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1978 Chronology

1978 January - .
  • Landsat 1 removed from service. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Nimbus. Spacecraft: Landsat 1-2-3. Landsat 1 was finally removed from service in January 1978 due to tape recorder faults. It had returned over 300,000 images..

1978 - During the year - . Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Work begins on conversion of 3M bomber to 3M-T Energia/Buran transport. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. 3M bomber was selected to carry piggy-back Energia core stage components and Buran orbiters..

1978 January 1 - .
  • Vulkan Lunar Base rejected - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko, Keldysh. Spacecraft: LEK, Lunokhod LEK, LZhM, LZM.

    An expert commission led by Keldysh examines the plan for a lunar base launched by the Vulkan booster. The plan is completely rejected. NPO Energia was told to quit dreaming and devote itself only to projects with national economic importance, like Buran. This put a definitive end to Glushko's lunar base projects studied in 1976-1978. But he just waited and started design work again on a lunar base using the Energia launch vehicle after the first Buran launch in 1988.


1978 - During the year - .
  • Manned Almaz program terminated - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Glushko, Ustinov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS-2, TKS.

    Almaz station portion of the project already severely cut back after Marshal Grechko's heart attack in early 1976. Chelomei lost his most active patron and was unable to withstand the slow strangulation of his projects by Ustinov and Glushko. Almaz finally completely scrapped in 1980, but Chelomei hid the completed space stations in a corner of his complex, labelling them as 'radioactive material'. Chelomei finally forced to retire in October 1983. TKS shuttle craft used to dock with Salyut stations but never in manned mode. Following Ustinov's death, Almaz stations finally flown as unmanned radarsats, but Chelomei did not live to see this.


1978 January 1 - .
  • Kovunenko succeds Babkin as OKB head - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. VM Kovunenko succeds Babkin as head of former Lavochkin design bureau..

1978 Jan - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg.
  • The Boeing Company and SAC completed the initial operational test and evaluation of the Guidance Improvement Program at Vandenberg AFB. - .

1978 Jan - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIB, Titan 34D.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract to Martin Marietta for the production of two Titan IIIB airframes and five Titan III 34D airframes. - .

1978 January 1 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO's ICBM Program Office began a Multiple Aimpoint Basing Study for Missile X basing. - .

    The study had been requested by the Defense Science Board after briefings by SAMSO late in CY 1977 on the subject of alternate basing modes. The study was concluded in April, and the results were presented in a briefing to the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and the Defense Science Board. The study recommended the vertical shelter basing mode, with the horizontal shelter basing mode as a second choice.


1978 Jan - .
  • The Advanced Maneuvering Reentry Vehicle underwent a successful critical design review. - . Spacecraft Bus: ABRES. Spacecraft: AMaRV.

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • SLI - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 January 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 January 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-358?[Launch count] - . Nation: USA. Agency: 79FA2. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-360?[Launch count] - . Nation: USA. Agency: 79FA2. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL78-03 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Tatishchevo. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • Off site test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-17VTO.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL78-04 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-361?[Launch count] - . Nation: USA. Agency: 79FA2. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL78-05 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL78-02 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL78-06 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Dong Feng 5.
  • Nation: China. Agency: XPRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • RT2 PL78-01 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Drovyanaya. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Drovyanaya. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-359?[Launch count] - . Nation: USA. Agency: 79FA2. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: K63.
1978 January 3 - .
  • Lockheed Missiles and Space Company was awarded a $34 million contract to build a spacecraft for the Satellite Infrared Experiment (SIRE), designed to measure long wave infrared signatures. - . Spacecraft Bus: P. Spacecraft: P80-2. The spacecraft would also carry two secondary payloads - a space sextant and a sensor that would measure the isotopic composition of solar flares..

1978 January 3 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1978 January 4 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1978 January 5 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi).

1978 January 6 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

    Standard Test Missile 15W, a Minuteman III carrying three Mark 12A reentry vehicles, was successfully launched from Vandenberg AFB. The test provided data on the performance of experimental nosetip and heatshield materials and was the first to use complete Guidance Improvement Program software.


1978 January 6 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 974 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10554 . COSPAR: 1978-001A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 January 7 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Intelsat 4A F-3 - . Mass: 1,511 kg (3,331 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 312 / HS 351 / HS 353. Spacecraft: Intelsat 4A. Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10557 . COSPAR: 1978-002A. Apogee: 35,909 km (22,312 mi). Perigee: 35,874 km (22,291 mi). Inclination: 7.2000 deg. Period: 1,441.50 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 60 deg E in 1978-1982 over the Pacific Ocean 179 deg E in 1982-1986 over the Pacific Ocean 177 deg E in 1986-1988 As of 2 September 2001 located at 156.51 deg W drifting at 1.304 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 107.90E drifting at 1.326W degrees per day.


1978 January 9 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi).

1978 January 10 - .
  • Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 January 10 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1978 January 10 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 27 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov, Makarov. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 44. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Makarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26, Soyuz 27. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 64.95 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10560 . COSPAR: 1978-003A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned two crew. Carried Oleg Makarov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 26 to Earth. Docked with Salyut 6..

1978 January 10 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 975 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 14. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2001-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10561 . COSPAR: 1978-004A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 513 km (318 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.00 min.

1978 January 10 - . 20:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 976 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 137. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10581 . COSPAR: 1978-005A. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,455 km (904 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 980 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 141. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10587 . COSPAR: 1978-005E. Apogee: 1,477 km (917 mi). Perigee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 979 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 140. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10586 . COSPAR: 1978-005D. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,437 km (892 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.90 min.
  • Cosmos 983 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 144. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10590 . COSPAR: 1978-005H. Apogee: 1,538 km (955 mi). Perigee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.00 min.
  • Cosmos 982 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 143. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10589 . COSPAR: 1978-005G. Apogee: 1,516 km (941 mi). Perigee: 1,463 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.80 min.
  • Cosmos 978 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 139. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10585 . COSPAR: 1978-005C. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.70 min.
  • Cosmos 981 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 142. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10588 . COSPAR: 1978-005F. Apogee: 1,496 km (929 mi). Perigee: 1,463 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 977 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 138. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10584 . COSPAR: 1978-005B. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,400 km (800 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.50 min.

1978 January 11 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • STERETOP Active Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 January 12 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 January 13 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 984 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10592 . COSPAR: 1978-006A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 January 14 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1978 January 16 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 8 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford, Brandenstein, Buchli, Coats, Covey, Creighton, Fabian, Fisher, Gardner, Gibson, Gregory, Griggs, Hart, Hauck, Hawley, Hoffman, Lucid, McBride, McNair, Mullane, Nagel, Nelson, Onizuka, Resnik, Ride, Scobee, Seddon, Shaw, Shriver, Stewart, Sullivan.

    The group was selected to provide pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Recruit women and minorities to introduce diversity into the astronaut corps. Qualifications: Pilots: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics. Advanced degree desirable. At least 1,000 flight-hours of pilot-in-command time. Flight test experience desirable. Excellent health. Vision minimum 20/50 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 vision; maximum sitting blood pressure 140/90. Height between 163 and 193 cm.

    Mission Specialists: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics and minimum three years of related experience or an advanced degree. Vision minimum 20/150 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20. Maximum sitting blood pressure of 140/90. Height between 150 and 193 cm.. 8,079 applicants, of which half met the basic qualifications. 208 invited for physical tests and interviews. Of the 35 selected, six were women, three were male African-Americans, and one was a male Asian-American.


1978 January 16 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: JCR. Launch Vehicle: TT-500.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1978 January 16 - .
1978 January 17 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 985 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10599 . COSPAR: 1978-007A. Apogee: 1,015 km (630 mi). Perigee: 938 km (582 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 January 17 - . 20:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 January 18 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • DM-2 Shuttle SRB development static firing - . Nation: USA. The second firing of a shuttle Solid Rocket Booster motor..

1978 January 18 - .
  • Second SRB firing, Thiokol - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 January 19 - . 01:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1978 January 20 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 1 - . Payload: Progress s/n 102. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 18.73 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . Decay Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10603 . COSPAR: 1978-008A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 22 Jan 1978 10:12:14 GMT. Undocked on 6 Feb 1978 05:54:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 8 Feb 1978 02:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.91 days. Total docked time 14.82 days.


1978 January 21 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • CHARGING Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi).

1978 January 22 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Ionosphere / fields / solar mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi).

1978 January 23 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1978 January 24 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The upgrading of Wing I was approved by SAMSO and Ogden ALC by Amendment 6 to the Minuteman III Engineering Transfer Package. - .

1978 January 24 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-09 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 20. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10605 . COSPAR: 1978-009A. Apogee: 36,195 km (22,490 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 636.80 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1978 January 24 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 986 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10607 . COSPAR: 1978-010A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 January 25 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1978 January 26 - . 04:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2C.
  • FSW-0 No. 3 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 03. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10611 . COSPAR: 1978-011A. Apogee: 507 km (315 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Photo surveillance; film capsule; capsule returned January 30. Second fully successful FSW mission..

1978 January 26 - . 17:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • IUE 1 - . Payload: IUE. Mass: 672 kg (1,481 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESA, NASA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: IUE. Completed Operations Date: 1996-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10637 . COSPAR: 1978-012A. Apogee: 41,296 km (25,660 mi). Perigee: 30,285 km (18,818 mi). Inclination: 34.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    International Ultraviolet Explorer. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 30 deg W in-60 deg W in 1978-1996 As of 3 September 2001 located at 35.66 deg E drifting at 0.773 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 14.14W drifting at 0.700W degrees per day.


1978 January 27 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi).

1978 January 28 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1978 January 30 - . 20:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1978 January 30 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • T / NL 4C Gitti Aurora mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 540 km (330 mi).

1978 January 30 - . 22:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • T / NL 2D Susanne Aurora mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi).

1978 January 31 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 987 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 10639 . COSPAR: 1978-013A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 January 31 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi).

1978 February - . LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2 Spaceplane Launcher.
  • First public announcement of a Chinese manned program - . Nation: China. Spacecraft Bus: FSW. Spacecraft: Chinese Manned Capsule 1978. First public announcement of a Chinese manned program came in February, 1978. By November the head of the Chinese Space Agency, Jen Hsin-Min, confirmed that China was working on a manned space capsule and a 'Skylab' space station..

1978 February 1 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1978 February 2 - . 08:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 616 km (382 mi).

1978 February 2 - . 13:04 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Atomic oxygen Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1978 February 2 - . 13:33 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ion composition Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1978 February 2 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Solar La Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1978 February 3 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1978 February 4 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3H.
  • SS-05 Kyokko - . Payload: Exos A. Mass: 103 kg (227 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: EXOS. USAF Sat Cat: 10664 . COSPAR: 1978-014A. Apogee: 3,952 km (2,455 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 134.00 min.

    Auroral studies. Active life - two years. Function: 1) Observation of wide angle global auroral pictures using UV television camera. 2) Spectrophotometry of ultraviolet air glow. 3) Observation of the energy spectrum of photoelectrons and auroral electrons. 4) Mass spect rometry of the ionized atmospheric species in the thermosphere. 5) Measurements of density and temperature of ambient electrons in the thermosphere. 6) Observation of electromagnetic and plasma waves and the emission associated with auroral phenomena.


1978 February 6 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ultraviolet airglow Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1978 February 6 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • La / ne Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1978 February 6 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. Launch Vehicle: S-210.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1978 February 7 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • The final version of the space shuttle environmental impact statement was released to the Council on Environmental Quality. - . The statement described how the construction and operation of space shuttle facilities would affect the environment of Vandenberg AFB..

1978 February 7 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ion composition Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi).

1978 February 7 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Atomic oxygen Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 139 km (86 mi).

1978 February 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT62GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 February 8 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 988 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10666 . COSPAR: 1978-015A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks..

1978 February 9 - . 21:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Fltsatcom 1 - . Mass: 1,884 kg (4,153 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Fltsatcom. USAF Sat Cat: 10669 . COSPAR: 1978-016A. Apogee: 36,170 km (22,470 mi). Perigee: 36,119 km (22,443 mi). Inclination: 14.6000 deg. Period: 1,454.40 min.

