayport DZ..
  • SCD-1 - . Payload: SCD 1 / Orbcomm CDS. Mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SCD. USAF Sat Cat: 22490 . COSPAR: 1993-009B. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 729 km (452 mi). Inclination: 25.0000 deg. Period: 100.10 min. Environmental data relay. The SCD-1 (Data Collection Satellite 1) was a Brazilian satellite designed for the collection of meteorological data relayed by data collection platforms spread throughout the Brazilian territory. Air dropped in Mayport DZ..

1993 February 11 - . Launch Site: Wake Island. LV Family: Talos. Launch Vehicle: HPB. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi).

1993 February 17 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2234 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 73L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 22512 . COSPAR: 1993-010A. Apogee: 19,152 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,106 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2235 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 59L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22513 . COSPAR: 1993-010B. Apogee: 19,144 km (11,895 mi). Perigee: 19,115 km (11,877 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 1. Put into service on 25 August 1993 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.

  • Cosmos 2236 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 57L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22514 . COSPAR: 1993-010C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 1. Put into service on 14 March 1993 and taken out of service on 23 August 1997.


1993 February 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. Launch Vehicle: S-520.
  • METS Ionosphere / active plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi).

1993 February 19 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: LC36 L-630. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • CONSORT 6 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SSI. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). CONSORT 6 Microgravity experiments..

1993 February 20 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. Launch Pad: M1. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II.
  • Asuka - . Payload: Astro D. Mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Program: Astro. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astro. Decay Date: 2001-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 22521 . COSPAR: 1993-011A. Apogee: 646 km (401 mi). Perigee: 539 km (334 mi). Inclination: 31.1000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. X-ray imaging and astronomy. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of various astronomical objects (stars and galaxies) in the X-ray band. Launching organization ISAS. Launch time 0200 GMT. Astro-D 'ASCA'..

1993 February 21 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-16 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 216. Mass: 7,338 kg (16,177 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-16. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 33.65 days. Completed Operations Date: 1993-03-27 10:05:12 . Decay Date: 1993-03-27 10:05:12 . USAF Sat Cat: 22530 . COSPAR: 1993-012A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 23 Feb 1993 20:17:57 GMT. Undocked on 26 Mar 1993 06:50:00 GMT. Redocked with Mir on 1993-03-26 07:06:03 GMT. Final undocking on 1993-03-27 04:21:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 27 Mar 1993 10:25:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.33 days. Total docked time 31.32 days.


1993 February 24 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1993 February 25 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 February 26 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC42. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: STARS.
  • FTU-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SDC. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1993 February 27 - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion sounding rocket.
  • Strafam 3 / 21 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1993 February 28 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 March 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF ACC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 March 3 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1993 March 8 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 29 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 March 10 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT151GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF ACC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1993 March 10 - . 13:38 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 30 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 March 15 - .
  • Mir News 165: Mir-DAILY ROUTINE - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-16.

    After the docking of freighter Progress-M16 the crew continued their reparation and replacement work on the systems of the complex. They did not much experimental work apart from geophysical observations. They needed all their working time for technical maintenance. They repaired a number of gyrodynes and Manakov was positive about the results of that 'high priority' work. I hope that I was right for Manakov is a great optimist. The VDU (the external movements control motor in the Sofora- girder) is still unserviceable due to software problems. Of great concern for crew and experts remain the complicated systems to maintain the climate in that what is like an 'iron lung'. In contradiction to the 'iron lungs' for medical use this one has to feed and regenerate itself. Wear of parts of that complicated complex results in malfunctioning, so the crew repeatedly gets warnings about hitches, but also by more noise than originally had been foreseen. Daily they speak about the BKV-3, a system to restore the condition of the air. When the crew gets permission to switch that system off (getting the command G-24), they enjoy the silence. Polishchuk did a lot of repair work on that BKV-3.

    EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES (EVA-S):

    Shortly we can hear the crew speak about preparations for a series of 4 EVA-s. For the 1st one the 16th of April has been mentioned. During the first 3 EVA-s the cosmonauts will have to replace the solar panels from the Kristall module to the Kvant-1. The 4th one is for the removal of materials which for a long time had been exposed to the influences of open space. The solar panels have to be replaced to make future operations possible. To execute the planned docking operations of Buran and Space Shuttle to that Kristall module it has to be redocked to the forward axial (PKhO) docking port. A second reason to replace those solar panels is the fact that some solar panels hinder other ones. Daily the crew has to economise the power consumption of the complex. Polishchuk is responsible for that and in Manakov's opinion he is an expert in that field.

    MODULES:

    Possibly the plans for the launch of the Modules Priroda and Spektr have been altered. The first Module to be launched for a docking with Mir should be a technological one. So Priroda is 2d on schedule. This is a pity for Priroda is ready for launch.

    RETURN CAPSULES: Progress-M16 does not carry such a capsule and the use of such a container from Progress-M17 has not been planned. The return capsules are for 100% reliable, but due to the little amount of freight to be brought back, return capsule operations are too expensive.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 March 16 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • SPEAR 3 Active plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1993 March 17 - .
  • Death of Robert Aitken Rushworth at Camarillo, California. Died of natural causes, Camarillo, California. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rushworth. American test pilot. Selected as X-15 pilot in 1958, he made the most X-15 flights and obtained astronaut wings on X-15 Flight 87..

1993 March 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1993 March 21 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1993 March 22 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Columbia Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-55. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

    The countdown for Columbia's launch was halted by on-board computers at T-3 seconds following a problem with purge pressure readings in the oxidizer preburner on main engine #2 Columbia's three main engines were replaced on the launch pad, and the flight was rescheduled behind Discovery's launch on STS-56. Columbia finally launched on April 26, 1993.


1993 March 22 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 2.
  • Maruda Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE, INPE. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1993 March 24 - . 15:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1993 March 25 - . 02:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 29 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 42L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 22557 . COSPAR: 1993-013A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Raduga 29 joined Raduga 22. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg E in 1993-1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 11.13 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 61.26E drifting at 0.381E degrees per day.


1993 March 25 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC158. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • Start-1 - . Payload: EKA-1. Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Start satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 22561 . COSPAR: 1993-014A. Apogee: 964 km (599 mi). Perigee: 681 km (423 mi). Inclination: 75.8000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Test flight of new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. Full-scale mock-up (actual weight) for the flight-design testing of the Start-1 carrier rocket. Experimental satellite launched by a Start-1 carrier rocket from the Plesetsk launch site. .

1993 March 25 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I. FAILURE: Atlas engine failure. Loss of booster engine thrust resulted in a lower-than planned 1560 km x 1900 km orbit. Failed Stage: 1.
  • UHF F1 - . Payload: UHF F/O F1. Mass: 2,866 kg (6,318 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. Completed Operations Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22563 . COSPAR: 1993-015A. Apogee: 36,098 km (22,430 mi). Perigee: 36,053 km (22,402 mi). Inclination: 21.1000 deg. Period: 1,450.90 min.

    US Navy communications; Ultra High Frequency Follow On; unusable orbit. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle was to have put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option. As of 28 August 2001 located at 45.55 deg W drifting at 3.676 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 95.89E drifting at 3.687W degrees per day.


1993 March 26 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2237 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 15. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22565 . COSPAR: 1993-016A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1993 March 29 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1993 March 30 - . 03:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 90 - . Payload: GPS 2A-19 / GPS SVN 31. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22581 . COSPAR: 1993-017A. Apogee: 20,293 km (12,609 mi). Perigee: 20,072 km (12,472 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane C Slot 3..
  • SEDS 1 Deployer - . Payload: SEDS 1 Deployer. Mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Program: Navstar. Spacecraft: SEDS. Decay Date: 1999-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 22583 . COSPAR: 1993-017C. Apogee: 1,292 km (802 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 36.1000 deg. Period: 100.84 min.
  • SEDS 1 - . Payload: SEDS 1 End Mass/Tether. Mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: SEDS. Decay Date: 1993-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 22582 . COSPAR: 1993-017B. Apogee: 719 km (446 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 36.0000 deg. Period: 93.62 min. Small Expendable-tether Deployer System. .

1993 March 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2238 - . Payload: US-PU s/n 1. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 567.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 22585 . COSPAR: 1993-018A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. First launch of new EORSAT, first of at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node. Ocean surveillance..

1993 March 31 - . 03:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-17 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 217. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-16. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 337.00 days. Completed Operations Date: 1994-03-03 03:29:47 . Decay Date: 1994-03-03 03:29:47 . USAF Sat Cat: 22588 . COSPAR: 1993-019A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 362 km (224 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted docked and undocked longevity spacecraft longevity tests. Docked with Mir on 1 Apr 1993 05:16:18 GMT. Undocked on 11 Aug 1993 15:36:42 GMT. Destroyed in reentry over the South Atlantic on 3 Mar 1994 03:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 204.56 days. Total docked time 132.43 days.


1993 April 1 - . 18:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2239 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 22590 . COSPAR: 1993-020A. Apogee: 997 km (619 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 4 of constellation. Replaced Cosmos 2173..

1993 April 2 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant XII.
  • UCB Alaska '93 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,425 km (885 mi).

1993 April 2 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-40.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 950 km (590 mi).

1993 April 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2240 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 66.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 22592 . COSPAR: 1993-021A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1993 April 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1993 April 6 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2241 - . Payload: Oko #73. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 22594 . COSPAR: 1993-022A. Apogee: 36,804 km (22,868 mi). Perigee: 3,564 km (2,214 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 7 - 161 degree longitude of ascending node..

1993 April 7 - . 02:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1993 April 8 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-56 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Cameron, Cockrell, Foale, Ochoa, Oswald. Payload: Discovery F16 / Spartan 201-F1 / Atlas-2. Mass: 7,441 kg (16,404 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cameron, Cockrell, Foale, Ochoa, Oswald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-56. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.26 days. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 2, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) A, Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201 (Solar Wind Generation Experi-ment), Solar Ultraviolet Experiment (SUVE), Commercial Material Dispersion Apparatus (CMIX), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting, and Environmental System (HER-CULES), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Space Tissue Loss (STL), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III.

  • Atlas-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.
  • SPTN-SFSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

    Spartan Flight Support Structure was an MPESS class cross-bay truss structure on which Spartan 204 was mounted. The Spartan satellites were small free flyers deployed by the RMS robot arm for a couple of days and then retrieved. SPTN-204 carried NRL's FUVIS Far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph which was used to study the Shuttle environment and make astronomical observations. This was the first Spartan mission to be sponsored by the USAF Space Test Program rather than NASA.

  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,289 kg (2,841 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1993-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22623 . COSPAR: 1993-023B. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Studied solar corona and galaxy; deployed from STS-56 4/11/93; Shuttle Point Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy; retrieved 4/13/93..

1993 April 12 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NIXT Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1993 April 15 - .
  • Death of Nikolai Nikolayevich Smirnitskiy - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Smirnitskiy. Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1967-1975. Thereafter moved to Ministry of General Machine Building..

1993 April 16 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2242 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 73. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 22626 . COSPAR: 1993-024A. Apogee: 665 km (413 mi). Perigee: 629 km (390 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Ocean surveillance. Investigation of outer space. .

1993 April 17 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Colorado SXT X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi).

1993 April 17 - .
1993 April 19 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-560.
  • SPICE-3 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi).

1993 April 19 - . 17:15 GMT - .
1993 April 21 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-44 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 57. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2004-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 22633 . COSPAR: 1993-025A. Apogee: 39,603 km (24,608 mi). Perigee: 744 km (462 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Replaced Molniya 3-41..

1993 April 23 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1993 April 25 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello. Launch Complex: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Edwards.. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus.
  • Alexis - . Payload: Alexis (P 89-1B). Mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Alexis. USAF Sat Cat: 22638 . COSPAR: 1993-026A. Apogee: 746 km (463 mi). Perigee: 741 km (460 mi). Inclination: 69.8000 deg. Period: 99.70 min. Test of X-ray imaging sensors; solar array deployment malfunction. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..
  • Orbcomm OXP-2 - . Payload: VSUM. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroStar. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 22639 . COSPAR: 1993-026B. Apogee: 843 km (524 mi). Perigee: 752 km (468 mi). Inclination: 69.9160 deg. Period: 100.74 min. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ..

1993 April 26 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-55 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Harris, Henricks, Nagel, Precourt, Ross, Schlegel, Walter. Payload: Columbia F14/USS/Spacelab D-2 LM. Mass: 12,185 kg (26,863 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harris, Henricks, Nagel, Precourt, Ross, Schlegel, Walter. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-55. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 9.99 days. Decay Date: 1993-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 22640 . COSPAR: 1993-027A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. Payloads: Spacelab D-2 with long module, unique support structure (USS), and Reaction Kinetics in Glass Melts (RKGM) getaway special, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II..
  • Spacelab D-2 LM - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. COSPAR: 1993-027xx.

1993 April 27 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2243 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 16. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 22641 . COSPAR: 1993-028A. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Topographic mapping for the Army General Staff. Mission normally would have run 44 days..

1993 April 28 - . 03:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2244 - . Payload: US-PU s/n 2. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 657.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 22643 . COSPAR: 1993-029A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Second launch of new EORSAT, second of three stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node..

1993 April 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1993 May - .
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module proposed - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Mir, Mir-Shuttle Docking Module.

    In discussions regarding docking the US Shuttle with the Mir space station, NASA expressed concern about the clearances between the Shuttle and Mir's solar panels when using the docking port designed for Buran on the Kristall module. The Russians thought NASA overly cautious, but NPO Energia offered a solution - a modified version of the Buran SO, to be delivered by the Shuttle. The specialised SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. In the 1992 concept the module would be delivered by a Progress-M tug to Mir-2 and included a lateral EVA hatch.


1993 May 1 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 30 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DASA. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi).

1993 May 5 - .
1993 May 6 - . 15:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi).

1993 May 7 - . 02:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1993 May 11 - . 14:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2245 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 81. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22646 . COSPAR: 1993-030A. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,397 km (868 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2249 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 85. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22650 . COSPAR: 1993-030E. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2248 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 84. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22649 . COSPAR: 1993-030D. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,401 km (870 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2247 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 83. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22648 . COSPAR: 1993-030C. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,403 km (871 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2250 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 86. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22651 . COSPAR: 1993-030F. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,402 km (871 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2246 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 82. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22647 . COSPAR: 1993-030B. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,400 km (800 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.

1993 May 12 - . 00:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L.
  • Astra 1C - . Mass: 2,790 kg (6,150 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 22653 . COSPAR: 1993-031A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 1.2 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the third in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1A's backup. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.95-11.200 Ghz down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1A, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.21 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 4.54E drifting at 0.051E degrees per day.

  • Oscar 29 - . Payload: Arsene. Mass: 154 kg (339 lb). Nation: France. Agency: RACE. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 22654 . COSPAR: 1993-031B. Apogee: 36,582 km (22,730 mi). Perigee: 17,469 km (10,854 mi). Inclination: 5.3000 deg. Period: 1,012.60 min. Operated by Radio Amateur Club de LeSpace..

1993 May 13 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 91 - . Payload: GPS 2A-20 / GPS SVN 37. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22657 . COSPAR: 1993-032A. Apogee: 20,345 km (12,641 mi). Perigee: 20,017 km (12,437 mi). Inclination: 55.1000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane C Slot 4..

1993 May 14 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 31 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 May 19 - . 00:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 32 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 May 20 - . 13:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1993 May 21 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Resurs F-17 - . Payload: Resurs-F2 17F42 s/n 9. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F2. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 22663 . COSPAR: 1993-033A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth for the various branches of the national economy, the solution of environmental problems, and international cooperation. .

1993 May 22 - . 06:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-18 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 218. Mass: 7,348 kg (16,199 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-16. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 43.44 days. Completed Operations Date: 1993-07-04 17:14:25 . Decay Date: 1993-07-04 17:14:25 . USAF Sat Cat: 22666 . COSPAR: 1993-034A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Last launch using Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle. Docked with Mir's front port on 24 May 1993 08:24:44 GMT. In addition to other supplies, carried repair equipment for a spacewalk device damaged a month before. Undocked on 3 Jul 1993 15:58:16 GMT, with Soyuz TM-17 docking at the same port only minutes later at 17:45 GMT. Meanwhile, Progress M-17 remained docked to the Kvant rear port on a longevity test. Progress M-18 was destroyed in reentry on 4 Jul 1993 17:13:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.12 days. Total docked time 40.31 days.


1993 May 23 - . 09:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Family: Talos. Launch Vehicle: Space Data LCLV.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi).

1993 May 26 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-86 - . Payload: Molniya-1T s/n 81. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 22671 . COSPAR: 1993-035A. Apogee: 38,681 km (24,035 mi). Perigee: 1,676 km (1,041 mi). Inclination: 64.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Replaced Molniya 1-81..

1993 May 26 - . 09:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • Aerospatiale test - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 May 27 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Second stage did not reach planned velocity. Cause determined to be propellant contamination.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Gorizont s/n 39L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 39L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont.

1993 May 28 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Family: Talos. Launch Vehicle: Space Data LCLV.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi).

1993 May 29 - . Launch Site: Gitdaeryung. Launch Vehicle: Nodong 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Korea North. Agency: CMIK. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1993 May 29 - . Launch Site: Gitdaeryung. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Hwasong 6.
1993 May 29 - . Launch Site: Gitdaeryung. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Hwasong 6.
1993 May 30 - . Launch Site: Gitdaeryung. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: Hwasong 6.
1993 June 1 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: S-75. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1993 June 4 - . Launch Site: Anhueng. LV Family: KSR. Launch Vehicle: KSR-I.
  • Ozone profile mission - . Nation: Korea South. Agency: KARI. Apogee: 39 km (24 mi). Ultraviolet radiometer to measure vertical ozone distribution in the stratosphere over the Korean peninsula. Rocket performance also monitored..

1993 June 9 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1993 June 13 - .
  • Death of Donald Kent 'Deke' Slayton at League City, Texas. Natural causes - Complications from a brain tumour. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Slayton. American test pilot astronaut. Slated to fly third Mercury mission, grounded due to a medical issue and became astronaut commander, assigning crews for lunar landings. Later finally flew on Apollo (ASTP)..

1993 June 15 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • RSLP TDT-1 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1993 June 16 - .
  • Death of Shen Qizhen - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Shen Qizhen. Chinese PLA Physician. Chairman of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, one of three senior scientists that laid out plans for the first Chinese manned spacecraft in April 1966..

1993 June 16 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2251 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 22675 . COSPAR: 1993-036A. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 778 km (483 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. Replaced Cosmos 2112. Inactive when it collided with Iridium 33 at 16:56 GMT on 10 February 2009, destroying both satellites and creating a debris cloud im MEO..

1993 June 16 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1993 June 18 - . 17:25 GMT - .
1993 June 21 - . 13:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-57 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Currie, Duffy, Grabe, Low, Voss, Janice, Wisoff. Payload: Endeavour F04 / GBA-5. Mass: 8,931 kg (19,689 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Currie, Duffy, Grabe, Low, Voss, Janice, Wisoff. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-57. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 9.99 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037A. Apogee: 471 km (292 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.30 min.

    Manned six crew. Carried Spacehab 1; retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. Payloads: Spacehab 01, retrieval of European Retriev-able Carrier (EURECA) Satellite, Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT), Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP)-IV, Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), GAS bridge assembly with 12 getaway special payloads.

  • Spacehab SH-01 - . Payload: Spacehab 1. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: Spacehab. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037xx. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.
  • SHOOT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SHOOT. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037xx. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Demonstration, an experiment carried on the space shuttle STS-57 mission in June 1993. The experiment transferred a superfluid between two dewars in a low gravity environment at different flow rates..
  • GBA-5 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: GBA. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22684 . COSPAR: 1993-037xx. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

1993 June 22 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: Sitting on Top of the World - . Flight: STS-57. "Sitting on Top of the World" by Les Paul and Mary Ford.

1993 June 22 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO, OSC. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1993 June 23 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: The Smurfs - . Flight: STS-57. "The Smurfs" in honor of Mission Specialist Nancy Sherlock, nicknamed"Smurf"..

1993 June 24 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: Rendezvous - . Flight: STS-57. "Rendezvous" by The Hudson Brothers.