    An Atlas booster was launched from Cape Canaveral carrying the first FLTSATCOM satellite. The launch was successful, and the satellite functioned normally once in orbit. It was declared operational on 4 April. Fleet Satellite Communications. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 100 deg W in 1978-1987; over the Pacific Ocean 177 deg W in 1987-1992; over the Atlantic Ocean 15 deg W in 1992-1996;over the Indian Ocean 72 deg E in 1996-2001. Last known longitude (26 July 1999) 71.17 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day.


1978 February 10 - .
  • Complete final assembly, STA-099, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 10 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • JHU FOT 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi).

1978 February 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 13 - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ozone Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: MO-UK. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1978 February 13 - . Launch Site: South Uist. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Ozone Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: MO-UK. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1978 February 13 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • HRTS 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1978 February 14 - .
  • STA-099 on dock, Lockheed facility, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 14 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 989 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10672 . COSPAR: 1978-017A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 February 15 - .
  • Navigation Technology Satellite 2 (NTS-2) lost its L-band navigation signal. This loss put the satellite out of action and ended its role in the Global Positioning System test program. - . Spacecraft: Navstar.

1978 February 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT61GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 February 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 16 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: N-1.
  • ISS 2 - . Payload: ISS b. Mass: 140 kg (300 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: JISS. USAF Sat Cat: 10674 . COSPAR: 1978-018A. Apogee: 1,216 km (755 mi). Perigee: 973 km (604 mi). Inclination: 69.4000 deg. Period: 107.20 min.

    Ionospheric sounding. Ionosphere Sounding Satellite-b . Launch time 0400 UT. Launch vehicle: N number 4. Spin-stabilized; Ionospheric Sounder, Radio Noise Receiver, Plasma Measuring Equipment, Ion Mass Spectrometer, and so on. The satellite is intended for regular observation of global distribution of critical frequencies of the ionosphere by means of radio waves. Weight about 141 kg. Shape: cylindrical, 3.9m diameter and 0.8m height. Expected life: probability of survival in 1.5 years is more than 70 percent.


1978 February 17 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 February 17 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 990 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 10676 . COSPAR: 1978-019A. Apogee: 791 km (491 mi). Perigee: 764 km (474 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

1978 February 17 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 18 - .
  • Rockwell International was awarded an $18.9 million contract to build a spacecraft to carry the Teal Ruby experiment. - . Spacecraft: Teal Ruby (P80-1, AFP-888). The Teal Ruby payload, which was also being built by Rockwell, consisted of a downward-looking infrared sensor with a mosaic focal plane; it was designed to measure aircraft signatures and background flux at infrared wavelengths..

1978 February 18 - . 15:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1978 February 19 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1978 February 20 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Construction began on the Missile X Buried Trench Construction and Test Project under a contract previously awarded to the Ralph M. - . Parsons Company. The contractor was to demonstrate its recommended construction method with test trenches in the San Cristobal Valley of the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona..

1978 February 20 - . 15:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1978 February 21 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 February 22 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/SVS.
  • Navstar 1 - . Payload: GPS SVN 1 / OPS 5111. Mass: 759 kg (1,673 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 1. USAF Sat Cat: 10684 . COSPAR: 1978-020A. Apogee: 20,560 km (12,770 mi). Perigee: 20,249 km (12,582 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 727.00 min.

    An Atlas booster was launched from Vandenberg AFB carrying the first NAVSTAR Satellite. The launch was successful, and the satellite functioned normally once in orbit. It was declared operational on 31 March. Also known as Navigational Development Satellite 1. Technology prototype of Navstar satellite.


1978 February 23 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1978 February 24 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 February 25 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34B.
  • Jumpseat 5 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Jumpseat. USAF Sat Cat: 10688 . COSPAR: 1978-021A. Apogee: 39,377 km (24,467 mi). Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 703.70 min. Or Quasar..

1978 February 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy / extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1978 February 27 - .
  • Birth of Thomas Pesquet - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Pesquet. French engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on..

1978 February 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 27 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant IVB.
  • Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 785 km (487 mi).

1978 February 27 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1978 February 28 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy / Barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1978 February 28 - . 06:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 991 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10692 . COSPAR: 1978-022A. Apogee: 1,004 km (623 mi). Perigee: 952 km (591 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 February 28 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant Hydac.
  • MULTI-WIDEBAND Infrared technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 458 km (284 mi).

1978 February 28 - . 11:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Talos Sergeant Hydac.
  • Ballistics test - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 February 28 - . 17:52 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1978 March 1 - .
1978 Mar - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The initial production contract for the Mark 12A reentry system was formally awarded to General Electric. It was a cost-plus-incentive-fee contract worth $45,354,036. - .

1978 Mar? - . Launch Site: Fort Bliss. Launch Complex: Fort Bliss MCG. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • P-356? 77 Winter 04? - . Nation: USA. Agency: 79FA2. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978 March 1 - . 01:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ferdinand 47 / Bugatti 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NTNF. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1978 March 1 - . 01:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ferdinand 48 / Trinom 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NTNF. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1978 March 1 - . 19:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: HJ Hydac.
  • WIDEBAND Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 March 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT37GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 March 2 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy / Barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1978 March 2 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 28 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Gubarev, Remek. Backup Crew: Pelczak, Rukavishnikov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 45. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gubarev, Pelczak, Remek, Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26, Soyuz 28. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.93 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10694 . COSPAR: 1978-023A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivery to the Salyut-6 station of the first international 'Intercosmos' team consisting of A.A. Gubarev (USSR) and V. Remek (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments jointly developed by Soviet a nd Czechoslovak specialists.


1978 March 2 - . 22:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-39 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10696 . COSPAR: 1978-024A. Apogee: 39,957 km (24,828 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1978 March 3 - .
  • Complete modification for mated vibe tests. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete modification for mated vertical ground vibration test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 March 4 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 992 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10699 . COSPAR: 1978-025A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 March 5 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Landsat 3 - . Payload: Landsat C. Mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Nimbus. Spacecraft: Landsat 1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 10702 . COSPAR: 1978-026A. Apogee: 915 km (568 mi). Perigee: 895 km (556 mi). Inclination: 98.9000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..
  • PIX - . Payload: PIX 1 / Delta 139. Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: PIX. Decay Date: 1981-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 10704 . COSPAR: 1978-026C. Apogee: 920 km (570 mi). Perigee: 903 km (561 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 103.20 min. Plasma Interaction Experiment. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Oscar 8 - . Payload: Amsat-Oscar-8. Mass: 27 kg (59 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: AmSat. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 10703 . COSPAR: 1978-026B. Apogee: 903 km (561 mi). Perigee: 894 km (555 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 103.00 min.

    AMSAT-OSCAR 8 was launched piggyback with LandSat 3 (ERTS 3) and PIX. The third phase 2 satellite (Phase II-D). Weight 27.2 kg. Box shaped, 33 cm high, 38 x 38 cm. Circularly polarized VHF canted turnstile, UHF quarter wave monopole, and HF half-wave dipole antenna system. Another cooperative international effort (United States, Canada, Germany and Japan). AO-8 had a similar store-and-forward service as AO-7 and carried Mode A (145.850-900 MHz uplink and 29.400-500 MHz downlink) and Mode J (145.900-146.000 MHz uplink and 435.100 MHz downlink (inverted)) linear transponders and telemetry beacons on 435.095 MHz and 29.402 MHz. AO-8's primary mission was for educational applications and amateur communications. It was in operation for six years until the battery failed on June 24, 1983.


1978 March 6 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 7 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1978 March 8 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Wolter I X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1978 March 9 - . 08:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Malemute. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi).

1978 March 10 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • Ferry Enterprise from Edwards to Texas. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Edwards to Ellington Air Force Base, Texas (approximately 3 hours, 38 min).

1978 March 10 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 993 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10725 . COSPAR: 1978-027A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 March 10 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1978 March 10 - .
1978 March 11 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1978 March 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Enterprise delivered. - . Nation: USA.

1978 March 13 - .
  • Ferry Enterprise from Texas to Huntsville - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Ellington AFB to Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala..

1978 March 13 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Extreme ultraviolet airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1978 March 13 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion.
  • Auroral UV Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1978 March 13 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Auroral NO Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1978 March 15 - . 15:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 994 - . Mass: 920 kg (2,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 10731 . COSPAR: 1978-028A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 971 km (603 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 March 16 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIID.
  • KH-9 no. 14 - . Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-9. Decay Date: 1978-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10733 . COSPAR: 1978-029A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • OPS 7858 - . Payload: SSF-D No. 2. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft Bus: P 11. Spacecraft: SSF. USAF Sat Cat: 10734 . COSPAR: 1978-029B. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 95.8000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Radar monitoring..

1978 March 16 - .
1978 March 17 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 995 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10735 . COSPAR: 1978-030A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 March 18 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1978 March 19 - .
  • Aft payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 20 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1978 March 21 - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1978 March 22 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1978 March 23 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • SAMSO briefed the Defense Systems Acquisition Review Council (DSARC) on the results of the validation phase of the development of the space shuttle's Inertial Upper Stage. - . The DSARC recommended that the program be allowed to continue into full scale development..

1978 March 23 - . 20:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1978 March 24 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: VOLNA. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1978 March 25 - . 18:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC. FAILURE: Second stage hydraulic pump failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DSCS II-09 - . Payload: DSCS II F-9. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS II. Decay Date: 1978-03-25 .

    A Titan IIIC was launched from Cape Canaveral carrying DSCS II satellites F-9 and F-10. The vehicle suffered a failure in its second stage hydraulic system about eight minutes after liftoff, and both the vehicle and its payload were lost. Launched with DSCS F10.

  • DSCS II F-10 - . Payload: DSCS II F-10. Mass: 562 kg (1,238 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Program: DSCS. Spacecraft: DSCS II. A Titan IIIC was launched from Cape Canaveral carrying DSCS II satellites F-9 and F-10. The vehicle suffered a failure in its second stage hydraulic system about eight minutes after liftoff, and both the vehicle and its payload were lost. .

1978 March 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 March 27 - . 10:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi).

1978 March 28 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 996 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10744 . COSPAR: 1978-031A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 949 km (589 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 March 29 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 626. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 March 29 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi).

1978 March 30 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. Launch Pad: LC81/24?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 997 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 997. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10770 . COSPAR: 1978-032A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Given the on-pad explosion of the LVI-2 launch attempt, plans to crew the upper VA re-entry capsule in the next test was abandoned. LVI-3 (VA's 102P and 102L / Cosmos 997 and Cosmos 998) was launched unmanned four months behind the original schedule. Both capsules were recovered after one orbit. One source indicates that one of the capsules was 009P, on its third launch and second flight to orbit. This was said to have demonstrated the multiple re-entry capability of the heat shield and the first planned reuse of a spacecraft (Gemini 2 was refurbished and reflown as MOL-1 in the 1960's, but was not designed for that purpose).

  • Cosmos 998 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10771 . COSPAR: 1978-032B. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Dual reentry test of two TKS-VA capsules. Recovered March 30, 1978 after one orbit..

1978 March 30 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 999 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 10773 . COSPAR: 1978-033A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 March 31 - .
  • ET for vibe tests delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. External tank for mated vertical ground vibration test delivered..

1978 March 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, SRB refurbishment. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Operational readiness date, solid rocket booster refurbishment and subassembly, Kennedy Space Center. Fla..

1978 March 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 March 31 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1000 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsikada. USAF Sat Cat: 10776 . COSPAR: 1978-034A. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 955 km (593 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Civilian naval navigation satellite. Completion of work on a space navigation system designed to permit determination of the position of Soviet naval and fishing vessels..

1978 March 31 - . 23:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Intelsat 4A F-6 - . Mass: 826 kg (1,821 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 312 / HS 351 / HS 353. Spacecraft: Intelsat 4A. Completed Operations Date: 1986-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10778 . COSPAR: 1978-035A. Apogee: 35,823 km (22,259 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 11.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 63 deg E in 1978-1982; over the Pacific Ocean 174 deg E in 1982-1986; over the Pacific Ocean 170 deg E in 1986 As of 26 August 2001 located at 92.43 deg E drifting at 0.407 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 75.50E drifting at 0.437W degrees per day.


1978 Apr - . LV Family: Minuteman.
  • A group of independent welding experts, asked by SAMSO to evaluate criteria and workmanship of defective welds in Wing I and Squadron 20. - . They reported that SAMSO's acceptance standards had been realistic, that the welding done at Squadron 20 had been below normal industry standards, and that revised methods of welding and inspection should ensure a satisfactory product..

1978 Apr - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract to Martin Marietta Aerospace for system definition of Missile X assembly, test, and system support. - . The contract also contained an option for full-scale engineering development to be performed between 1 January 1979 and 30 September 1983. Under the contract, Martin Marietta began studies to prepare for system definition of Missile X reentry systems..

1978 April 1 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1978 April 3 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 April 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1001 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 4L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 10.87 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10783 . COSPAR: 1978-036A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned precursor. Recovered April 15, 1978 12:02 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Soyuz T test -failure.
    Maneuver Summary:
    202 km X 231 km orbit to 195 km X 291 km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    195 km X 291 km orbit to 306 km X 322 km orbit. Delta V: 40 m/s
    306 km X 322 km orbit to 308 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 60 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1978 April 5 - . Launch Site: Whiteman AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The integrated program of modifications to Minuteman launch facilities began at Wing IV (Whiteman AFB, Missouri) with the training facility. - .

1978 April 5 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 April 5 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES TREP-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 April 5 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • DENSITY sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1978 April 6 - . LV Family: Titan, Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D, Shuttle.
  • NASA withdrew its requirement for a Titan III 34D/IUS to be used as backup for a space shuttle launch of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in 1980. - .

1978 April 6 - . Launch Site: Holloman AFB.
  • A balloon carrying two mosaic sensors was launched from Holloman AFB, New Mexico, as part of the Balloon Altitude Mosaic Measurements program. - . When the balloon was only six feet off the ground, a shaft broke and allowed the payload to fall to earth, thus bringing the flight to a premature end..

1978 April 6 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1002 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10785 . COSPAR: 1978-037A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 April 7 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract for the system definition phase of the development program for Missile X Stage IV to the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. - .

1978 April 7 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
  • OPS 8790 - . Payload: AFP-472 AQUACADE 4. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: ELINT. Spacecraft: Rhyolite. USAF Sat Cat: 10787 . COSPAR: 1978-038A. Apogee: 35,855 km (22,279 mi). Perigee: 35,679 km (22,169 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,435.10 min. Fourth and final launch of Rhyolite geostationary ELINT satellite. Code name changed to Aquacade after Rhyolite name came out in trial of spy Boyce..

1978 April 7 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1978 April 7 - . 22:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • Yuri 1 - . Payload: BSE-1. Mass: 678 kg (1,494 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Program: BS. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Yuri. Completed Operations Date: 1982-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10792 . COSPAR: 1978-039A. Apogee: 35,868 km (22,287 mi). Perigee: 35,736 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 11.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min.

    Experimental comsat. Medium-scale broadcasting satellite for experimental purposes (BSE). Launch vehicle Delta 2914-140. Launch time 2201 GMT. Location 110 deg E. Characteristics of satellite: Weight approx 355 kg in an early stage in orbit. Configuration - box shaped satelli te with 2 solar array panels with overall span of 8.95m. Height 3.09m, width 1.32m, length 1.19m. 3-axis stabilized attitude control. Expected life 3 years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 110 deg E in 1978-1982 As of 4 September 2001 located at 44.59 deg E drifting at 0.116 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 108.19E drifting at 0.031E degrees per day.


1978 April 8 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1978 April 9 - .
  • A fire occurred in the FLTSATCOM assembly area of the TRW facility in Redondo Beach, California. - . Spacecraft: FLTSATCOM. Many pieces of FLTSATCOM hardware were damaged by soot and smoke, and some suffered water damage. The fire caused a two-month delay in the testing of the second FLTSATCOM satellite and a four-month delay in the integration of the third satellite..

1978 April 9 - . 04:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • E / / B Aurora active mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi).

1978 April 10 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1978 April 11 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi).

1978 April 11 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-32 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 11 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-32 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 11 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-32 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 11 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-32 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 12 - . 01:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VA.
  • O / Ozone profile Aurora mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1978 April 12 - . 15:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1978 April 13 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • SSC S27 TWILIGHT Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1978 April 14 - .
  • Complete ground vibration test modification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Complete ground vibration test modification at MSFC.

1978 April 14 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • A contract for full-scale development of the space shuttle's Inertial Upper Stage was distributed to the Boeing Aerospace Company. - .

1978 April 15 - . 16:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Feng Bao 1.
  • DDDS test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1978 April 17 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1978 April 18 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-300.
  • AST 1 Technology mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1978 April 19 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1978 April 19 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 20 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1003 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10811 . COSPAR: 1978-040A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 April 21 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle MPTA First test - . Nation: USA. For the first time three SSME engines are run on the MPTA test article mated to an external tank - for 2.5 seconds..

1978 April 21 - .
  • First static firing, MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. First static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL (2.5 seconds; stub nozzles).

1978 April 21 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper, Trident.
  • The Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering asked the Navy and Air Force to conduct a joint study to define a common missile which could be used in place of both Trident II and the MX. - . These were under separate development by the respective services. The study was also to formulate a management plan for development of the common missile and to estimate the potential savings from such a joint development..

1978 April 21 - . LV Family: Shuttle, Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D, Shuttle.
  • SAMSO representatives briefed HQ AFSC officials on possible alternatives to deal with the cost growth problem in the Titan III 34D/IUS development program. - .

1978 April 21 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • SAMSO issued a request for technical proposals for production of carbon-carbon nosetips for the Mark 12A reentry system. - .

1978 April 21 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 21 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 April 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1978 April 23 - .
  • Columbia ready for power-on. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Complete final assembly and closeout system installation, ready for power-on, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 April 24 - .
  • Start precombined systems test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 April 24 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 645. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-33 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 24 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 645. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-33 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 24 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 645. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-33 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 24 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 645. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-33 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 April 25 - .
  • The U.S. and eight other NATO countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding that opened the way for NATO participation in the Global Positioning System program. - . Spacecraft: Navstar.

1978 April 25 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 April 26 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The results of a Multiple Aimpoint Basing Study for Missile X basing, conducted by SAMSO's ICBM Program Office, were briefed to the Air Force Scienctific Advisory Board. - .

1978 April 26 - .
  • Fortuna AFS,! North Dakota, was selected as the site for the NAVSTAR Control Center. The Center was to control the NAVSTAR satellites used in the Global Positioning System program. - . Spacecraft: Navstar.

1978 April 26 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 615 km (382 mi).

1978 April 26 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1.
  • HCMM - . Payload: AEM 1. Mass: 134 kg (295 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AEM. Decay Date: 1981-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10818 . COSPAR: 1978-041A. Apogee: 641 km (398 mi). Perigee: 560 km (340 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; prodeuced thermal maps of atmosphere. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1978 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC170. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1978 April 28 - .
  • Forward payload bay doors on dock, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Forward payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 May - .
  • Yantar-2K accepted into military service - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. An acceptance test flight in October 1977 led to the Yantar-2K being accepted into Red Army service in May 1978..

1978 May - . Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Buran technical project completed - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Buran.

    The technical project was completed in May 1978. The flight test plan at the beginning of the project foresaw first launch of the booster in 1983, with the payload being an unmanned OK-ML-1 mock-up of the orbiter. The first flight Buran was to fly unpiloted in 1984. Manned flights were to be routine by the 1987 seventieth anniversary of the Soviet Union.


1978 May - .
  • Pentagon issues ASAT target list - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Conventional ASAT. The US Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a priority list of potential Soviet target satellites for the MHV hit-to-kill ASAT. The Chiefs also directed that work on begin on a 'conventional ASAT', a low-risk alternative system using off-the-shelf technology..

1978 May 1 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The period of performance began on contracts awarded by SAMSO for the system definition phase of the development program for three Missile X propulsion stages. - . The contracts were awarded to Thiokol Corporation for Stage I, Aerojet Solid Propulsion Company for Stage II, and Hercules Incorporated for Stage III..

1978 May - .
  • A successful critical design review was held for the Dormant Inertial Navigation System (DINS). - . Spacecraft Bus: ABRES. Spacecraft: AMaRV. The DINS, which employed a laser gyro, was intended to function as the navigation subsystem in a manuevering reentry vehicle and was to be flight tested aboard the second Advanced Maneuvering Reentry Vehicle in 1979..

1978 May - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Space Shuttle Orbiter 101 began undergoing vibration tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. - .

1978 May - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • A contract for integration of payloads into the space shuttle's Inertial Upper Stage was distributed to the Boeing Aerospace Company. The value of the contract was $10.72 million. - .

1978 May - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Assembly of the Minuteman III boosters scheduled for delivery in CY 1978 was begun by the Boeing Aerospace Company at Hill AFB. - .

1978 May 1 - . 03:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2U.
  • AMS 3 - . Payload: DMSP 5D S-3 / OPS 6182. Mass: 513 kg (1,130 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D. USAF Sat Cat: 10820 . COSPAR: 1978-042A. Apogee: 799 km (496 mi). Perigee: 786 km (488 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. A Thor LV-2F was launched from Vandenberg AFB carrying the third DMSP Block 5D-1 satellite. The launch was successful, and the spacecraft and its sensors functioned normally once in orbit. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1978 May 2 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The results of a Multiple Aimpoint Basing Study for Missile X basing, conducted by SAMSO's ICBM Program Office, were briefed to the Defense Science Board. - .

1978 May 2 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D.
  • The AFSC Missile Mishap Investigation Board, investigating the failure of a Titan IIIC launch of DSCS II satellites on 25 March, submitted its final report. - . Spacecraft: DSCS II.

1978 May 2 - . 21:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1978 May 3 - . 15:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 May 4 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1978 May 4 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1978 May 4 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma/Solar Ultraviolet/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1978 May 5 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1978 May 5 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1004 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 10846 . COSPAR: 1978-043A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1004 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10852 . COSPAR: 1978-043G. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.68 min.

1978 May 6 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1978 May 8 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1978 May 9 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1978 May 10 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SRB Drop test - . Nation: USA. An unloaded shuttle solid rocket motor is dropped from an NB-52 in a test of the parachute recovery system..

1978 May 10 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Modifications to the main engine of the space shuttle orbiters began to be evaluated in a series of test firings. - .

1978 May 10 - . Launch Site: Whiteman AFB.
  • SAC turned over the first launch facility at Wing IV (Whiteman AFB, Missouri) to SAMSO. SAMSO was to conduct an integrated program of improvements at the Wing. - .

1978 May 11 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914.
  • OTS 2 - . Payload: OTS 2. Mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1991-01-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10855 . COSPAR: 1978-044A. Apogee: 36,128 km (22,448 mi). Perigee: 36,085 km (22,422 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,452.50 min.

    Orbital Test Satellite; replacement for OTS-A; communications experiments. European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 2259 GMT. Reached definitive position, 10 deg east longitude, on May 24 at 0800 GMT. Launch by US Delta rocket. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 10 deg E in 1978-1982 over the Atlantic Ocean 5 deg E in 1982-1990 As of 30 August 2001 located at 18.51 deg W drifting at 4.070 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 39.02E drifting at 4.083W degrees per day.


1978 May 12 - . 04:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1005 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 15. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-06-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10860 . COSPAR: 1978-045A. Apogee: 494 km (306 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

1978 May 12 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7 AC.
  • Ultraviolet spectrometer Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi).

1978 May 12 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1006 - . Mass: 1,120 kg (2,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1979-03-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 10862 . COSPAR: 1978-046A. Apogee: 407 km (252 mi). Perigee: 384 km (238 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Radar calibration mission..