1993 June 24 - . 04:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2252 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 87. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22687 . COSPAR: 1993-038A. Apogee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Perigee: 1,403 km (871 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2255 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 90. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22690 . COSPAR: 1993-038D. Apogee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2253 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 88. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22688 . COSPAR: 1993-038B. Apogee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Perigee: 1,408 km (874 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 2254 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 89. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22689 . COSPAR: 1993-038C. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,393 km (865 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2256 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 91. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22691 . COSPAR: 1993-038E. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,400 km (800 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2257 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 92. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22692 . COSPAR: 1993-038F. Apogee: 1,421 km (882 mi). Perigee: 1,407 km (874 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.

1993 June 25 - .
  • EVA STS-57-1 - . Crew: Low, Wisoff. EVA Duration: 0.24 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, Wisoff. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-57. Spacecraft: Endeavour, HST. Latched Eureca antenna. Conducted tests to refine procedures for servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station.

1993 June 25 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: The Walk of Life - . Flight: STS-57. "The Walk of Life" by Dire Straits in honor of upcoming space walk.

1993 June 25 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P.
  • Galaxy 4 - . Payload: Galaxy 4H. Mass: 2,988 kg (6,587 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 22694 . COSPAR: 1993-039A. Apogee: 35,829 km (22,263 mi). Perigee: 35,743 km (22,209 mi). Inclination: 3.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Geostationary at 99 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg W in 1993-1998 As of 6 September 2001 located at 76.26 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 77.40E drifting at 0.010E degrees per day.


1993 June 25 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Resurs F-18 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 57. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 17.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 22696 . COSPAR: 1993-040A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. .

1993 June 25 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G-1.
  • Radcal - . Mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Radcal. USAF Sat Cat: 22698 . COSPAR: 1993-041A. Apogee: 882 km (548 mi). Perigee: 753 km (467 mi). Inclination: 89.6000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Radar calibration. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1993 June 26 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: Holiday - . Flight: STS-57. "Holiday" by Madonna ÷"to suggest the crew take some time to celebrate the success of their mission".

1993 June 26 - . 13:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 92 - . Payload: GPS 2A-21 / GPS SVN 39. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22700 . COSPAR: 1993-042A. Apogee: 20,250 km (12,580 mi). Perigee: 20,112 km (12,496 mi). Inclination: 54.6000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane A Slot 1..
  • PMG - . Payload: Plasma Motor Generator. Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Program: Navstar. Spacecraft: PMG. Decay Date: 1993-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 22701 . COSPAR: 1993-042B. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 25.7000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.
  • PMG Far End Package - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDSSC. Program: Navstar. Spacecraft: PMG. COSPAR: 1993-042xx.

1993 June 27 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: I Got You (I Feel Good) - . Flight: STS-57. "I Got You (I Feel Good)" by James Brown,"÷a favorite tune of Payload Commander David Low..

1993 June 28 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: Catch a Falling Star - . Flight: STS-57. "Catch a Falling Star" by Perry Como..

1993 June 30 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Yeltsin cancels Buran project - . Nation: Russia. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Buran. No known mission (with the end of SDI and the cold war) - plus the project manager was one of the 1991 coup plotters. Total cost 20 billion rubles at time of cancellation.. Additional Details: here....

1993 July 1 - . Launch Site: Warren AFB.
  • Air Force Space Command assumed responsibility for intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)†mission from Air Combat Command (ACC), and gained F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. - . Nation: USA.

1993 July 1 - .
  • Death of Werner Voss - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Voss, Werner. German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1993 July 1 - .
  • STS-57 - Wakeup Song: I'll Be Home For Christmas - . Flight: STS-57.

    "I'll Be Home For Christmas" The mission was extended twice to wait for acceptable landing weather in Florida. On July 1st if the weather was acceptable it would land in Florida, otherwise it would be sent to California. So it wasn't a question of whether they would land that day but where. Of course after that many delays the crew may have wondered when they would finally make it home... Capcom Susan Helms played"I'll Be Home For Christmas". Given that it was July 1st they presumably did make it home in time.


1993 July 1 - . 14:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-17 - . Call Sign: Sirius (Sirius ). Crew: Haignere, Serebrov, Tsibliyev. Backup Crew: Afanasyev, Andre-Deshays, Usachyov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 66. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Andre-Deshays, Haignere, Serebrov, Tsibliyev, Usachyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-16, Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-17 Altair. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 196.74 days. Decay Date: 1994-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 22704 . COSPAR: 1993-043A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Mir Expedition EO-14. Carried Vasili Tsibliyev, Alexander Serebrov, Jean-Pierre Haignere to Mir; returned Serebrov, Tsibliyev to Earth. Progress M-18 undocked from Mir's front port at around 17:25 GMT on July 3, and Soyuz TM-17 docked at the same port only 20 minutes later at 17:45 GMT.


1993 July 1 - .
1993 July 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT152GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1993 July 3 - . 02:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1993 July 4 - .
  • Mir News 178: Soyuz-TM17 docked to Mir space station - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-16, Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-17 Altair.

    This ship with on board the relief crew and the Frenchman Haignere docked to Mir (forward docking port) on 3.07.93 at 1624 UTC. The docking took place in the automatic mode (Kurs-system). Before Soyuz-TM17 began her final approach the freighter Progress-M17 had to undock. So a few minutes before the final approach Progress-M17 undocked and was brought in a safe distance from Mir. This happened before Mir, Soyuz-TM17 and Progress-M17 came in our range. During the pass in orb. 42169, 1607-1612 UTC, radio traffic could be monitored on 121.750 mc and 143.625 mc. Serebrov reported that he would obey the order to go into the landing module immediately. Neither of the crews commented the final approach. There had been a long transmission via Altair, which ended a few minutes before docking. Good images of the complex (by Soyuz-TM17's cameras) and the docking port could be seen. During the pass in orb. 42170, 1742 UTC, it was obvious that all was well: the hatches had been opened and the first meeting between the 2 crews had already taken place. Mir started to transmit to TsUP the video recordings of the approach and the welcome of the new crew. All cosmonauts, also Tsibliyev, Serebrov and Haignere, could be heard via 143.625 mc. During this pass Mir also transmitted on 145.550 mc. Via the digital memory microphone Polishchuk could be heard with a greeting of P. and Manakov to a conference of radio-amateurs in (probably) St. Petersburg. During the next pass (orb. 42171, 1915 UTC, Mir transmitted on 145.550, 143.625 and 144.475 mc. After a CQ-call in Russian and English, Haignere spoke in French with the radio-amateur Francis, FC1OKN.

    Altair: From 4.07 until 22.07.93 Haignere, in co-operation with his Russian colleagues, will conduct experiments in the framework of the French scientific program Altair.

    Spacewalks: If all goes according to previous planning the new crew (the 14th main expedition to the Mir station) will make 3 spacewalks.

    Progress-M17: This freighter still flew autonomously in the night from 3 to 4.07.93 and was visually observed by Mr. Wim Holwerda (Working group artificial satellites) during Mir's pass in orb. 42174, 2227 UTC, at abt. 8 KM behind Mir. Wim also saw the 3d stage of the rocket which gave Soyuz-TM17 the last 'push' on 1.07.93. Progress-M17 carries a return capsule. In a next Mir-report I hope to tell somewhat about the fate of Progress-M17 and that capsule.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 July 6 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1993 July 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 7 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2258 - . Payload: US-PY s/n 3. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 603.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22709 . COSPAR: 1993-044A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Third launch of new EORSAT, final of three stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node. Ocean surveillance..

1993 July 11 - .
  • Death of Sergei Yuriyevich Vozovikov at Rayon Anapa, Russia. Drowned during recovery training in the Black Sea. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Vozovikov. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1993. Graduated from Higher Military Pilot School, Armavir, 1979 Cosmonaut training 1 October 1990 - 6 March 1992..

1993 July 12 - . 19:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1993 July 14 - . 03:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 14 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2259 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 22716 . COSPAR: 1993-045A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1993 July 15 - .
  • Mir News 179: MISSION ALTAIR - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-16, Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-17 Altair.

    This French scientific mission goes according to plan. Haignere stated that all experiments are going well. The only problem is the fact that they have a lot of work to do. On 14.07.93 due to their work a direct TV-report in which a conversation with President Mitterand had to be cancelled or did not take place due to lack of comm. channels. H. is feeling well. No space sickness, no headache or other pains, he sleeps well and has a good appetite. H. praises the good amicable sphere among the crew members, which guarantees a good co-operation. H., call F6Mir, enjoys the possibilities of radio-amateurism: as soon as France is in range he has long conversations with French radio-amateurs. On 11.07.93 in orb. 42293, 1324 UTC, he also got the opportunity to speak with his parents. He had to ask one of the amateurs to leave the frequency (144.475 mc) for he was not able to hear his mother. On this frequency also a lot of P/R traffic. H.'s presence on board Mir caused a remarkable increase of French amateur-calls on Mir's P/R.

    Mir-crew: Manakov is still captain of the Mir-complex and this he shows clearly. During every pass he tightly holds the microphone. Now and then Polishchuk and Serebrov can be heard; Tsybliyev, who has to take over command one of these days, rarely speaks with TsUP.

    Progress-M17: During the experiment 'Rodeo' on 3.07.93 this freighter undocked from the Mir station while Soyuz-TM17 was waiting for the docking port freed by Progress-M17. Progress-M17 undocked at 1553 UTC. Soyuz-TM17 docked to Mir at 1624 UTC. The return-capsule of Progress-M17 landed safely in Kazakhstan at 1802 UTC.

    Soyuz-TM16: With this ship, now still attached to the Kristall- Module, Manakov, Polishchuk and Haignere will return to earth on 22.07.93. The landing is expected at about 0630 UTC.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 July 16 - .
  • Mir News 180: Movements of Progress-M's and Soyuz-TM's - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-16, Soyuz TM-17, Soyuz TM-17 Altair.

    Movements of Progress-M's and Soyuz-TM's in the near future:

    Progress-M18: Will undock from Mir and decay in the atmosphere on 24.07.93 (so 2 days after the departure of Soyuz-TM16).

    Progress-M19: Launch from Baykonur on 27.07.93.

    Progress-M20: Launch from Baykonur on 12.10.93.

    Soyuz-TM18 : Launch from Baykonur with crew Afanasyev and Usachov on 16.11.93.