1978 May 12 - . 23:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-34 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 12 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-34 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 12 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-34 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 12 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 623. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-34 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 13 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/SVS.
  • Navstar 2 - . Payload: GPS SVN 2 / OPS 5112. Mass: 759 kg (1,673 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 1. USAF Sat Cat: 10893 . COSPAR: 1978-047A. Apogee: 20,653 km (12,833 mi). Perigee: 19,523 km (12,131 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 714.20 min.

    An Atlas booster was launched from Vandenberg AFB with the second NAVSTAR satellite. Launch was successful and the satellite functioned normally once in orbit. It began operating at its final station on 27 June. Also known as Navigational Development Satellite 2. Technology prototype of Navstar satellite.


1978 May 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Buran technical project completed. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. Buran engineering details were definitised and drawing release began to the production shops..

1978 May 15 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • NRL Mk II ultraviolet Camera Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1978 May 15 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 629. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 16 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1007 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10895 . COSPAR: 1978-048A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks..

1978 May 16 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 191 km (118 mi).

1978 May 17 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The Air Force Audit Agency issued a report on the Mark 12A acquisition program. - .

1978 May 17 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1008 - . Mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1981-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10898 . COSPAR: 1978-049A. Apogee: 549 km (341 mi). Perigee: 499 km (310 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. Replaced Cosmos 845. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1978 May 18 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 1A.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1978 May 19 - .
  • Start forward RCS thermal tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 May 19 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1009 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1978-05-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10904 . COSPAR: 1978-050A. Apogee: 1,364 km (847 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 108.60 min. ASAT interceptor. Succeeded in intercept of Cosmos 970. Deorbited using on-board engine..

1978 May 19 - . 22:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapani Tonneo. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG.
  • Otrag Flight 2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). Four-module test vehicle, 6 m long. High altitude night test. Reached 150 km altitude..

1978 May 20 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Pioneer Venus Orbiter - . Payload: Pioneer-Venus 1. Mass: 582 kg (1,283 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Program: Pioneer. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Pioneer 12. Decay Date: 1992-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10911 . COSPAR: 1978-051A.

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978. After entering orbit around Venus in 1978, the spacecraft returned global maps of the planet's clouds, atmosphere and ionosphere, measurements of the atmosphere-solar wind interaction, and radar maps of 93 percent of the planet's surface. Additionally, the vehicle made use of several opportunities to make systematic UV observations of several comets. From Venus orbit insertion to July 1980, periapsis was held between 142 and 253 km (at 17 degrees north latitude) to facilitate radar and ionospheric measurements. The spacecraft was in a 24 hour orbit with an apoapsis of 66,900 km. Thereafter, the periapsis was allowed to rise (to 2290 km at maximum) and then fall, to conserve fuel. In 1991 the Radar Mapper was reactivated to investigate previously inaccessible southern portions of the planet. In May 1992 Pioneer Venus began the final phase of its mission, in which the periapsis was held between 150 and 250 km until the fuel ran out and atmospheric entry destroyed the spacecraft. With a planned primary mission duration of only eight months, the spacecraft remained in operation until October 8, 1992 when it finally burned up in Venus' atmosphere after running out of propellant.


1978 May 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-35 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 21 - . 12:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-35 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 21 - . 12:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-35 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 21 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon C3.
  • OT-35 Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1978 May 22 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1978 May 23 - .
  • Soviet Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 7 selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grekov, Viktorenko.

1978 May 23 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 HRV. LV Family: Stonechat. Launch Vehicle: Falstaff. FAILURE: Failure.
1978 May 23 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1010 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 6. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10915 . COSPAR: 1978-052A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1978 May 23 - . 16:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/1?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1011 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10917 . COSPAR: 1978-053A. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 956 km (594 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 May 24 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1978 May 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1012 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10919 . COSPAR: 1978-054A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 May 26 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage mate, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 26 - .
  • Complete forward RCS structure, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 26 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • A carbon-carbon nozzle, manufactured for the space shuttle's Inertial Upper Stage propulsion system by a new low-cost process, underwent a test firing at the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory. - .

1978 May 27 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 13L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 13L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran. Failed launch of communications satellite..

1978 May 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1978 May 30 - .
  • Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC.

1978 May 30 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere/Plasma/Fields mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 May 31 - .
  • Loaded SRBs (2) arrive for mated vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Loaded SRBs (2) arrive at MSFC for mated vertical ground vibration test.

1978 Jun - .
  • SAMSO awarded a $4.72 million contract to the Harris Corporation to develop and produce the Mark IV transportable terminal for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. - . Spacecraft: DMSP.

1978 Jun - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg. LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Martin Marietta was awarded a follow-on contract to perform systems integration during the acquisition of the ground support system for the space shuttle at Vandenberg AFB. - .

1978 June 1 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1978 June 2 - .
  • Birth of Yi So-yeon - . Nation: Korea South. Related Persons: Yi Soyeon. Korean engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-14. First Korean in space..

1978 June 2 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-40 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 10925 . COSPAR: 1978-055A. Apogee: 38,729 km (24,065 mi). Perigee: 1,627 km (1,010 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1978 June 3 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT136M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 June 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 5 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapani Tonneo. Launch Vehicle: OTRAG. FAILURE: Failure. Heeled over and crashed after a few seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Otrag Flight 3 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Four module test vehicle, 12 m long. Pitch and yaw control test. Attempt to reach 100 km, but veered off course on launch due to a valve on one unit being stuck at 50% thrust..

1978 June 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg. LV Family: Shuttle, Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D, Shuttle.
  • SAMSO was authorized by the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force to develop a radio guidance system for Titan III34Ds launched from Vandenberg instead of the IUS inertial guidance system. - . This program change would reduce development costs for the Titan III34D program..

1978 June 6 - . 17:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1978 June 6 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1978 June 6 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1978 June 7 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1013 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 145. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10930 . COSPAR: 1978-056A. Apogee: 1,554 km (965 mi). Perigee: 1,478 km (918 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.30 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1016 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 148. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10933 . COSPAR: 1978-056D. Apogee: 1,498 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,471 km (914 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1017 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 149. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10934 . COSPAR: 1978-056E. Apogee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Perigee: 1,458 km (905 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.40 min.
  • Cosmos 1018 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 150. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10935 . COSPAR: 1978-056F. Apogee: 1,488 km (924 mi). Perigee: 1,442 km (896 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.20 min.
  • Cosmos 1020 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 152. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10937 . COSPAR: 1978-056H. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,408 km (874 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1014 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 146. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10931 . COSPAR: 1978-056B. Apogee: 1,531 km (951 mi). Perigee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1015 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 147. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10932 . COSPAR: 1978-056C. Apogee: 1,516 km (941 mi). Perigee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1019 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 151. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 10936 . COSPAR: 1978-056G. Apogee: 1,488 km (924 mi). Perigee: 1,424 km (884 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.

1978 June 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT63GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 June 9 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1978 June 10 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1021 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10939 . COSPAR: 1978-057A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 June 10 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Chalet 1 - . Payload: Chalet 1 (Vortex 1) / OPS 9454. Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Chalet. USAF Sat Cat: 10941 . COSPAR: 1978-058A. Apogee: 42,039 km (26,121 mi). Perigee: 29,929 km (18,596 mi). Inclination: 12.0000 deg. Period: 1,446.30 min. First launch of the heavier, mored advanced CHALET ELINT satellites. (the project was renamed VORTEX when the code name CHALET appeared in the New York Times)..

1978 June 11 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1978 June 11 - . 01:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 June 12 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Aries.
  • Astro 8-2 X-ray astronomy / microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi).

1978 June 12 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1022 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10944 . COSPAR: 1978-059A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 June 13 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 June 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 14 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIID.
  • KH-11 no. 2 - . Payload: KH-11 no. 2 / OPS 4515. Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CIA, NRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-11. Decay Date: 1981-08-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10947 . COSPAR: 1978-060A. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Inclination: 97.0000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    SAMSO held a successful preliminary design review with Martin Marietta on the radio guidance system equipment for Titan III34Ds launched from Vandenberg AFB. KH-11 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).


1978 June 15 - .
  • Third static firing, MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Third static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL (50 seconds, 90% thrust).

1978 June 15 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A Missile X Milestone II Draft Environmental Impact Statement, prepared by Henningson, Durham and Richardson, Ecosciences Division, was delivered to SAMSO. - .

1978 June 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1978 June 15 - . 20:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 29 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Backup Crew: Lyakhov, Ryumin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 46. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Lyakhov, Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10952 . COSPAR: 1978-061A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station a crew consisting of V.V. Kovalenko and A.S. Ivanchenkov to conduct scientific and technological investigations and experiments..

1978 June 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES ANT-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Four small reentry vehicles were successfully launched down the Western Test Range in an effort to evaluate the performance of several nosetip materials in clear weather. The launch was referred to as Advanced Nosetip Test III (A.N.T. III). .

1978 June 16 - . 10:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • GOES 3 - . Payload: GOES C. Mass: 627 kg (1,382 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GOES. USAF Sat Cat: 10953 . COSPAR: 1978-062A. Apogee: 35,812 km (22,252 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 9.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg W in 1978-1981 over the Americas at 90 deg W in 1982-1984 over the Pacific Ocean 135 deg W in 1985-1987 over the Americas at129 deg W in 1987-1990 over the Pacific Ocean 175 deg W in 1990-1995 over the Americas at 102-110 deg W in 1996-on. As of 5 September 2001 located at 101.78 deg W drifting at 0.017 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 105.91W drifting at 0.030W degrees per day.


1978 June 17 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1978 June 19 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1978 June 20 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1978 June 21 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1023 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 10961 . COSPAR: 1978-063A. Apogee: 786 km (488 mi). Perigee: 766 km (475 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

1978 June 22 - .
  • Jim Christy's Discovery of Pluto Moon Charon - . Nation: USA.

1978 June 22 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Standard Test Missile 16W, a Minuteman III carrying two Mark 12A reentry vehicles, was successfully launched from Vandenberg AFB. The test provided data on the performance of experimental nosetip and heatshield materials. .

1978 June 22 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 23 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 June 24 - .
  • Death of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Keldysh. Chief Theoretician of the Soviet missile and space programmes, 1946-1978. Played a key role in virtually every space project decision until his death. He was President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR from 1961 to 1975..

1978 June 24 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1978 June 26 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi).

1978 June 26 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • JASPIC - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1978 June 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT64GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 June 27 - . 01:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/Agena D.
  • Seasat 1 - . Payload: Seasat A. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: JPL, NASA. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Seasat. USAF Sat Cat: 10967 . COSPAR: 1978-064A. Apogee: 765 km (475 mi). Perigee: 761 km (472 mi). Inclination: 108.0000 deg. Period: 100.10 min.

    An Atlas booster launched SEASAT-A, a NASA satellite. The purpose of the mission was to evaluate the use of microwave instruments to obtain oceanographic data. The launch was successful, but the satellite ceased functioning because of an electrical short after 99 days of operation. Oceanographic. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1978 June 27 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 30 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Hermaszewski, Klimuk. Backup Crew: Jankowski, Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 67. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Hermaszewski, Jankowski, Klimuk, Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29, Soyuz 30. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 7.92 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10968 . COSPAR: 1978-065A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station, under the Intercosmos programme, a second, international, crew consisting of P.I. Klimuk (USSR) and M. Hermaszewski (Poland) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments..

1978 June 28 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. Launch Vehicle: INTA-300. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1978 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC170. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 28 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1024 - . Payload: Oko #9. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10970 . COSPAR: 1978-066A. Apogee: 35,365 km (21,974 mi). Perigee: 4,984 km (3,096 mi). Inclination: 67.3000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Replaced Cosmos 931. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1978 June 28 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1025 - . Payload: Tselina-D Mass model no. 16. Mass: 4,375 kg (9,645 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2007-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10973 . COSPAR: 1978-067A. Apogee: 567 km (352 mi). Perigee: 551 km (342 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

1978 June 28 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 599. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC102. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 29 - . 22:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Comstar 3 - . Payload: Comstar 1C. Mass: 1,520 kg (3,350 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Comsat. Program: Comstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: HS 312 / HS 351 / HS 353. Spacecraft: Intelsat 4A. Completed Operations Date: 1986-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10975 . COSPAR: 1978-068A. Apogee: 36,172 km (22,476 mi). Perigee: 36,007 km (22,373 mi). Inclination: 11.5000 deg. Period: 1,451.60 min.

    US domestic telephone service. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 87 deg W in 1978-1984 over the Americas at 76 deg W in 1984-1986 As of 1 September 2001 located at 101.79 deg W drifting at 3.884 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 39.19E drifting at 3.878W degrees per day.


1978 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1978 Jul - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company delivered the first three Titan IIIC Transtage engines fitted with improved transtage injectors. - .

1978 Jul - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The results of the joint Navy-Air Force study to define a common missile which could be used in place of both the Trident II and Missile X were briefed to the Undersecretary of Defense. - .

    The study concluded that some cost savings could result from development of a "common" or "mostly common" missile, and that a common missile was technically feasible and would meet the requirements for the Trident II. However, no common or mostly common missile could approach the performance of the baseline Missile X.


1978 Jul - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO exercised contract options to extend the system definition phase of development programs for Missile X propulsion stages. At the same time, SAMSO postponed the missile design review three months - .

1978 July 1 - . Launch Pad: Atlantic Ocean, 38.0 N x 75.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeron/Ionos - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 July 2 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1026 - . Payload: Energia s/n 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Energia satellite. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10977 . COSPAR: 1978-069A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space..

1978 July 3 - .
  • Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS pod to WSTF - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 July 4 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES ANT-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Four small reentry vehicles were successfully launched down the Western Test Range in an effort to evaluate the performance of various nosetip materials in severe weather. The launch was referred to as Advanced Nosetip Test II (A.N.T. II). .

1978 July 5 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1978 July 5 - .
1978 July 6 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1978 July 7 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle MPTA long duration test - . Nation: USA. The engine assembly is run for several minutes, and engine restart is demonstrated..

1978 July 7 - .
  • Complete mate payload bay doors, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Complete mate forward and aft payload bay doors, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 July 7 - .
  • Fourth static firing, MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 July 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 7 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 2 - . Payload: Progress s/n 101. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.59 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . Decay Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 10979 . COSPAR: 1978-070A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Jul 1978 12:58:59 GMT. Undocked on 2 Aug 1978 04:57:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Aug 1978 01:31:07 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.92 days. Total docked time 23.67 days.


1978 July 8 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1978 July 10 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract for the system definition phase of a Missile X flight computer to Autonetics Group of Rockwell International Corporation. - .

1978 July 10 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg WTR. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 13 - .
  • Reconfigure from boost to launch, vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Reconfigure from boost to launch, mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 July 14 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • ESA-Geos 2 - . Payload: ESA GEOS 2. Mass: 573 kg (1,263 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ESA-Geos. Completed Operations Date: 1984-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10981 . COSPAR: 1978-071A. Apogee: 36,049 km (22,399 mi). Perigee: 36,027 km (22,386 mi). Inclination: 14.6000 deg. Period: 1,449.00 min.

    Magnetospheric research. European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 1043 GMT. Reached initial operational position of 6 deg East on 26 Jul 1978. During the two years of its mission, it will be maintained in position between longitude 0 and 35 deg east in geosynchronous orbit. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 36 deg E in 1978-1979 over the Atlantic Ocean 6-36 deg E in 1979-1981; over the Atlantic Ocean 24 deg E in 1981; over the Atlantic Ocean 33-37 deg E in 1981-1984 As of 3 September 2001 located at 177.77 deg W drifting at 3.212 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 179.12E drifting at 3.212W degrees per day.


1978 July 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-41 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10984 . COSPAR: 1978-072A. Apogee: 38,306 km (23,802 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 61.8000 deg. Period: 681.90 min. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1978 July 15 - .
  • Deliver SRBs empty for mated vertical vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Deliver SRBs (2) empty to MSFC for mated vertical ground vibration test.

1978 July 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper.
  • Air Force Chief of Staff General Allen directed AFSC to develop and deploy a vertical shelter engineering prototype to obtain data on construction, operations, and cost. - . Both the vertical shelter and the hybrid in-line trench concepts were to be developed as options for full-scale engineering development, and information on these was to be presented at AFSARC II in preparation for DSARC II..

1978 July 17 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1978 July 18 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Testing of modifications to the main engine of the space shuttle orbiters was suspended when a high pressure oxygen pump failed. - .

1978 July 18 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 4 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 14L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10987 . COSPAR: 1978-073A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 12.3000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 deg E in 1978-1981 As of 1 September 2001 located at 42.47 deg E drifting at 0.129 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.35E drifting at 0.106E degrees per day.


1978 July 19 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 July 20 - .
  • General Electric informed SAMSO that there would be a serious cost overrun in the DSCS III program. The contractor estimated that the cost of completing full-scale development would exceed the ceiling - . Spacecraft: DSCS II.

1978 July 20 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1978 July 21 - .
  • First firing development test, OMS - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 July 22 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 24 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1978 July 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT133M-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 July 25 - . 04:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • DENSITY Laser Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1978 July 26 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SRB Drop test - . Nation: USA. An unloaded shuttle solid rocket motor is dropped from an NB-52 in a test of the parachute recovery system..

1978 July 27 - . 04:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1027 - . Mass: 920 kg (2,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 10991 . COSPAR: 1978-074A. Apogee: 998 km (620 mi). Perigee: 957 km (594 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 July 27 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. Launch Pad: LC29/pad?. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Chevaline warhead test launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1978 July 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • DP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 29 - . 04:00 GMT - .
1978 July 30 - . 22:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Atomic oxygen Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1978 July 30 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion.
  • SSC S32 NLC-OBS Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1978 July 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, OPF 1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Operational readiness date, Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, shuttle landing facility, and Hypergolic Maintenance Facility, KSC.

1978 August - .
  • Mir draft project completed - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir.

    By this time Mir had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. It was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.


1978 Aug - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg. LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Installation of the Vandenberg Launch Processing System began at Vandenberg AFB. The system was made up of data processing equipment that would be used in conducting launch operations for the shuttle. - .

1978 August 2 - . 21:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 August 3 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1978 August 4 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1978 August 5 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34B.
  • SDS no. 3 - . Payload: SDS no. 3 / OPS 7310. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO, USAF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Quasar. Decay Date: 2001-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10993 . COSPAR: 1978-075A. Apogee: 39,053 km (24,266 mi). Perigee: 315 km (195 mi). Inclination: 62.5000 deg. Period: 697.10 min. Or Jumpseat..

1978 August 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1028 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 14. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10995 . COSPAR: 1978-076A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Successful full duration flight. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1978 August 7 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 3 - . Payload: Progress s/n 103. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 15.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . Decay Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 10999 . COSPAR: 1978-077A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Aug 1978 23:59:30 GMT. Undocked on 21 Aug 1978 15:42:50 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Aug 1978 16:45:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.10 days. Total docked time 11.66 days.


1978 August 8 - . 07:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • Pioneer Venus 2 - . Payload: Pioneer-Venus 2. Mass: 904 kg (1,992 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Program: Pioneer. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Pioneer 13. Decay Date: 1978-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11001 . COSPAR: 1978-078A.

    The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe consisted of a bus which carried one large and three small `atmospheric probes. The large probe was released on November 16, 1978 and the three small probes on November 20. All four probes entered the Venus atmosphere on December 9, followed by the bus. The small probes were each targeted at different parts of the planet and were named accordingly. The North probe entered the atmosphere at about 60 degrees north latitude on the day side. The night probe entered on the night side. The day probe entered well into the day side, and was the only one of the four probes which continued to send radio signals back after impact, for over an hour. With no heat shield or parachute, the bus survived and made measurements only to about 110 km altitude before burning up. It afforded the only direct view of the upper Venus atmosphere, as the probes did not begin making direct measurements until they had decelerated lower in the atmosphere.

  • Pioneer Venus Probe 1 - . Payload: Pioneer-Venus 2. Mass: 315 kg (694 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Program: Pioneer. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Pioneer 13. Decay Date: 1978-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 12103 . COSPAR: 1978-078D.
  • Pioneer Venus Probe 3 - . Payload: Pioneer-Venus 2. Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Program: Pioneer. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Pioneer 13. Decay Date: 1978-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 12105 . COSPAR: 1978-078F.
  • Pioneer Venus Probe 2 - . Payload: Pioneer-Venus 2. Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Program: Pioneer. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Pioneer 13. Decay Date: 1978-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 12104 . COSPAR: 1978-078E.
  • Pioneer Venus Probe 4 - . Payload: Pioneer-Venus 2. Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Program: Pioneer. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Pioneer 13. Decay Date: 1978-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 12106 . COSPAR: 1978-078G.

1978 August 9 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 August 10 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Aeron/Ionos - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS thermal test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete test preparation, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 August 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 August 11 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 August 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Testing of the main engine of the space shuttle orbiters was resumed after a failure of the high pressure oxygen pump was determined to have been caused by test instrumentation. - .

1978 August 12 - . 15:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • ISEE 3 - . Payload: ISEE C. Mass: 479 kg (1,056 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ISEE. USAF Sat Cat: 11004 . COSPAR: 1978-079A. Apogee: 1,089,200 km (676,700 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 67,852.90 min.

    International Sun-Earth Explorer; later renamed the International Cometary Explorer. Measured interaction between solar wind and Earth; rendezvoused with comet Giacobini-Zinner September 11, 1985. After several passes through the Earth's magnetotail, with gravity assists from lunar flybys in March, April, September and October of 1983, a final close lunar flyby (119.4 km above the moon's surface) on December 22, 1983, ejected the spacecraft out of the Earth-Moon system and into a heliocentric orbit ahead of the Earth, on a trajectory intercepting that of Comet Giacobini-Zinner. A total of fifteen propulsive maneuvers (four of which were planned) and five lunar flybys were needed to carry out the transfer from the halo orbit to an escape trajectory from the earth-moon system into a heliocentric orbit. The primary scientific objective of ICE was to study the interaction between the solar wind and a cometary atmosphere. As planned, the spacecraft traversed the plasma tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, and made in situ measurements of particles, fields, and waves. It also transited between the Sun and Comet Halley in late March 1986, when other spacecraft (Giotto, Planet-A, MS-T5, VEGA) were also in the vicinity of Comet Halley on their comet rendezvous missions. ICE became the first spacecraft to directly investigate two comets. An update to the ICE mission was approved by NASA headquarters in 1991. It defined a Heliospheric mission for ICE consisting of investigations of coronal mass ejections in coordination with ground-based observations, continued cosmic ray studies, and special period observations such as when ICE and Ulysses are on the same solar radial line. As of January 1990, ICE was in a 355 day heliocentric orbit with an aphelion of 1.03 AU, a perihelion of 0.93 AU and an inclination of 0.1 degree. This will bring it back to the vicinity of the earth-moon system in August, 2014. Termination of operations of ISEE 3 was authorized May 5, 1997.

    International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 spacecraft, also known as the International Cometary Explorer after its trip to P/Giacobini-Zinner in 1985, returned to the vicinity of the Earth in August 2014 following 30 years in solar orbit. On April 18 ISEE 3 was in a 0.927 x 1.034 AU x 0.06 deg solar orbit at a distance of 28.9 million km from Earth. A group of enthusiasts attempted to revive the spacecraft. ISEE 3 was the first spacecraft at the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point. However, in a special 1986 ceremony NASA Administrator James Fletcher transferred ownership of the spacecraft from NASA to the Smithsonian Institution. Additional Details: here....


1978 August 13 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Atomic oxygen Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1978 August 13 - . 23:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1.
  • SSC S26B Ion - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1978 August 14 - .
  • Start coefficient tests, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Start coefficient tests, STA-099, Lockheed facility, Palmdale.

1978 August 14 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. FAILURE: Failure.
  • HRTS-3 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1978 August 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1978 August 15 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). PL fail.

1978 August 16 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Boeing Company successfully demonstrated its Missile X buried trench breakout erection system at the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona. - .