    Progress-M21: Launch from Baykonur on 30.11.93.

    In May 1994 there will be a flight of a Soyuz-TM to Mir with on board Malenchenko and Strekalov. (Strekalov replaced Kaleri, because he has more experience than Kaleri.) The 3d crew member will be a physician for a long duration flight of one and a half year. For this flight 3 physicians are selected, one of them will fly, namely Polyakov, Arzamazov and Morukov.

    The Russians have the intention to launch Module Spektr on 20.12.93 for a flight to Mir. This long expected extension will be welcomed by the crew of the 15th Main expedition to Mir: Afanasyev and Usachov.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 July 17 - .
  • Death of Vladimir Pavlovich Barmin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Barmin. Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1993 of GSKB SpetsMash; pre-eminent Soviet designer of rocket launch complexes..

1993 July 19 - .
1993 July 19 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II.
  • USA 93 - . Payload: DSCS III B-9. Mass: 2,615 kg (5,765 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 22719 . COSPAR: 1993-046A. Apogee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 26.1000 deg. Period: 625.80 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 175 deg E in 1995-1997.


1993 July 21 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1993 July 22 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant X.
  • WISP 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1993 July 22 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2260 - . Payload: Zenit-8 / Oblik no. 3. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 22721 . COSPAR: 1993-047A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule. Also photography of the earth's surface for the purpose of the natural resource mapping and area monitoring on behalf of various branches of the Russian economy and in the interests of international cooperation. Alternate name: Resurs-T.


1993 July 22 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Hispasat-1B - . Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Hispasat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Hispasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 22723 . COSPAR: 1993-048A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 30 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 30 deg W in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 30.13 deg W drifting at 0.024 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 157.75E drifting at 1.953W degrees per day..
  • Insat 2B - . Mass: 1,931 kg (4,257 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 22724 . COSPAR: 1993-048B. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also acted as communications platform; carried search and rescue package. INSAT-2B is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long range communications, meteorological Earth observation and data collection service, Direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV recievers in rural and re mote areas, Radio and TV programme distribution, satellite aided search and rescue services. Inclination will be reduced to 0.1 deg and maintained. Geostationary longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg E. Launch on Arianespace flight 58. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.47 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 63.82W drifting at 1.099W degrees per day.


1993 July 22 - .
1993 July 23 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 26 - .
  • Mir News 182: Ham-work during successfully accomplished Altair mission - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    Jean-Pierre, F6Mir, was an enthusiastic and skilled amateur. In this field he did not yield to Tognini during his flight in 1992. H. made all his QSO-s in the proper way and during the last day of his flight he told in a CQ-message that he had been pleased by radio-amateurism and he expressed his gratitude to all amateurs with whom he had been in contact. He was not pleased about an Italian amateur, who, using a very strong signal, often blocked the uplink too long. He limited H's possibilities to make more QSO-s with French and other amateurs.

    Mir-crews: On 16.7.93 the control over the Mir-station had been transferred to the new crew: Tsibliyev took care of the attitude control and Serebrov had replaced Polishchuk as board-engineer. Manakov and Polishchuk prepared their return flight. Their main concern was to find room in Soyuz-TM16 for all what they had to bring back to earth. Thoroughly they checked the on board systems of that ship and rehearsed the procedures for the navigation during and after the undocking from Mir on 22.07.93. A physician at TsUP regularly checked the health of M. and P.

    New crew: As of 22.07.93 Tsibliyev and Serebrov are working strenuously. They are busy with a lot of important repairs and replacements. Obviously they have to solve all problems with the attitude(movements-) control of the complex. (Gyrodynes and the VDU motor in the Sofora-girder). They already work on the Gyrodynes. It is a pleasure to hear the new crew: undoubtedly excellent cosmonauts. Quite normal for S.: this is his 4th flight, but the novice T. acts as if he has a long experience in space.

    Progress-M18 and M19: Recently the decay of the first freighter (M18) still was on schedule for 24.07.93. This has been put back. Though still not for 100% sure the plan is to undock Progress-M18 on 8.08.93 after the launch that same day of Progress-M19. If this happens it will be a novelty: for a while 2 freighters flying autonomously in space.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 July 27 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse CE. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • BLANC Imaging mission - . Nation: France. Agency: Toulouse. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1993 July 28 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1993 July 30 - .
  • Death of Prasthofer - . Nation: Germany, USA. Related Persons: Prasthofer. German-American engineer and rocket technician in World War II; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 to 1955. He returned briefly to Graz, Austria, and then went to work with von Braun's team at Huntsville, Alabama..

1993 July 30 - . 06:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • Nation: Sweden. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1993 August - .
  • Galileo passes by asteroid Ida - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Galileo. Spacecraft: Galileo probe. This was the second flyby of an asteroid..

1993 August 1 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • SCT-06 (CONE) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NDRE. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 August 2 - . 01:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • SSC Decimals B Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR, SSC. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1993 August 2 - . 19:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 403A. FAILURE: Radial cut inadvertently made in SRM during repairs resulted in explosion of SRM and vehicle at T+101 seconds.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • NOSS 19 - . Payload: Intruder 3. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Intruder. Decay Date: 1993-08-02 . Apogee: 33 km (20 mi). Third attempted launch by Titan 4 of new generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. No known launches of this system thereafter..
  • SSU - . Payload: Intruder 3. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Spacecraft: Intruder. Apogee: 33 km (20 mi).
  • SSU - . Payload: Intruder 3. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Spacecraft: Intruder. Apogee: 33 km (20 mi).

1993 August 3 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1993 August 4 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-45 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 58. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2013-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 22729 . COSPAR: 1993-049A. Apogee: 37,920 km (23,560 mi). Perigee: 2,500 km (1,500 mi). Inclination: 64.4000 deg. Period: 719.10 min. Operation of the long range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system. Replaced Molniya 3-37..

1993 August 6 - .
  • Death of Milton Orville 'Milt' Thompson at Lancaster, California. Natural causes. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. Flew lifting bodies, X-15, assigned as X-20 spaceplane astronaut..

1993 August 9 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 13 - . Payload: NOAA I. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 22739 . COSPAR: 1993-050A. Apogee: 860 km (530 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1993 August 10 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2261 - . Payload: Oko #74. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2012-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 22741 . COSPAR: 1993-051A. Apogee: 35,967 km (22,348 mi). Perigee: 4,370 km (2,710 mi). Inclination: 66.6000 deg. Period: 717.40 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 235 degree longitude of ascending node..

1993 August 10 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-19 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 219. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-17. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 69.08 days. Completed Operations Date: 1993-10-20 00:17:41 . Decay Date: 1993-10-20 00:17:41 . USAF Sat Cat: 22745 . COSPAR: 1993-052A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir at the Kvant rear port on 13 Aug 1993 00:00:06 GMT. Undocked on 13 Oct 1993 17:59:06 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Oct 1993 00:22:14 GMT. Total free-flight time 7.33 days. Total docked time 61.75 days..

1993 August 11 - .
  • Mir News 184: Progress-M19 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    This freighter has been launched from Baykonur on 10.08.93 at 2223 UTC (for Moscow and TsUP-time already 11.08.93) for a 2-days flight to the Mir-station. Perhaps there has been a slight delay for I expected the launch at 2216 UTC. Somewhat later than expected I monitored the transmissions of Progress-M19 on 922.755 mc and in the 166 and 165 mc bands between 0256 and 0301 UTC. To enable Progress-M19 to dock to the forward docking port of Mir (transition section P.Kh.O.) the old Progress-M still docked to that port has to disappear soon. This undocking is scheduled for 11.08.93 at 1534 UTC.

    Perseid-meteorites: These meteorites coming from the comet Swift- Tuttle are visible (clouds permitting) around 12 august every year. Thus far clouds did not permit this for us this year, but the Mir-cosmonauts, not hindered by clouds or fog, were able to see the meteorites. Tsibliyev, the captain of the Mir-station, reported during the pass in orbit 42770, 11.08.93, 0452-0503 UTC, that they saw a little bit of it. He added that he had to report some 'battle wounds'. He told TsUP that the station had been hit by 4 particles obviously coming from that meteorite-rain. They caused minor damages to 2 solar batteries (on the base block and on Kristall - Module-T) and to one of the portholes. The window of that porthole showed a cavern with a diameter of 2 a 3 mm. T. nor TsUP did not show any concern. To be realistic: thus far we have to do with minor particles, but bigger particles can cause serious damages to space-ships and stations, even leakage and consequently decompression. In my opinion the recent experience of the Mir-crew fully justifies NASA's decision to put back the launch of Space shuttle Discovery until 12.08.93 due to concern for that meteorite-storm.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 August 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Discovery Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery.

    The countdown for Discovery's third launch attempt ended at the T-3 second mark when on-board computers detected the failure of one of four sensors in main engine #2 which monitor the flow of hydrogen fuel to the engine. All of Discovery's main engines were ordered replaced on the launch pad, delaying the Shuttle's fourth launch attempt until September 12, 1993.


1993 August 13 - .
  • Mir News 185: Progress-M19 docked to Mir-space station - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    This freighter with food, water, fuel, post, spare parts, etc. docked to the forward docking port transition section -P.Kh.O.) on 13 Aug. 1993 at 0000 UTC. So 4 minutes after LOS for our position. The approach in orb. 42799, 12 Aug. 2351-2356 UTC, the cosmonauts visually observed the Progress-M19. At 2356 UTC Progress-M19 was on a distance of 25 M and the appr. speed was 0.85M/sec. The operation passed off smoothly and already during the pass in the next orb. (42800, 0129-0133 UTC) Tsibliyev reported the hermetic air-seal and the opening of the hatch to Progress-M19. In the pass during orb. 42801, 0304-0309 UTC, the cosmonauts expressed their gratitude for all what Progress-M19 delivered, but in Serebrov's opinion the Progress-M19 was 'too empty'. He said that only 66% of the cargo-volume had been utilised. Nevertheless he was satisfied about the post, the new paper (or: ribbon) for the RTTY printer and the renewed instructions for evacuation in case of emergency.