1978 August 16 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1978 August 17 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 15L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 15L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran.

1978 August 18 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 August 19 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 August 20 - .
  • Kamanin in Star City. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut 6. Flight: Soyuz 29. At a visit to Star City, Kamanin is allowed to participate together with Yeliseyev in a communications session with the EO-2 crew (Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok) aboard Salyut 6..

1978 August 20 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M.
  • Near infrared Galactic Plane Test / infrared astronomy / ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi).

1978 August 21 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 44 km (27 mi).

1978 August 22 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-42 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2015-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11007 . COSPAR: 1978-080A. Apogee: 34,374 km (21,358 mi). Perigee: 1,181 km (733 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 622.70 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1978 August 23 - . Launch Site: Kostroma. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 August 23 - . 17:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 39 km (24 mi).

1978 August 24 - . Launch Site: McConnell AFB. Launch Complex: McConnell AFB. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Accident at Titan 2 Silo 533-7 at McConnell AFB kills 2 and injures 25 - . Nation: USA. Large scale oxidizer spill during fueling operation caused extensive damage to the silo and resulted in the death and injuries. Repairs were started but the silo complex was never returned to alert status..

1978 August 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC181. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 August 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: JCR. Launch Vehicle: TT-500.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1978 August 26 - . 14:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 31 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky, Jaehn. Backup Crew: Gorbatko, Koellner. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 47. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky, Gorbatko, Jaehn, Koellner. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29, Soyuz 31. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 67.84 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11010 . COSPAR: 1978-081A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivered to the Salyut-6 station the third international 'Intercosmos' crew consisting of V F Bykovsky (USSR) and S Jaehn (German Democratic Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1978 August 28 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • A public hearing was held at Lompoc, California, on the revised Missile X Milestone II Draft Environmental Impact Statement, which had been filed with the Environmental Protection Agency. - .

1978 August 28 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 August 29 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1029 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 11012 . COSPAR: 1978-082A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 August 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1978 August 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, VAB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Operational readiness date, Vertical Assembly Building High Bays 3 and 4, KSC.

1978 August 31 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Martin Marietta successfully demonstrated its Missile X buried trench breakout erection system at the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona. - .

1978 September - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • MiG 105-11 final flight - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11.

    The eighth and final flight resulted in a hard landing and the write-off of the aircraft. First and last flights were made by test pilot A. G. Festovets. The eight flights were considered sufficient to characterize the spaceplane's subsonic aerodynamic characteristics and air breathing systems.


1978 September - .
  • Uragan space interceptor allegedly authorised - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor.

    Russian sources continue to maintain that the Uragan manned spaceplane project never existed. However Western intelligence reported that development of a larger manned 'space interceptor' was authorised in September 1978. This spaceplane, supposedly called 'Uragan', was to be launched atop the new Zenit launch vehicle.


1978 Sep - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Delivery of the last Minuteman III stage II motors brought the total number of Minuteman III operational stage II motors delivered to 792. - .

1978 Sep - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Wasatch Division of Thiokol Corporation successfully tested a "trapped ball" moveable nozzle for Missile X stage I. - .

1978 Sep - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Deployment of the Guidance Improvement Program tapes containing software changes to Minuteman III guidance programs was successfully completed in all Minuteman III wings. - .

1978 September 1 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 2 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1978 September 3 - .
1978 September 4 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1978 September 5 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 September 6 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT65GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 September 6 - . 03:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1030 - . Payload: Oko #10. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2004-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11015 . COSPAR: 1978-083A. Apogee: 36,185 km (22,484 mi). Perigee: 4,131 km (2,566 mi). Inclination: 66.2000 deg. Period: 717.00 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 39 degree longitude of ascending node..

1978 September 7 - . Launch Site: White Sands.
  • The second launch in the Multispectral Measurements Program was attempted at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. - . During the pre-launch countdown, some squibs fired prematurely and separated the payload from the booster while it was still on the launch pad. This accident forced cancellation of the launch..

1978 September 7 - . 03:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1978 September 8 - .
  • Start OMS left-hand development test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 September 9 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1.
  • Venera 11 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 360. Mass: 4,715 kg (10,394 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 11020 . COSPAR: 1978-084A.

    Venera 11 was part of a two-spacecraft mission to study Venus and the interplanetary medium. Each of the two spacecraft, Venera 11 and Venera 12, consisted of a flight platform and a lander probe. Identical instruments were carried on both spacecraft. Venera 11 was launched into a 177 x 205 km, 51.5 degree inclination earth orbit from which it was propelled into a 3.5 month Venus transfer orbit. After ejection of the lander probe, the flight platform continued on past Venus in a heliocentric orbit. Near encounter with Venus occurred on December 25, 1978, at approximately 34,000 km altitude. The flight platform acted as a data relay for the descent craft for 95 minutes until it flew out of range and returned its own measurements on interplanetary space. The Venera 11 descent craft separated from its flight platform on December 23, 1978 and entered the Venus atmosphere two days later at 11.2 km/sec. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:24 Moscow time on 25 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7-8 m/s.

    Both Venera 11 and 12 landers failed to return colour television views of the surface and perform soil analysis experiments. All of the camera protective covers failed to eject after landing (the cause was not established) The soil drilling experiment was apparently damaged by a leak in the soil collection device, the interior of which was exposed to the high Venusian atmospheric pressure. The leak had probably formed during the descent phase because the lander was less aerodynamically stable than had been thought.

    Two further experiments on the lander failed as well. Results reported included evidence of lightning and thunder, a high Ar36/Ar40 ratio, and the discovery of carbon monoxide at low altitudes.


1978 September 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1031 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11022 . COSPAR: 1978-085A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 September 11 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VC.
  • SPAR 5 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1978 September 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SRB Drop test - . Nation: USA. An unloaded shuttle solid rocket motor is dropped from an NB-52 in a test of the parachute recovery system..

1978 September 12 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract to Avco Systems Division for production of carbon-carbon nosetips for the Mark 12A reentry system. - . A small business set-aside contract to Fiber Materials, Incorporated was subsequently voided. A total of 1,071 nosetips were to be produced by Avco for a total price of $11,998,739..

1978 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 13 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1978 September 14 - . 02:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1.
  • Venera 12 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 361. Mass: 4,715 kg (10,394 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 4MV. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 11025 . COSPAR: 1978-086A.

    Venera 12 was part of a two-spacecraft mission to study Venus and the interplanetary medium. Each of the two spacecraft, Venera 11 and Venera 12, consisted of a flight platform and a lander probe. Identical instruments were carried on both spacecraft. Venera 12 was launched into a 177 x 205 km, 51.5 degree inclination Earth orbit from which it was propelled into a 3.5 month Venus transfer orbit which involved two mid-course corrections, on 21 September and 14 December. After ejection of the lander probe on 19 December, two days before encounter, the flight platform continued on past Venus in a heliocentric orbit. Near encounter with Venus occurred on December 21, 1978, at approximately 34,000 km altitude. The flight platform acted as a data relay for the descent craft for 110 minutes until it flew out of range and returned to its own measurements on interplanetary space. The Venera 12 descent craft entered the Venus atmosphere at 11.2 km/sec two days after separation from the flight bus. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:30 Moscow time on 21 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7-8 m/s.

    Both Venera 11 and 12 landers failed to return colour television views of the surface and perform soil analysis experiments. All of the camera protective covers failed to eject after landing (the cause was not established) The soil drilling experiment was apparently damaged by a leak in the soil collection device, the interior of which was exposed to the high Venusian atmospheric pressure. The leak had probably formed during the descent phase because the lander was less aerodynamically stable than had been thought. Therefore the landing gear of the following two landers (Venera-13/14) were equipped with tooth-shaped stabilisers.

    Results reported included evidence of lightning and thunder, a high Ar36/Ar40 ratio, and the discovery of carbon monoxide at low altitudes.

    The Venera-12 flyby bus continued in solar orbit and successfully used its Soviet-French ultraviolet spectrometer to study Comet Bradfield on 13 February 1980 (one year and two months after its Venus encounter). At that time the spacecraft was 190,373,790 km from Earth.


1978 September 15 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle tests at NASA Huntsville - . Nation: USA.

    The shuttle Enterprise is first mated to an external tank for vertical ground vibration tests and simulated high-altitude aborts. Thereafter two SRB's are mounted for the first full-size shuttle static tests. This initial test series is completed on 5 December 1978.


1978 September 15 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 HRV. LV Family: Stonechat. Launch Vehicle: Falstaff.
1978 September 15 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • CLUSTER ION Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1978 September 16 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima M. LV Family: Mu. Launch Vehicle: Mu-3H.
  • SS-06 Jikiken - . Payload: Exos B. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: EXOS. USAF Sat Cat: 11027 . COSPAR: 1978-087A. Apogee: 21,192 km (13,168 mi). Perigee: 251 km (155 mi). Inclination: 31.3000 deg. Period: 370.90 min.

    Launching organization: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Stimulated plasma wave experiment, natural plasma wave measurement, plasma parameter measurement by VLF Doppler technique, electric field probe and plasma density me asurement, energetic particle analysis, and controlled electron beam emission experiment. Characteristics: weight 90.5 kg, configuration - polyhedron with 38 faces, height 0.6m , diameter 0.75m, attitude control spin stabilization, life two years.


1978 September 18 - .
  • Death of Rudolf Nebel - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel. German rocket enthusiast. Worked for Oberth; helped found VfR; built largest prewar German test rockets. Work shut down by government in 1934. Did not work on rockets during WW2. Promoted civilian rebirth of German rocketry in 1950's..

1978 September 18 - . LV Family: Titan, Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3, Titan 2.
  • Minuteman Program Management Directive 0-02047(26) and Titan PMD X-08071(l) provided direction for a restructured command and control communications integration program. - .

1978 September 18 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 49 km (30 mi).

1978 September 19 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1032 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11029 . COSPAR: 1978-088A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1032 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11038 . COSPAR: 1978-088D. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.07 min.

1978 September 19 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170.
  • Solar ultraviolet Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1978 September 20 - .
  • Start acoustic test, forward RCS - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 September 20 - . 02:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1978 September 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 598. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 September 22 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 September 25 - .
  • Start precombined system test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 September 26 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • SAMSO initiated production of a new rocket motor test set for the Titan III. The rocket motor test set was developed by Chemical Systems Division. - .

1978 September 26 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi).

1978 September 27 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1978 September 27 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1978 September 28 - . Launch Site: Holloman AFB.
  • A balloon carrying a mosaic sensor was successfully launched from Holloman AFB, New Mexico. This was the second launch in the Balloon Altitude Mosaic Measurements program. - .

1978 September 28 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1978 September 29 - .
  • Complete coefficient tests, STA-099 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Complete coefficient tests, STA-099, Lockheed facility, Palmdale.

1978 September 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1978 September 30 - .
  • Uragan space interceptor project begun - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor.

    In order to counter US space shuttle flights made in polar orbits from Vandenberg, deep black Uragan project begun. Scaled-up Spiral to be launched by new Zenit launch vehicle, carrying Nudelmann recoilless gun (same as developed for TKS) for destruction of shuttle after interception and inspection. First flight planned 1983.


1978 September 30 - .
  • Operational readiness date, crawler. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Operational readiness date, mobile launcher platform, KSC.

1978 October 1 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The Airborne Launch Control System Phase III program, to provide a Minuteman post-attack command and control system, was formally initiated with the award of contracts by SAMSO for system requirements - .

1978 Oct - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • HQ USAF directed the implementation of the so-called controlled mode at the Johnson Space Center. This was a special method of operation that would allow the Center to support DoD shuttle operations. - .

1978 Oct - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract for definition of vertical shelter operational requirements for Missile X basing to the Boeing Company. - . Besides performing studies, Boeing was to conduct a test program to validate key vertical shelter concepts beginning in mid-CY 1979..

1978 Oct - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • A report by the General Accounting Office to the Secretary of Defense criticized concurrent development and production in the Mark 12A program. - .

1978 Oct - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Delivery of the last Minuteman III stage III motors produced brought the total number of such motors delivered by Thiokol and Aerojet to 794. - . Delivery of the last Minuteman III Propulsion System Rocket Engines brought the total number of such engines delivered by the Bell Aerospace Company to 794..

1978 October 1 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • SAMSO awarded contracts for the installation of the 616A communications system in Minuteman launch control centers as the first phase of the restructured Command and Control Communications program. - .

1978 Oct - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • SAMSO awarded a contract for Titan III launch support to Martin Marietta's Denver Division. - .

1978 October 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1978 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC172. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 October 3 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1033 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 7. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 11039 . COSPAR: 1978-089A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1978 October 3 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 4 - . Payload: Progress s/n 105. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 22.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . Decay Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 11040 . COSPAR: 1978-090A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 6 Oct 1978 01:00:15 GMT. Undocked on 24 Oct 1978 13:01:52 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Oct 1978 16:28:13 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.22 days. Total docked time 18.50 days.


1978 October 4 - . 03:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1034 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 153. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11042 . COSPAR: 1978-091A. Apogee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,422 km (883 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.90 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1036 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 155. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11045 . COSPAR: 1978-091C. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,442 km (896 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1037 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 156. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11046 . COSPAR: 1978-091D. Apogee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,462 km (908 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.40 min.
  • Cosmos 1038 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 157. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11047 . COSPAR: 1978-091E. Apogee: 1,487 km (923 mi). Perigee: 1,477 km (917 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1039 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 158. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11048 . COSPAR: 1978-091F. Apogee: 1,552 km (964 mi). Perigee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.30 min.
  • Cosmos 1040 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 159. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11049 . COSPAR: 1978-091G. Apogee: 1,527 km (948 mi). Perigee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1041 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 160. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11050 . COSPAR: 1978-091H. Apogee: 1,509 km (937 mi). Perigee: 1,477 km (917 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1035 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 154. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11044 . COSPAR: 1978-091B. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,403 km (871 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.70 min.

1978 October 5 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1978 October 6 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1978 October 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1042 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11052 . COSPAR: 1978-092A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 October 7 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/SVS.
  • Navstar 3 - . Payload: GPS SVN 3 / OPS 5113. Mass: 759 kg (1,673 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 1. USAF Sat Cat: 11054 . COSPAR: 1978-093A. Apogee: 20,941 km (13,012 mi). Perigee: 20,706 km (12,866 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 744.20 min.

    The third NAVSTAR satellite was launched from Vandenberg AFB on board an Atlas booster. Both the booster and the satellite itself functioned normally, and the satellite began operating at its final station on 31 October. Technology prototype of Navstar satellite.


1978 October 9 - . 15:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1978 October 10 - .
  • Seasat fails - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Seasat.

    Seasat was the first satellite designed for remote sensing of the Earth's oceans with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The mission ended on October 10, 1978 due to a failure of the vehicle's electric power system. The suspicion exists that the satellite was intentionally shut off because the quality and nature of the results obtained alarmed the Pentagon.


1978 October 10 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1043 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 17. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1998-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11055 . COSPAR: 1978-094A. Apogee: 433 km (269 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

1978 October 11 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Space Shuttle Orbiter 99, the Structural Test Article, began undergoing structural bending tests. - .

1978 October 11 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 October 13 - . 05:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-10 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 22. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 11057 . COSPAR: 1978-095A. Apogee: 33,590 km (20,870 mi). Perigee: 1,560 km (960 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 614.90 min.

    Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).


1978 October 13 - . 11:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • Tiros N - . Mass: 734 kg (1,618 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 11060 . COSPAR: 1978-096A. Apogee: 845 km (525 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.70 min.

    An Atlas booster launched a TIROS-N prototype weather satellite designed and funded by NASA for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The launch took place at Vandenberg AFB and was successful. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1978 October 14 - .
  • Death of Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasishchev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Soviet Chief Designer 1951-1960 of OKB-23. Developed innovative M-4, M-50 bombers, Buran cruise missiles, and VKA spaceplane. Bureau merged with Chelomei, 1960. Later Director of TsAGI. Regained his own design bureau just before his death..

1978 October 14 - .
  • Birth of Kathleen Hallisey "Kate" Rubins - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rubins. American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on..

1978 October 16 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1978 October 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1044 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11065 . COSPAR: 1978-097A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 October 17 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Second stage explosion.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ekran s/n 14L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 14L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran.

1978 October 18 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1978 October 19 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • DM-3 Shuttle SRB development static firing - . Nation: USA. The third firing of a shuttle Solid Rocket Booster motor..

1978 October 19 - .
  • Third SRB firing, Thiokol - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 October 19 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • A test was conducted on the Kevlar case used to hold propellant in the space shuttle's large Inertial Upper Stage motor. The case burst at a pressure lower than the predicted pressure. - .

1978 October 20 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 October 23 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1978 October 24 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2910.
  • Nimbus 7 - . Payload: Nimbus G. Mass: 907 kg (1,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 11080 . COSPAR: 1978-098A. Apogee: 957 km (594 mi). Perigee: 943 km (585 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 104.10 min.

    Environmental research. The experiments carried were a limb infrared monitoring of the stratosphere (LIMS), stratospheric and mesopheric sounder (SAMS), coastal-zone color scanner (CZCS), stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM II), earth radiation budget (ERB), scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), solar backscatter UV and total ozone mapping spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS), and temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR). These sensors were capable of observing several parameters at and below the mesospheric levels. After 11 years in orbit, three experiments, SAM II, SBUV/TOMS, and ERB, were still functioning successfully.

  • CAMEO - . Payload: CAMEO Li Canister/CAMEO Ba Canister. Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: CAMEO. USAF Sat Cat: 11081 . COSPAR: 1978-098B. Apogee: 968 km (601 mi). Perigee: 924 km (574 mi). Inclination: 99.4000 deg. Period: 104.00 min. Released barium cloud..

1978 October 24 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 18 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-M-IK. Mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-18 . Decay Date: 1981-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11082 . COSPAR: 1978-099A. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min.

    Conduct of complex investigations on the interaction between the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. Launched under the Intercosmos programme by the USSR in cooperation with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the H ungarian People's Republic, the Polish People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania. On 14 Nov 1978, Magion, a small Czechoslovak scientific satellite, separated from object 1296.

  • Magion 1 - . Payload: S2. Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: RVSN. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. Decay Date: 1981-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11110 . COSPAR: 1978-099B. Apogee: 762 km (473 mi). Perigee: 404 km (251 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 96.40 min.

    Ionospheric, magnetospheric studies. The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 18. It forms a part of the scientific programme of Intercosmos 18, launched from USSR territory on 24 Oct 1978. MAGION was separated into an autonomous orbit on 14 Nov 1978. General function: Reasearch of the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth (magnetosphere-ionosphere satellite).


1978 October 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 October 26 - .
  • Death of Konstantin Davidovich Bushuyev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bushuyev. Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer to Korolev, 1954-1975..

1978 October 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1045 - . Payload: Meteor-2 Mass Model. Mass: 2,670 kg (5,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 11084 . COSPAR: 1978-100A. Apogee: 1,705 km (1,059 mi). Perigee: 1,686 km (1,047 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 120.30 min. Probable oceanographic. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .
  • Radio-2; Radio Sputnik 2 - . Payload: RS-2. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 11086 . COSPAR: 1978-100C. Apogee: 1,705 km (1,059 mi). Perigee: 1,686 km (1,047 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.30 min. Launched with Cosmos-1045. Amateur radiocommunication and scientific and technical experiments and study projects by students at higher educational establishments..
  • Radio Sputnik 1 - . Payload: RS-1. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-1. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 11085 . COSPAR: 1978-100B. Apogee: 1,707 km (1,060 mi). Perigee: 1,686 km (1,047 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.40 min. Launched with Cosmos-1045. Amateur radiocommunication and scientific and technical experiments and study projects by students at higher educational establishments..

1978 October 26 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • SWIR DYNAMICS Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1978 October 26 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Nike Javelin. FAILURE: Failure.
  • DYNAMICS Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1978 October 26 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hydac. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac.
  • ENERGY Auroral Infrared mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1978 October 26 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 October 27 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Sherman. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1978 October 28 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1978 October 29 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Talos Castor.
  • EXCEDE 1 Active plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1978 October 30 - . 05:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Prognoz 7 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 507. Mass: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1980-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11088 . COSPAR: 1978-101A. Apogee: 202,627 km (125,906 mi). Perigee: 472 km (293 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 5,881.10 min.

    Magnetospheric investigations. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun, of solar plasma fluxes and of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and the magnetosphere of the earth; investigation of galactic ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific apparatus produced in the USSR, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, France, the Hungarian People's Republic and Sweden.


1978 October 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 554 km (344 mi).

1978 November 1 - .
  • Death of Bernard Brodie at Pacific Palisades, CA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brodie. American scientist. Political scientist, specialized in Cold War strategy, member of Rand..

1978 November 1 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1046 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11098 . COSPAR: 1978-102A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; deployed capsule..

1978 November 2 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D.
  • SAMSO held a successful critical design review of Titan III 34D structures with Martin Marietta. - .

1978 November 2 - . 00:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1978 November 2 - .
1978 November 3 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • SAMSO negotiated the second and third year production contract for the Mark 12A reentry system with General Electric. - .

1978 November 3 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • UM Airglow payload Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1978 November 3 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Vertikal' K65UP.
  • Vertikal'-7 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1978 November 6 - .
  • The Director of the Space Test Program briefed HQ AFSC on a budgetary deficit that the program was facing. The deficit amounted to $8.8 million in FY 1979. - . Spacecraft: Space Test Program (STP) Payloads.

1978 November 6 - . 21:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1978 November 7 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1978 November 8 - . 21:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 November 9 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1978 November 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D.
  • Design work was completed on Titan III 34D launch facilities at Cape Canaveral. The design work for east coast facilities was done by the firm of H.J. Ross in Miami, Florida. - .

1978 November 10 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12.
  • VLF waves / TMA Aurora mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 796 km (494 mi).

1978 November 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS acoustic test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Final checkout of Programmable Aerospace Control Equipment (PACE) installed at Cape Canaveral took place. PACE was developed by Martin Marietta to replace obsolete Titan III ground control computers. - .

1978 November 13 - . 05:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
  • HEAO 2 - . Payload: HEAO B. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HEAO. Decay Date: 1982-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11101 . COSPAR: 1978-103A. Apogee: 548 km (340 mi). Perigee: 526 km (326 mi). Inclination: 23.5000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. High Energy Astronomy Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1978 November 13 - . 12:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Vehicle: Sergeant.
  • FWIF II Auroral Infrared mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DNA. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1978 November 14 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Ralph M. Parsons Company completed construction of the Missile X Buried Trench Construction and Test Project at the Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range in Arizona. - .

1978 November 14 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Sherman. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1978 November 15 - .
  • Complete OMS development test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 15 - .
  • Complete aft RCS development test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 15 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • Ionosphere mission? - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1978 November 15 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1047 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11108 . COSPAR: 1978-104A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 November 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT130M-2 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 November 16 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7.
  • TEXUS 2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1978 November 16 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170A.
  • Solar Constant 2 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi).

1978 November 16 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1048 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 11111 . COSPAR: 1978-105A. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 769 km (477 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.50 min.

1978 November 17 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO formed a source selection board in preparation for the award of a contract for the System Definition Phase of the Missile X reentry system. - .

1978 November 17 - . 20:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25C. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 November 19 - . 00:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914.
  • NATO 3C - . Mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: NATO 3. Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 11115 . COSPAR: 1978-106A. Apogee: 36,299 km (22,555 mi). Perigee: 36,289 km (22,548 mi). Inclination: 11.8000 deg. Period: 1,462.10 min.

    A Delta 2914 booster was launched from Cape Canaveral carrying the NATO IIIC satellite. The launch was successful, and the satellite performed satisfactorily in orbit. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 50 deg W in 1979-1982 over the Atlantic Ocean 21 deg W in 1983-1986 over the Atlantic Ocean 18 deg W in 1987-1991 over the Atlantic Ocean21 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 31 August 2001 located at 122.29 deg E drifting at 6.431 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 114.22E drifting at 6.438W degrees per day.