    Perseid-meteorites: So the crew just had to work during 3 night shifts: 2 due to the meteorite-storm and 1 for the Progress-M19. In the night from 11 to 12 Aug. they enjoyed the sight of the meteorite-rain. They spoke about 'fireballs' and stopped counting them for it really was a rain. The night before they also observed this phenomenon, which was less spectacular then. Unfortunately they again had to report collisions with small particles and damages. S. and T. expressed their relief that all was over now and that they survived the meteorite-bombardments.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 August 17 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • SERTS-93 (05) Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi).

1993 August 18 - . 22:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Verified flight control systems and vertical landing capabilities. Reached 46 m altitude in a 59 second flight..

1993 August 20 - . 18:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 739. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 August 22 - .
  • Communications lost with Mars observor - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mars Observer.

    Communications was lost with the spacecraft on August 22, 1993 as it was preparing to go into orbit around Mars, and no significant scientific data was returned. Later investigation indicated this was due to a propulsion system explosion caused by propellants leaking past faulty valves.


1993 August 24 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Resurs F-19 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 56. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 17.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 22777 . COSPAR: 1993-053A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. .

1993 August 25 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC42. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: STARS.
  • Zodiac Beauchamp Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SDC. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1993 August 26 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1993 August 28 - .
1993 August 30 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 94 - . Payload: GPS 2A-22 / GPS SVN 35. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22779 . COSPAR: 1993-054A. Apogee: 20,255 km (12,585 mi). Perigee: 20,110 km (12,490 mi). Inclination: 54.9000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane B Slot 4..

1993 August 31 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT153GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1993 August 31 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 2-21 - . Payload: Meteor-2 s/n 24. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22782 . COSPAR: 1993-055A. Apogee: 967 km (600 mi). Perigee: 936 km (581 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 104.10 min.

    Obtaining meteorological data and information on the radiation status of geovicinal outer space. The satellite included the Temisat German small space facility, which was separated from Meteor-2 on the seventh transit of the flight. Western interceptions of Meteor 2-21's transmissions indicated that the spacecraft did not perform as well as earlier vehicles in the series, particularly with regard to image quality and stable signal strength. The spacecraft operated through the end of 1994 on 137.400 MHz and 137.850 MHz, switching when required to avoid interference with other Russian Earth observation spacecraft.

  • Temisat - . Payload: Temisat / S5M. Mass: 42 kg (92 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Telespazio. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Blackbird-350. Spacecraft: Temisat. USAF Sat Cat: 22783 . COSPAR: 1993-055B. Apogee: 967 km (600 mi). Perigee: 936 km (581 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 104.10 min.

    The Temisat micro-satellite was a piggyback payload designed to collect and re-transmit environmental data from terrestrial sensors and was separated from Meteor-2-21 on the seventh transit of the flight. Temisat was registered by the Telespazio Italian partner in agreement with the Kaiser-Threde Company (Munich). Environmental measurements were acquired through ground sensors, collected, temporarily stored on the ground, and logged by an autonomous terminal until upload request is received from TEMISAT.Characteristics: (a) Mass 42 kg (b) Dimension 35 x 35 x 35 cm, (c) Electric power 62 W Max, (d) Attitude control : 2 magnetic coil, 1 Am**2, (e) On-board memories - 2 of 8.5 Mbytes each, (f) Lifetime 5 years. Drift of the ascending node of orbital plane: 0.8 deg/d westwards. Copassenger of METEOR 2 satellite.


1993 September 1 - . Launch Site: Anhueng. LV Family: KSR. Launch Vehicle: KSR-I.
  • Ozone profile mission - . Nation: Korea South. Agency: KARI. Apogee: 49 km (30 mi). Ultraviolet radiometer to measure vertical ozone distribution in the stratosphere over the Korean peninsula. Rocket performance also monitored..

1993 September 3 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I.
  • USA 95 - . Payload: UHF F/O F2. Mass: 2,844 kg (6,269 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 22787 . COSPAR: 1993-056A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    US Navy communications. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg E in 1993-1999.


1993 September 7 - .
  • Death of Dmitri Alekseyevich Polukhin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Polukhin. Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1973-1993 of Chelomei design bureau Filial 1. Led the development of Proton..

1993 September 7 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Cosmos 2262 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 5. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 102.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 22789 . COSPAR: 1993-057A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited. First launch that demonstrated doubled operational life..

1993 September 10 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 33 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 September 11 - . 17:12 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Ascent and landing mode control and ground effects survey. Reached 92 m in a 66 second flight..

1993 September 12 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bursch, Culbertson, Newman, Readdy, Walz. Payload: Discovery F17 / ACTS [TOS-21H] / Orfeus-SPAS 01. Mass: 19,360 kg (42,680 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bursch, Culbertson, Newman, Readdy, Walz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.84 days. Decay Date: 1993-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22795 . COSPAR: 1993-058A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance. First night landing at KSC. Payloads: Advanced Communication Technology Sat-ellite (ACTS)/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet SpectrometeróShuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) with Remote IMAX Camera System (RICS), Limited Duration Space Environ-ment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE) (Beam Configuration C), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG Block II), Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy-A (HRSGS-A), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equip-ment (RME-III), Air Force Maui Optical Site Cal-ibration Test (AMOS), IMAX In-Cabin Camera.

  • ACTS - . Payload: Discovery F17 / ACTS [TOS-21H] / Orfeus-SPAS 01. Mass: 2,767 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Cleveland. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 22796 . COSPAR: 1993-058B. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NASA experimental communications; Advanced Communications Technology Satellite; deployed from STS-51 9/12/93; 100 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 100 deg W in 1993-1999 105 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 105.36 deg W drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 105.14W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

  • ORFEUS-SPAS - . Payload: ASTRO-SPAS 01. Mass: 3,202 kg (7,059 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SPAS. Decay Date: 1993-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22798 . COSPAR: 1993-058C. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. Deployed from STS-51..

1993 September 13 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Please Release Me - . Flight: STS-51.

    "Please Release Me" by Elvis Presley. In preparation for deployment of ORFEUS-SPAS payload. The singer was actually well known Elvis impersonator Carl Walz on his maiden spaceflight. He had the unusual distinction of hearing his own voice singing for his first wakeup in space.


1993 September 13 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • CWAS 34 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 September 14 - .
  • Mir News 186: SPACE-WALKS (EVA-S) - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    Some weeks ago TsUP announced that the 3 EVA-s, which had been planned for Sept. this year had been put back and that this crew (the 14th main expedition to Mir) would not make any EVA-s at all. Later on there happened to be a plan to execute an EVA on 10.09.93. This EVA has been put back also. Meanwhile it was obvious that 1 or more EVA-s are badly needed for the inspection of the outer surface of the whole complex. Experts even considered the use of the SPK (MMU) for EVA-s. Board- engineer Serebrov knows how to fly with the SPK: he was the first cosmonaut to fly with it on 1.02.90. Radio traffic during recent passes revealed that the crew is preparing an EVA. Whether they will use the SPK or not is not clear.

    CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSEID METEORITE STREAM ON 12.08.93:

    After a long period of silence the Russians officially admitted that the station suffered from hits caused by minuscule particles during the Perseid-meteorite stream. One hit even caused a hole in a solar battery with the diameter of appr. 6 cm. Meanwhile messages and questions about the damages reached the Mir crew by amateur radio. Experts are evaluating the eventual influence of the damages on the power supply of the complex. The crew cannot see the whole outer surface of the station from inside and so EVA-s must be carried out to inspect it thoroughly.

    RADIO-AMATEUR TRAFFIC:

    For some weeks again a lot of Packet radio tfc on 145.550 mc. Sometimes there are also calls by 'phone' on that frequency. On 12 and 13.09.93 the crew used 145.500 mc to contact the Irish amateur EI3SI by speech.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 September 14 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Changes in Attitudes, Changes in Latitudes - . Flight: STS-51. "Changes in Attitudes, Changes in Latitudes" by Jimmy Buffett.

1993 September 15 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Don't Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes - . Flight: STS-51. "Don't Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes" by Perry Como.

1993 September 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 September 16 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Walk, Don't Run - . Flight: STS-51. "Walk, Don't Run".

1993 September 16 - . 05:57 GMT - .
1993 September 16 - . 07:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2263 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 16. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22802 . COSPAR: 1993-059A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1993 September 16 - . 08:40 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-51-1 - . Crew: Newman, Walz. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman, Walz. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1993 September 16 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: TR-1. Launch Vehicle: TR-1A.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi).

1993 September 17 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Theme for the Common Man - . Flight: STS-51. "Theme for the Common Man" with videotape views of Earth by crew beat Mission Control's wakeup call. Of course the videotape views of the Earth are just on the flight day highlights. On the shuttle they just hear the music..

1993 September 17 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2264 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 4. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 564.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 22808 . COSPAR: 1993-060A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. EORSAT, first of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 215 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Ocean surveillance..

1993 September 18 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: A Whole New World - . Flight: STS-51. "A Whole New World" played to Mission Control followed by"Star Wars Theme" sent to Discovery..

1993 September 19 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Rendezvous - . Flight: STS-51. "Rendezvous" by Hudson Brothers.

1993 September 20 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Heartbreak Hotel - . Flight: STS-51. "Heartbreak Hotel" by astronaut band Max-Q..

1993 September 20 - . 03:51 GMT - .
1993 September 20 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. FAILURE: Software error caused vehicle to go off course.. Failed Stage: G.
  • IRS-1E - . Payload: IRS-1E. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS.

1993 September 21 - .
  • STS-51 - Wakeup Song: Surfin' Safari - . Flight: STS-51. "Surfin' Safari" by The Beach Boys .

1993 September 22 - .
  • Mir News 189: 3d Spacewalk (EVA) put back - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    Until 22.09.93 the cosmonauts made preparations for an EVA on 24.09.93. During that EVA they had to execute the program 'Panorama', which is an inspection of the outer surface of the station by camera's. On 22.09.93 TsUP announced that the EVA had been put back to 28.09.93. A reason for the delay has not been stated. Possibly the unstable political situation in Moscow has something to do with it, but technical reasons are also possible. On 22.09.93 the crew worked on a problem with a pressure-valve (KVD) of the airlock (Sh.S.O.) in Module-D.