1978 November 20 - . 17:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 601. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 November 21 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • Air Force Systems Acquisition Review Council II for Missile X was held. As a result, the Air Force recommended development of a 92-inch-diameter Missile X moved among multiple vertical shelters. - .

1978 November 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1049 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11118 . COSPAR: 1978-107A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 November 22 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1978 November 23 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Eridan.
  • Ariane range test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi).

1978 November 24 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1978 November 25 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B.
  • CMB spectrum 2 Submillimeter radio astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi).

1978 November 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES ANT-3A re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 November 27 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 41 (Elec 3) Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi).

1978 November 27 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ferdinand 40 (Elec 2) Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1978 November 28 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1050 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11121 . COSPAR: 1978-108A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 November 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 November 30 - .
  • Operational readiness date, Pad A, KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 November 30 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Assembly of the last Minuteman III missile to be produced was completed by personnel of the Boeing Aerospace Company at Air Force Plant 77, Hill AFB, Utah. - .

1978 November 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. Launch Pad: LC29/pad?. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Chevaline warhead test launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 November 30 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Plasma/Fields/Solar mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1978 December 1 - .
  • Almaz Engineer Cosmonaut Training Group 3 selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gevorkyan, Grechanik, Khatulev, Romanov. The group was selected to provide flight engineers for planned Almaz military space station missions..

1978 December 1 - .
  • IMBP Cosmonaut Training Group 2 selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Arzamazov, Borodin, Potapov. Physicians and biomedical specialist cosmonauts for planned missions to the Salyut space station..

1978 December 1 - .
  • Buran Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kononenko, Oleg G. Experienced test pilots were selected to train for manned missions using the Buran space shuttle..

1978 December 1 - .
1978 December 1 - .
  • Buran Cosmonaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chirkin, Mosolov, Sattarov, Sokovykh. Experienced test pilots were selected to train for manned missions using the Buran space shuttle..

1978 Dec - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • NASA decided to augment the thrust of the space shuttle orbiter by attaching a single strap-on solid rocket motor to each of the orbiter's two solid rocket boosters. - .

1978 December 1 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg.
  • HQ USAF issued a Program Management Directive for the STS program which provided for a four-year launch facilities construction program at Vandenberg, with an initial launch capability of six/year. - . The PMD constituted the final solution to the budgetary problems that SAMSO had briefed to HQ AFSC and HQ USAF in January..

1978 Dec - .
  • SAMSO cancelled plans for flight-testing the Transpiration Cooled Nosetip (TCNT). The TCNT, which was an actively cooled reentry vehicle nosetip, had been under development as part of ABRES. - . Related Persons: ABRES. Flight-test of the TCNT was cancelled due to funding and design problems that had plagued the development effort..

1978 December 1 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1978 December 1 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • JHU UVT F9 (Jupiter) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi).

1978 December 2 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 December 4 - .
  • Pioneer Venus 1, Venus Orbit Insertion - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Pioneer 12.

1978 December 5 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D.
  • SAMSO held a successful critical design review of Titan III 34D avionics with Martin Marietta. - .

1978 December 5 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • The Defense Systems Acquisition Review Council II (DSARC II) for Missile X was held. The DSARC asked the Air Force to conduct an intensive study of an air-mobile basing system. - .

1978 December 5 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Castor.
  • DOT 1 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi).

1978 December 5 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT38GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 December 5 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1051 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 161. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11128 . COSPAR: 1978-109A. Apogee: 1,486 km (923 mi). Perigee: 1,394 km (866 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1052 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 162. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11129 . COSPAR: 1978-109B. Apogee: 1,488 km (924 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1057 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 167. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11134 . COSPAR: 1978-109G. Apogee: 1,515 km (941 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1054 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 164. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11131 . COSPAR: 1978-109D. Apogee: 1,490 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,446 km (898 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 1055 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 165. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11132 . COSPAR: 1978-109E. Apogee: 1,491 km (926 mi). Perigee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 1053 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 163. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11130 . COSPAR: 1978-109C. Apogee: 1,488 km (924 mi). Perigee: 1,430 km (880 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1058 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 168. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11135 . COSPAR: 1978-109H. Apogee: 1,538 km (955 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.20 min.
  • Cosmos 1056 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 166. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 11133 . COSPAR: 1978-109F. Apogee: 1,504 km (934 mi). Perigee: 1,472 km (914 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.70 min.

1978 December 6 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D.
  • SAMSO held a successful critical design review of Titan III 34D ground equipment with Martin Marietta. - .

1978 December 6 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 HRV. LV Family: Stonechat. Launch Vehicle: Falstaff.
1978 December 7 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1059 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11137 . COSPAR: 1978-110A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Standard Test Missile 17W, a Minuteman III carrying three Mark 12A reentry vehicles, was successfully launched from Vandenberg AFB. The test provided data on the performance of experimental nosetip and heatshield materials. .

1978 December 8 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1060 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 11139 . COSPAR: 1978-111A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 December 9 - .
  • Pioneer Venus 2, Venus Atmospheric Probes - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Pioneer 13.

1978 December 9 - .
  • Start OMS Phase I qualification tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 December 11 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1978 December 11 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1978 December 11 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F/SVS.
  • Navstar 4 - . Payload: GPS SVN 4 / OPS 5114. Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Navstar. Spacecraft: GPS Block 1. USAF Sat Cat: 11141 . COSPAR: 1978-112A. Apogee: 21,012 km (13,056 mi). Perigee: 20,750 km (12,890 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 746.50 min. The fourth NAVSTAR satellite was successfully launched from Vandenberg AFB on board an Atlas booster. The satellite was due to begin operating at its final station in early January 1979. Global Positioning System. First pre-opertional Navstar satellite..

1978 December 12 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • SAMSO released a draft RFP for a more powerful stage vehicle to be used on the Atlas F in launching GPS satellites. - . Spacecraft: Navstar.

1978 December 12 - . 15:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1978 December 13 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC.
  • Ionosphere mission? - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1978 December 14 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • DSCS II-11 - . Payload: DSCS II F-11 / OPS 9441. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS II. Completed Operations Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11144 . COSPAR: 1978-113A. Apogee: 37,749 km (23,456 mi). Perigee: 37,515 km (23,310 mi). Inclination: 9.8000 deg. Period: 1,531.40 min.

    A Titan IIIC was launched from Cape Canaveral carrying DSCS II satellites F-ll and F-12. The vehicle placed the satellites in the proper orbit, and the satellites performed normally once there. They were expected to go into operation in mid-January 1979, at which point the DSCS II system would have a full, four-satellite constellation at its disposal for the first time in its history. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg W in 1979-1983 over the Pacific Ocean 129 deg W in 1983-1989 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.62 deg W drifting at 22.467 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 96.59E drifting at 22.469W degrees per day.

  • DSCS II-12 - . Payload: DSCS II F-12 / OPS 9442. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS II. Completed Operations Date: 1993-12-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11145 . COSPAR: 1978-113B. Apogee: 36,332 km (22,575 mi). Perigee: 36,283 km (22,545 mi). Inclination: 9.8000 deg. Period: 1,462.80 min.

    Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 175 deg E in 1979-1981 over the Indian Ocean 66 deg E in 1981-1983 over the Indian Ocean 60 deg E in 1983-1987 over the Pacific Ocean177 deg E in 1988-1989 over the Indian Ocean 71 deg E in 1990-1992 As of 1 September 2001 located at 93.28 deg E drifting at 6.600 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 143.60E drifting at 6.589W degrees per day.


1978 December 14 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1061 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M satellite. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11148 . COSPAR: 1978-114A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1061 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11167 . COSPAR: 1978-114C. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.43 min.

1978 December 15 - .
  • Complete precombined system test, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 December 15 - . 01:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant VB.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi).

1978 December 15 - . 13:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1062 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1981-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11150 . COSPAR: 1978-115A. Apogee: 549 km (341 mi). Perigee: 504 km (313 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. Replaced Cosmos 899. Possible ELINT satellite..

1978 December 16 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914.
  • Anik B1 (Telesat 4) - . Payload: Anik B1. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AS 3000. Spacecraft: Anik satellite. Completed Operations Date: 1986-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11153 . COSPAR: 1978-116A. Apogee: 35,927 km (22,323 mi). Perigee: 35,900 km (22,300 mi). Inclination: 6.6000 deg. Period: 1,442.60 min.

    Longitude 109.0. Function - telecommunications. Operating entity - Telesat Canada. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 109 deg W in 1978-1986 As of 29 August 2001 located at 59.48 deg E drifting at 1.672 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 13.64W drifting at 1.622W degrees per day.

  • DRIMS - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Anik. Decay Date: 1979-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11154 . COSPAR: 1978-116B. Apogee: 1,832 km (1,138 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 105.26 min.

    First use of the Delta Redundant Inertial Measurement System (DRIMS). DRIMS improved the inertial measurement unit introduced with DIGS, but kept the DIGS guidance computer. DRIMS added redundancy on all axes of motion. The Delta upper stage was tracked as a separate functional object with this designation on this launch.


1978 December 17 - .
  • Death of Sergei Alekseyevich Zverev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Zverev. Russian government official. Chairman of GKOT 1963-1965..

1978 December 18 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1978 December 19 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1063 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 18. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2001-11-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11155 . COSPAR: 1978-117A. Apogee: 524 km (325 mi). Perigee: 518 km (321 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.10 min.

1978 December 19 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Block DM malfunction, wrong orbit.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Gorizont 1 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 11L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1980-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11158 . COSPAR: 1978-118A. Apogee: 49,371 km (30,677 mi). Perigee: 22,193 km (13,790 mi). Inclination: 22.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min.

    Did not achieve geostationary orbit due to malfunction of Block D. Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 53 deg E in 1979-1980 As of 29 August 2001 located at 75.87 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.49E drifting at 0.119E degrees per day.


1978 December 20 - . 20:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1064 - . Mass: 1,025 kg (2,259 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. Decay Date: 1989-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11161 . COSPAR: 1978-119A. Apogee: 467 km (290 mi). Perigee: 333 km (206 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Probable failure. Military navigation satellite..

1978 December 21 - .
1978 December 21 - .
  • SAMSO awarded contracts to three companies to prepare preliminary designs of the Global Positioning System Phase II/III control segment. - . Spacecraft: Navstar. The companies were General Dynamics/Electronics Division, IBM/Federal System Division, and Martin Marietta/Denver Division..

1978 December 22 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1065 - . Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11163 . COSPAR: 1978-120A. Apogee: 544 km (338 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Radar calibration. Released 7 Romb radar calibration subsatellites. Possible partially failed spacecraft bus..

1978 December 23 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1066 - . Payload: Astrofizika s/n 1. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Meteor. Spacecraft: Astrofizika. USAF Sat Cat: 11165 . COSPAR: 1978-121A. Apogee: 890 km (550 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Probable failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1978 December 25 - .
1978 December 26 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1067 - . Mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 11168 . COSPAR: 1978-122A. Apogee: 1,213 km (753 mi). Perigee: 1,156 km (718 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 109.10 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1978 December 26 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1068 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 11169 . COSPAR: 1978-123A. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 27 - . LV Family: Peacekeeper.
  • SAMSO began a study of air-mobile basing for Missile X as a result of direction from DSARC II on Missile X. - .

1978 December 27 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • Testing of the main engine of the space shuttle orbiters was suspended when the engine failed, apparently because of a malfunctioning of its main oxidizer valve. - . This and previous test failures caused the scheduling of the first orbiter test flight to slip from March 1979 to the end of CY 1979 or the beginning of CY 1980..

1978 December 27 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 December 28 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1069 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11173 . COSPAR: 1978-124A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; separated capsule..

1978 December 29 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1978 December 31 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The development phase of the Mark 12A program was completed except for the contractor's reports. The development contract with General Electric had been valued at approximately $70 million. - .

1978 December 31 - . LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The final transfer of engineering responsibility for the Minuteman III system from SAMSO to the Air Force Logistics Command took place. - .


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