    Mir-station hit by a particle from outer space:

    On 21.09.93 at abt. 1205 UTC, while the station was near the equator, Tsibliyev heard the clap of a particle colliding with Mir's outer surface. The impact caused a little cloud of dust and released some pieces of paint of the wall. Tsibliyev heard the impact while he was flying from Kvant-1 to the Base Block. Serebrov, who was working in Module-D, did not hear it.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 September 22 - .
1993 September 23 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: MT-135.
  • NNP-O3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1993 September 24 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Vehicle: MT-135.
  • NNP-O3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1993 September 26 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40.
  • SPOT 3 - . Payload: Spot 3. Mass: 1,907 kg (4,204 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Program: SPOT. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: SPOT-1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22823 . COSPAR: 1993-061A. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 821 km (510 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Remote sensing..
  • Stella - . Payload: Stella. Mass: 48 kg (105 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: STELLA. USAF Sat Cat: 22824 . COSPAR: 1993-061B. Apogee: 805 km (500 mi). Perigee: 797 km (495 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.90 min. Laser reflectors..
  • Posat 1 - . Payload: Oscar 28. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Portugal. Agency: INETI. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-70. USAF Sat Cat: 22826 . COSPAR: 1993-061D. Apogee: 801 km (497 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Portugal's first satellite achieved through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward, DSP communications, GPS and Earth observation payloads. Still operational in 2000.. Additional Details: here....
  • Kitsat-2 - . Payload: Oscar 25. Mass: 49 kg (108 lb). Nation: Korea South. Agency: KAIST. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Kitsat. USAF Sat Cat: 22825 . COSPAR: 1993-061C. Apogee: 801 km (497 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.80 min.

    KITSAT-OSCAR 25 was a South Korean experimental microsatellite based on the SSTL UoSAT bus built by the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). KO-25 was operated from The Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC) in South Korea. KO-25's mission was to take CCD pictures, process numerical information, measure radiation, and receive and forward messages. The Infrared Sensor Experiment (IREX) was designed to acquire I/V characteristics of IR sensors. A passive cooling structure was devised for this experiment. KO-25 was eventually operated purely as a packet store-and-forward satellite.

  • ITAMsat - . Payload: Oscar 26. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: AmSat. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 22828 . COSPAR: 1993-061F. Apogee: 802 km (498 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. ITAMsat was built by AMSAT-ITALY. Its mission was to store and forward amateur radio messages..
  • Eyesat 1 - . Payload: Oscar 27. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Interfer. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 22829 . COSPAR: 1993-061G. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.80 min.

    Experimental Interferometric Microsatellite built by Interferometrics Inc, of Chantilly, Virginia. The satellite was also equipped with amateur radio equipment, constructed by AMRAD, a non-profit organization of radio amateurs, to conduct digital satellite communications experiments. The Amrad-Oscar-27 payload was an 'FM Repeater', consisting of a crystal controlled FM receiver operation at 145.850 MHz and a crystal controlled FM transmitter operating at approximately 436.795 MHz. Output power of the transmitter was normally 0.5 watts. Because of the satellite's limited power budget the amateur transmitter was on for only part of the daylight portion of each orbit. As of September 1998, the satellite passed its five year design goal.

  • Healthsat 2 - . Mass: 48 kg (105 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Satelife. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-70. USAF Sat Cat: 22827 . COSPAR: 1993-061E. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.80 min.

    Customer: SateLife. Store and forward communications satellite operating in the SatelLife 'HealthNet' LEO satellite communications network for remote regions. Still operational as of 2000.

    Healthsat - II joined UoSAT-3/HealthSat-I as the second microsatellite in the HealthNet global communications system of SatelLife, a U.S. not-for-profit organisation. HealthNet, which was licensed in eighteen countries in Africa and Latin America, was providing desperately needed low cost 'last mile' communication links between medical institutions and health programmes in the developing world.

    The HealthSat-II mission was completed, from concept to launch, within one year. SSTL were responsible for all the programmatic aspects of the mission including procuring the launch slot on the Ariane ASAP and arranging suitable insurance for the launch and early commissioning phase - all within a total contract price of £1M. Additional Details: here....


1993 September 27 - .
  • Death of James H Doolittle - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Doolittle. American officer. Noted aviator 1917-1940, led one-way raid on Tokyo in 1942. Post-WW2 through to Sputnik served on scientific advisory boards that shaped US space policy..

1993 September 27 - .
  • Death of Crawford H Greenewalt - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Greenewalt. American businessman. President of duPont from 1948. Chaired committee in 1959-1960 that established national space objectives for NASA (which did not include any short-term ambitious manned programs)..

1993 September 27 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Platform: CG-29. LV Family: Standard-ER. Launch Vehicle: Terrier LEAP.
  • FTV-2 LEAP Mockup Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1993 September 28 - . 00:57 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-14-3 - . Crew: Serebrov, Tsibliyev. EVA Duration: 0.0778 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Serebrov, Tsibliyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-17. Spacecraft: Mir. Installed material samples and retrieved experiment packages. Documented external condition of Mir..

1993 September 29 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1993 September 30 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Delta Clipper. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MDAC. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Demonstrated 180 degree roll; provided aerostability data. Reached 370 m during 57 second flight. Last test of first series -- vehicle mothballed when SDIO funding ran out..

1993 September 30 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 30 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 41L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 22836 . COSPAR: 1993-062A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,762 km (22,221 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 83 deg E, replacing Raduga-26. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 86.23 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. Raduga 30 followed on 30 September 1993 and was transferred to 85 degrees E. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.18E drifting at 0.046E degrees per day.


1993 October 1 - . 17:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1993 October 4 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IX.
  • NCAR / CU-4 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1993 October 4 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 October 5 - .
  • China breaks nuclear test moratorium - . Nation: China.

1993 October 5 - .
  • Death of Dr Karl Gordon Henize at Mt. Everest, NEPAL. High altitude pulmonary edema while attempting to summit the north face of Mount Everest. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Henize. American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F..

1993 October 5 - . 17:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV. FAILURE: Star-37XFP-ISS kick-motor malfunction.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Landsat 6 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Landsat 6. Decay Date: 1993-05-10 . Apogee: 724 km (449 mi).

1993 October 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-4 PAC-2 Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 October 8 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C.
  • FSW-1 No. 5 - . Payload: Jian Bing 93. Mass: 2,099 kg (4,627 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Decay Date: 1993-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22859 . COSPAR: 1993-063A. Apogee: 2,860 km (1,770 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 56.6000 deg. Period: 116.50 min.

    The only FSW-1 mission conducted during 1993-1994 was launched into an orbit of 209 km by 300 km at an inclination of 57.0 deg. In addition to an Earth observation Payload, FSW-1 5 carried microgravity research equipment and a diamond-studded medallion commemorating the 100th anniversary of Chairman Mao Tse-Tung's birth. The spacecraft operated normally until 16 October when an attempt to recover the satellite failed. An attitude control system failure aligned the spacecraft 90 deg from its desired position, causing the re-entry capsule to be pushed into a higher elliptical orbit (179 km by 3031 km) instead of returning to Earth. Natural decay did not bring the capsule back until March 12, 1996.


1993 October 11 - . 21:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-20 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 220. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-17. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 40.48 days. Decay Date: 1993-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 22867 . COSPAR: 1993-064A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir, carried a Raduga reentry capsule for return of experimental materials to earth. Docked with Mir on 13 Oct 1993 23:24:46 GMT. Undocked on 21 Nov 1993 02:38:43 GMT. Capsule landed in Kazakhstan on 21 Nov 1993 09:06:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.13 days.


1993 October 12 - .
  • Mir News 192: Progress-M20 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    The launch of this freighter took place on 11.10.93 at 2133 UTC (for the Russians, using 'decree-time', already 12.10.93 0033 hrs). Progress-M20 reached the right initial orbit and the first corrections have been executed successfully. Progress-M20's transmissions in the 166, 165 and 922 bands could be monitored in the pass in the 2d orbit on 12.10.93 between 0035 and 0037 UTC. Progress-M20 has to deliver to the Mir-station spare parts, food, water, fuel and post. It contains also a package of experiments in the framework of Biokrist. These are protein-crystallisation experiments from several countries. One experiment is of Dr. Grip of the Faculty for Eye Surgery, University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands). A Biokrist container, including the same Dutch experiment, has been on board of the Mir-complex in the first 3 months of 1992. During the transport, after the skilful delivery on earth by the cosmonauts Volkov and Krikalyov, something went wrong due to extreme low temperatures and the results suffered damages. The present experiment will return to earth by the crew of this expedition in December 1993. In 2 days Progress-M20 will fly to Mir and if all goes well the freighter will dock to Mir on 13.10.93 at abt. 2316 UTC (so for the Russians already on 14.10.93, 0216 Msc decree-time).

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 October 13 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1993 October 14 - .
  • Mir News 193: Progress-M20 DOCKED TO Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    This freighter docked to Mir's aft docking port (Kvant-1) on 13.10.93 at 2325 UTC. The approach and docking took place in the automatic mode under observation of the crew. The docking took place a little bit later than expected after Mir's pass in orbit 43764 from 2309-2314 UTC. During this pass the transmitters of Progress-M20 still could be monitored on 922.755 mc and in the 166 and 165 mc bands. Mir also worked with packet radio on 145.550 mc. During the passes in orb. 43765 (14.01 0043-0050 UTC) and 43766 (0221-0227 UTC) the crew and TsUP spoke about the just arrived freighter. The crew was satisfied: the ship was clean and they got the badly needed dairy-products, which they ordered only recently. Progress-M20 has a V.B.K. (ballistic return capsule) on board. The arrival of the Progress-M20 is good news for the Dutch University in Nijmegen for she safely delivered their experiments in the Biokrist-package.

    PROGRESS-M19:

    To enable Progress-M20 to dock with the complex the Progress-M19 had to disappear. Nowadays the Russians undock the old freighter as soon as they are sure about the right orbit and the good functioning of the new one. So Progress-M19 separated from Mir on 12.10.1993 at 1759 UTC. Before burning up in the atmosphere Progress-M19 jettisoned the V.B.K. and this landed safely in the designated area on 13.10.93 at 0022 UTC. The crew on board Mir did not go asleep but observed the whole operation. The were enthusiastic about this interesting event. They saw how the engines of Pr-19 worked, how the V.B.K. separated from Progress-M19 and they even could see the burning up of the rest of the freighter. They made a lot of video-films and images. During the pass in 43751, on 13.10.93 at 0135 UTC they reported about these observations to TsUP. In the course of 13.10 they transmitted their films to TsUP via the geostationary satellite Altair.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 October 17 - . 13:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1993 October 18 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-58 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Blaha, Fettman, Lucid, McArthur, Searfoss, Seddon, Wolf. Payload: Columbia F15 / EDO. Mass: 10,517 kg (23,186 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Blaha, Fettman, Lucid, McArthur, Searfoss, Seddon, Wolf. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-58. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 14.01 days. Decay Date: 1993-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22869 . COSPAR: 1993-065A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Biological, microgravity experiments aboard Spacelab 2. Payloads: Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) 2, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II..
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: EDO. Decay Date: 1993-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22869 . COSPAR: 1993-065xx. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.
  • Spacelab SLS 2 LM - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1993-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22869 . COSPAR: 1993-065xx. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.

1993 October 20 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: Theme From the Movie 2001, a Space Odyssey - . Flight: STS-58. "Theme From the Movie 2001, a Space Odyssey".

1993 October 20 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1993 October 21 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: INTA-300. Launch Vehicle: INTA-300B.
  • FEIROX / FEIROH Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1993 October 22 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: Jump In the Line - . Flight: STS-58. "Jump In the Line" by Harry Belafonte; and"Doctor! Doctor!" by Thompson Twins..

1993 October 22 - . 06:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Intelsat 701 - . Payload: Intelsat 7 F 1. Mass: 3,650 kg (8,040 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 22871 . COSPAR: 1993-066A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    International communications. The Intelsat 7 and 7A series were nearly identical except for an increase in the number of Ku-band transponders in the 7A series. Spacecraft: 3-axis stabilised. Hydrazine propulsion system. Two large solar panels with 1-axis articulation provide 3900W BOL. Payload: 7: 26 C-Band and 10 Ku-Band transponders.18,000 telephone calls and 3 colour TV broadcasts simultaneously. Or up to 90,000 telephone circuits using digital circuit multiplication equipment (DCME).7A: 26 C-Band and 14 Ku-Band transponders.22,500 telephone calls and 3 colour TV broadcasts simultaneously. Or up to 112,500 telephone circuits using DCME. Three independently steerable, high-powered, Ku-band spot beams. Independently steerable C-band spot beam coverage. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 121 deg E in 1993; 174 deg E in 1994-1997; 180 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 179.91 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 179.97W drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.


1993 October 22 - . 15:47 GMT - .
1993 October 23 - .
  • Mir News 195: 4th Spacewalk (EVA) Mir-crew on 22.10.93 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    This EVA started earlier than was expected. The hatch swung open at abt. 1535 UTC. During the first half hour of this EVA the cosmonauts spoke with the Russian premier-minister Chernomyrdin who visited TsUP. Regretfully this EVA ended earlier than planned due to a malfunction of a life system Serebrov's spacesuit. The EVA took place between (plus/min) 1535-1615 UTC and had a duration of only 38 minutes. The crew succeeded in installing on the outer surface of the complex a device for measurements of the micro-meteorite flux and the salvaging of materials which had been exposed to the influence of outer space. Serebrov made some images in the framework of the Panorama experiment, but for the conclusion of that experiment another EVA will be necessary. Our good friend OM Peter observed via Altair that the cosmonauts had left the airlock. After a while the transmission of images switched over to the system Orbita and only the speech could be monitored. Soon we derived from this traffic that the cosmonauts were in the airlock, that they had closed the exit hatch and were equalising the pressures between the airlock (S.Sh.O.) and the instrument- and scientific compartment (P.N.O.). For that purpose they had opened the valve K.V.D. and via the downlink the sound of streaming air could be heard. During the first pass within VHF-range (in orbit 43902, 1932- 1937 UTC) the cosmonauts reported that all was well. The possible date of the 5th EVA also was mentioned. This might be 29.10.93 depending on further analyses of the emerged problems.

    Information: The English service of Radio Moscow slightly paid attention to this EVA, but did not speak about the cause of the premature return on board of the crew. For the first time in the history of spaceflight Radio Moscow spoke about the Russian crew as 'astronauts' instead of 'cosmonauts'.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 October 23 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: I Know You're Out There, Somewhere - . Flight: STS-58. "I Know You're Out There, Somewhere" by The Moody Blues.

1993 October 24 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: Back Home in Indiana - . Flight: STS-58. "Back Home in Indiana" by Jim Nabors for Mission Specialist David Wolf, who hails from Indianapolis..

1993 October 25 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: Shiny Happy People - . Flight: STS-58. "Shiny Happy People" by R.E.M..

1993 October 26 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: Happy Trails - . Flight: STS-58. "Happy Trails" by Roy Rogers.

1993 October 26 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-5 ERINT Mutimode Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 October 26 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2265 - . Mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1Yu. Decay Date: 2003-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22875 . COSPAR: 1993-067A. Apogee: 1,557 km (967 mi). Perigee: 290 km (180 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 103.50 min. Radar calibration mission..

1993 October 26 - . 17:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 96 - . Payload: GPS 2A-23 / GPS SVN 34. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22877 . COSPAR: 1993-068A. Apogee: 20,260 km (12,580 mi). Perigee: 20,104 km (12,492 mi). Inclination: 55.1000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane D Slot 4..

1993 October 27 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: Look At Us Now - . Flight: STS-58. "Look At Us Now" by Joe Walsh.

1993 October 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1993 October 28 - . 15:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 28 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 40L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22880 . COSPAR: 1993-069A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. As of 6 September 2001 located at 96.68 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 116.96E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.


1993 October 29 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: From A Distance - . Flight: STS-58. "From A Distance" by Bette Midler.

1993 October 29 - . 13:38 GMT - .
1993 October 30 - .
  • Mir News 196: 5th Spacewalk (EVA) Mir-crew on 29.10.93 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    The crew opened the hatch at 1338 UTC and closed this behind them at 1750 UTC, so the duration of this EVA was 4 hrs and 12 mins. They fully accomplished their tasks: the experiment Panorama, during which Sererbrov made video-images of the outer surface of the station, they removed samples of materials which had been exposed to open space and placed new samples and on instructions from experts on earth they carried out an inspection of objects on the outside, for instance the solar panels. They also carried out prophylactic work. Most of the radio-communications was relayed by the satellite Altair. During the first 2 passes for our position the EVA was still going on and the radio-traffic could be heard on VHF as well as on Altair. During the pass in orbit 44010, 1742-1752 UTC, the cosmonauts returned to the airlock and they told TsUP that they were ready to close the hatch on TsUP's command. So they did at 1750 UTC and they immediately started with the equalisation of the pressures between the airlock (S.Sh.O.) and the Instrument-Scientific compartment (P.N.O.). OM Peter monitored phone as well as TV-images and in co-ordination with him I was able to determine that all went well during this EVA. During the first communication session via Altair after the EVA the cosmonauts transmitted images made during the EVA to TsUP. So OM Peter could see how the crew during their EVA jettisoned an old (probably no longer usable)EVA or spacesuit. They succeeded in sending away this dummy in such a shape that it looked like someone who saluted like a soldier. After analyses of the monitored radio-traffic I hope to tell something about the crew's assessment of the damage, which had been caused by micro-meteorites around 12.08.93.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 October 30 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: St.Elsewhere - . Flight: STS-58. "St.Elsewhere" by Mike Post.

1993 October 31 - .
  • Cosmonaut Anatoli Fyodorovich Voronov dies at age of 63 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Voronov. Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1963-1979..

1993 October 31 - .
  • STS-58 - Wakeup Song: Monster Mash - . Flight: STS-58. "Monster Mash" by Bobby"Boris" Pickett.

1993 November 1 - .
  • Air Force Space Command Space Warfare Center (SWC) activated at Falcon AFB, Colorado, to†foster improved space support to warfighters. - . Nation: USA.

1993 November - .
  • International Space Station - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: ISS, Mir-2, Space Station Freedom.

    Cost escalation of the US Space Station Freedom, and financial difficulties in Russia, led to a summer 1993 briefing of NASA by NPO Energia on Mir-2. In November 1993 Freedom, Mir-2, and the European and Japanese modules were incorporated into a single International Space Station.


1993 November 1 - .
1993 November 2 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2266 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 22888 . COSPAR: 1993-070A. Apogee: 1,020 km (630 mi). Perigee: 947 km (588 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 1 of constellation. Signals at 149.97 and 399.92 MHz..

1993 November 3 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 November 4 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • MASER 6 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi).

1993 November 5 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2267 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 418.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22904 . COSPAR: 1993-071A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 228 km (141 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Photo/digital surveillance..

1993 November 10 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1993 November 16 - .
  • Mir News 197: Progress-M20 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    For some time the Mir-crew is preparing the freighter Progress- M20 for its last autonomous flight. They store all what they want to throw away in the Progress-M20 herself and all experiments, films etc. in the return capsule (VBK). The Progress-M20 has to undock from Mir on 21.11.93 at abt. 0900 UTC for decay in the atmosphere. Before burning up the Progress-M20 will jettison the VBK for a safe landing in the Orenburg region, so on Russian territory. A landing in Kazakhstan means that the Russians must pay import duties to Kazakhstan!

    Orbit correction: One of these days the Progress-M20 will have to correct the orbit of the complex. After this correction old Keplers will no longer be valid.

    Mir-crew: The cosmonauts reported that the outside surface of the Mir-station is in a good shape. The damages caused by micro- meteorites are not that bad as previously expected. More concern they expressed about the inside systems of the station. The guaranteed lifetime is running to its end and they have to do a lot of strenuous maintenance work on the life systems. Nowadays they have problems with the provision of oxygen.

    Contact between Mir and Shuttle Columbia on 26.10.93:

    It was a great surprise for the Mir-crew to get a call in Russian from the Columbia on a radio-amateur channel.

    Renovation work in my shack:

    Due to renovation work in my shack it might be difficult to maintain my operational possibilities for a while. So there might be a period in which I will be unable to make Mir- reports. Please don't worry: when this misery is over I will be back again!

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1993 November 17 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi).

1993 November 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 739. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • PGW test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 November 18 - . 13:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 29 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 41L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22907 . COSPAR: 1993-072A. Apogee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min.

    Gorizont 29 (18 November 1993) and 30 (20 May 1994) were launched for Rimsat, Ltd., to provide communications services in the Pacific region under an agreement signed in 1992 between Rimsat and the Applied Mechanics NPO. Gorizont 29 was located at 130 degrees E in accordance with a lease arrangement with Rimsat Corporation (using slots allocated to Tonga by the International Telecommunications Union). Intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 130 deg E in 1993-1997; 161 deg E in 1997-1998; 130 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 130.39 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 168.05E drifting at 0.374W degrees per day.


1993 November 20 - . 01:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Solidaridad 1 - . Mass: 2,776 kg (6,120 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Tele Mex. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 22911 . COSPAR: 1993-073A. Apogee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 109.2 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 109 deg W in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 101.71 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 102.54W drifting at 0.027W degrees per day..
  • Meteosat 6 - . Payload: MOP 3. Mass: 704 kg (1,552 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. USAF Sat Cat: 22912 . COSPAR: 1993-073B. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 2.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 0 deg. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg W in 1994-1997; deg W in 1997-1998; 9 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 9.14 deg W drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 36.89E drifting at 0.610E degrees per day.


1993 November 21 - .
  • Mir News 198: Progress-M20 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    Orbit correction: On 17.11.93 during orbit 44300 the engines of Progress-M20 corrected the orbit of the Mir-complex: Ap/per now 395.3/388.2 KM.

    Decay of Progress-M20 and safe landing return capsule on 21.11.93:

    Undocking of Progress-M20 from Mir at 0236 UTC. Progress-M20 jettisoned the VBK (return capsule) at 0850 UTC. Progress-M20 entered dense layers of the atmosphere at 0851 UTC and decayed. The VBK safely landed not far from Orsk at 0903 UTC. Orsk is a town just north of the border with Kazakhstan. The VBK itself landed just inside Kazakhstans territory. So possibly Russia will have to pay Kazakhstan import duties for the VBK and the cargo.

    VBK's cargo:

    The cargo mainly consisted of 2 American containers with experiments: The first one is the experiment TREK, which had been installed outside Mir from 4.04.91. This experiment registered particles of super-heavy elements in the cosmic radiation. The 2d American experiment was the grow of biological crystals delivered by the firm Boeing. The VBK brought back to earth some Russian experiments: 2 videocassettes with images made during the survey experiment Panorama, an experiment with Ultraviolet in the earth's atmosphere, a sample of thermo-insulation material exposed to open space and a lot of negative-films.

    Progress-M21: It is still unknown when this freighter will be launched for a flight to Mir. This freighter is badly needed, especially for a supply of fresh oxygen. The last days the crew is complaining about problems with the air pressure and oxygen, which cause respiration problems (dry nostrils and throat).

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 November 25 - .
  • Cosmonaut Vladimir Yevgenyevich Preobrazhensky dies at age of 54 -- Killed in auto crash. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Preobrazhensky. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1980. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute Soviet Air Force, liaising with aircraft industrial enterprises. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center..

1993 November 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 31 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DASA. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi).

1993 November 28 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II.
  • USA 97 - . Payload: DSCS III B-10. Mass: 2,615 kg (5,765 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 22915 . COSPAR: 1993-074A. Apogee: 35,501 km (22,059 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 26.4000 deg. Period: 625.40 min.

    Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 52 deg W in 1995; 60 deg E in 1997. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1993 November 29 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Improved Orion.
  • Mini-Texus 1 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1993 November 30 - .
  • Death of John E Naugle - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Naugle. American physicist, at NASA 1959-1981, developed projects to study the magnetosphere..

1993 November 30 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • BTTV-6 ERINT GTF-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: KALMAR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 December 1 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 170.0 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-27. Launch Vehicle: Zyb.
  • Efir - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Payload was the 650-kilogram Efir reentry vehicle with the 80-kilogram Meduza biomedical zero-G experiment. The capsule was recovered, the experiment was successful..

1993 December 2 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: Cosmos - . Flight: STS-61. "Cosmos" by Frank Hayes (6:57 p.m.).

1993 December 2 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-61 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Akers, Bowersox, Covey, Hoffman, Musgrave, Nicollier, Thornton. Payload: Endeavour F05 / FSS. Mass: 8,011 kg (17,661 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers, Bowersox, Covey, Hoffman, Musgrave, Nicollier, Thornton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 10.83 days. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075A. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.30 min.

    Manned seven crew. Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs (5) on a Space Shuttle Flight to that date. Payloads: Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission (SM) 1, IMAX Camera, IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS).

  • FSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: FSS. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075xx. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.60 min.
  • SAC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: Second Axial Carrier. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075xx. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.60 min.
  • ORUC - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22917 . COSPAR: 1993-075xx. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.60 min.

1993 December 3 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: Get Ready - . Flight: STS-61. "Get Ready" by Rare Earth.

1993 December 4 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: Fanfare for the Common Man - . Flight: STS-61. "Fanfare for the Common Man" by Aaron Copland.

1993 December 5 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: With a Little Help From My Friends - . Flight: STS-61. "With a Little Help From My Friends" by The Beatles.

1993 December 5 - . 03:44 GMT - .
1993 December 6 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: Doctor My Eyes - . Flight: STS-61. "Doctor My Eyes" by Jackson Browne.

1993 December 6 - . 03:29 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-61-2 - . Crew: Akers, Thornton. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers, Thornton. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour, HST. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - solar array replacement..

1993 December 7 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: I Can See Clearly Now - . Flight: STS-61. "I Can See Clearly Now" by Johnny Nash.

1993 December 7 - . 03:35 GMT - .
1993 December 8 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 98 - . Payload: NATO 4B. Mass: 1,430 kg (3,150 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 22921 . COSPAR: 1993-076A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NATO encrypted communications relay. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 6 deg E in 1994-1998; 20 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 20.16 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 35.47E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day.


1993 December 8 - . 03:13 GMT - .
1993 December 9 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: A Hard Day's Night - . Flight: STS-61. "A Hard Day's Night" by The Beatles.

1993 December 9 - . 03:30 GMT - .
1993 December 10 - .
  • Mir News 199: Progress-M21 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-17.

    For a long time we expected the launch of the freighter towards the end of November 1993. Due to economic and other problems this launch has been put back. The launch is now on schedule for 26.01.1994, so long after the relief of the present crew.

    SOYUZ-TM18:

    This ship will be launched for a flight to the Mir-station on 6.01.1994. If all goes according to the original planning the relief crew will consist of 3 cosmonauts. One of them is a doctor (Polyakov or Arazamov) who must remain in space for 1.5 year. Whether the crew will consist of 2 or 3 cosmonauts is not sure for 100%.

    Mir-routine:

    In this period Mir's passes are in the night hours. The crew is still busy in keeping the station operational. They have to pay a lot of attention to the life-support systems: air pressure- and air composition and the water regeneration systems Elektron and S.R.V.-U.

    Visit of the American vice-president to TsUP:

    The Russians very badly need financial support from the United States for the upgrading of the partly worn-out Mir-station. So they are very pleased that vice-president Gore will visit Kaliningrad near Moscow around 14.12.93. He will also visit the flight control centre TsUP.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1993 December 10 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: Mamas Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys - . Flight: STS-61. "Mamas Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys" by Willie Nelson.

1993 December 11 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: My Heroes Have Always Been Cowboys - . Flight: STS-61. "My Heroes Have Always Been Cowboys" by Willie Nelson.

1993 December 12 - .
  • STS-61 - Wakeup Song: I Can See For Miles - . Flight: STS-61. "I Can See For Miles" by The Who.

1993 December 13 - .
1993 December 14 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1993 December 15 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1993 December 16 - . 00:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS.
  • Telstar 401 - . Mass: 3,375 kg (7,440 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ATT. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Telstar series. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 7000. Completed Operations Date: 1997-01-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 22927 . COSPAR: 1993-077A. Apogee: 35,821 km (22,258 mi). Perigee: 35,759 km (22,219 mi). Inclination: 4.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Stationed at 97 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with IFR trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg W in 1994-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 100.42 deg W drifting at 0.039 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 97.36W drifting at 0.024W degrees per day.


1993 December 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands SULF. Launch Vehicle: Storm.
  • MTTV-1 ERINT Demo Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1993 December 18 - . 01:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • DBS 1 - . Mass: 2,860 kg (6,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DirecTV. Program: DirecTV. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 22930 . COSPAR: 1993-078A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 101.2 deg W. DirecTV, Inc. is a subsidiary of Hughes Communications and offers commercial satellite television service to the US. The orbital part of the system consists of 3 Hughes-built geosynchronous satellites. Broadcast services began in mid-1994. Competitors include the similar Primestar and USSB services, as well as older C-band satellite services and cable TV companies. Spacecraft: DirecTV uses the Hughes HS-601 spacecraft design.3-Axis stabilised, zero momentum biased control system. Two solar arrays (4 panels each side) span 31 meters and generate 4.3 kW power. Payload: The 2.5 m diameter graphite transmit reflector performs beam shaping.16 x 120 watt Ka-Band (12.2 - 12.7 GHz) transponders with 48-53 dBw EIRP and 24 MHz bandwidth. Power is higher in areas with heavy rain. The high power combined with Reed Solomon error correction coding allow the use of small 18 inch antennas by customers.
    Financial/Operational:
    FCC approved Direct Broadcast Satellites in 1986. By 1997 DirecTV had 2.6 million of 5.0 million US direct broadcast television subscribers. Direct Broadcast Satellites cost $ 175 million each and have 150 video channels. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 101 deg W in 1994-1999; 110 deg W in 1999-2000 As of 6 September 2001 located at 109.78 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 72.51W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.

  • Thaicom - . Mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Shinawat. Program: Thaicom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 22931 . COSPAR: 1993-078B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 78 deg E in 1994-1997; 120 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 120.00 deg E drifting at 0.017 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.92E drifting at 0.025W degrees per day..

1993 December 20 - . 16:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1993 December 22 - . 20:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-87 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 22949 . COSPAR: 1993-079A. Apogee: 38,716 km (24,056 mi). Perigee: 1,668 km (1,036 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 718.40 min. Operation of the long range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system. Replaced Molniya 1-77..


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